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Nations should pro

CHA P. the care they have taken in their education, and to the tie

which has been mutually formed by both, during the state of pupilage.

107. Societies at large ought to act precisely on the same vide territo- principle, in forming colonies, which are no other than their surplus po.

own children, or the superfluity of their population. It is pulation.

indeed a duty incumbent on the government of every free, industrious, and prosperous nation, to look out betimes for unoccupied territory, against the period when their population and manufactures shall exceed the proportion which they ought to have to the land they already occupy, when fully improved. That proportion certainly has a limit, and commencing emigration will shew when that limit is execeeded. Without providing new space for surplus population, and seeking new markets for manufactures, the progrefs of both must cease; or else the people will emigrate to countries unconnected with the state. Hence found

policy seems to dictate, that governments should, with the care of provident fathers, prepare proper receptacles for the excess of their population-a principle which few or no mother countries seem to have sufficiently observed *.

108. When a large society thus gives birth to a small one, can it act on a nobler principle than that of regarding, in the first place, the interest of mankind at large, or universal society, and subordinately, the advantage of it's own colony, or the society descended from it in particular? Stand ing thus between both, will not the happiness of both centre in itself? Does not the father of a family rejoice in, and partake of, the felicity both of the community and of his children?

* See Reasons for establishing the Colony of Georgia, p. 3•

109. But

VII.

Causes of discord be

tions and

nies.

109. But is there any colony existing, founded on these C H A P. truly humane and enlarged principles? On the contrary, 4 does not the education, or treatment, which the present European colonies have received, and do still receive, from their tween naimprudent and interested parents, generally prove the source their coloof hatred between societies that ought to be united by the the most indissoluble ties? Whence comes it, that parties and seats have been first driven to discontent, then to emigration, and lastly, to separation from the larger societies to which they belonged; but from perverted systems of policy, the abuse of power, civil and ecclesiastical, and the provoking attempt to keep mature descendants perpetually in leading strings, like infants? Was it thus that the ancient Greeks treated their colonies ? And ought not the moderns, in prudence, to have imitated the liberal system of those famed ancients, who considered their colonies as friends and allies, not as dependent societies or conquered provinces?

110. “ The mother Greek city, says Dr. Smith, though she considered the colony as a child, at all times entitled to great favour and assistance, and owing, in return, much gratitude and respect, yet considered it as an emancipated child, over whom she pretended to claim no direct authority or jurisdiction. The colony settled it's own form of government, enacted it's own laws, and made peace and war with it's neighbours, as an independent state. The progress of many of the ancient Greek colonies seems accordingly to have been very rapid. In a century or two, several of them appear to have rivalled, and even surpassed, their mother cities. Syracuse and Agrigentum, in Sicily; Tarentum and Locri, in Italy; Ephesus and Miletus, in Lesser Asia, appear,

CHA P. by all accounts, to have been at least equal to any of the

cities of ancient Greece."

111. " But the policy of modern Europe has very little to boast of, either in the original formation, or, so far as concerns their internal government, in the subsequent profperity of the colonies of America. Folly and injustice feem to have been the principles which presided over the first project of establishing those colonies; the folly of hunting after mines, and the injustice of coveting a country, whose natives, far from having ever injured the people of Europe, had received the first adventurers with every mark of kindness and hospitality.”

112. Every modern mother-country, has secured to herfelf, in one shape or another, a monopoly of her colony trade.-" This monopoly, like all the other mean and malignant expedients of the mercantile system, depresses the industry of all other countries; but chiefly that of the colonies, without in the least increasing, but on the contrary diminishing, that of the country in whose favour it is established.—Some nations have even gone so far as to give up the whole commerce of their colonies to an exclusive company, of whom the colonies were obliged to buy all such European goods as they wanted, and to whom they were obliged to fell the whole of their own surplus produce. It was the interest of the company, therefore, not only to sell the former as dear, and to buy the latter as cheap, as poslible; but to buy no more of the latter, even at this low price, than they could difpofe of at a very high price in Europe. It was their interest, not only to degrade, in all cases, the value of the produce of the colony, but, in many cafes, to keep down the natural increase of it's quantity. Of all the expedients that can well be contrived to ftunt the na

tural

tural growth of a new colony, that of an exclusive company is CHA P. undoubtedly the most effectual," For example, the Dutch East India company, by different arts of oppression, have reduced the population of several of the Molucca Isands, formerly pretty well inhabited, nearly to the number fuffi. cient to fupply with provisions their own insignificant garrions, and such of their ships as occasionally come there for fpices *."

COMMERCE.

part of

113. There are two fpecies of commerce different from, and even opposite to, if not destructive of, one another. Some explanation of both forms an essential part my plan.

114. ist. Commission-commerce, into which, in remote ages, Commission mankind were naturally led by their real wants. An interchange of useful commodities was the only object of merchants in early times. A natural and necessary barter, by

commerce

* Wealth of Nations, edit. 5. Vol. II. p. 344, 360, 375, 397, 434.-At p. 476, the intelligent author mentions the operations of the Dutch East India company, in the Spice Islands, to enhance the price, by burning all the spices, beyond a certain quantity, giving premiums for the colle&tion of the blossoms of the clove and nutmeg trees, &c. He also glances at certain practices of the English East India company's former servants; particularly their ordering the peasants to plough up sice, and sow poppies, and the contrary, just as their interest, in the sale of opium or rice, happened to direct.—Sir W. Temple, in his observations on Holland, says: that “ a Dutchman, who had been at the Spice Isands, told him, that he saw at one time three heaps of nutmegs burnt, each of which was more than an ordinary church would hold.”-But we need not go so far abroad, for instances of such proceedings; for, in the year 1774, I was present at the burning of a large quantity of of saleable spices, at the India House in Amsterdam, for the avowed purpose of keeping up the price.

VII.

C HA P. their means, diffused the produce of every part of the then

known world over the whole; and their profits might be regarded more as the wages of necessary labour, than as the gains of injurious monopoly. Gold and silver were not excluded from this commerce; but they were left to find their way into the general circulation, by their weight and Standard. Their relative worth was not, like that of coin, fixed by artificial laws; but, like the worth of every other commodity, was regulated by the natural demand. And paper credit had, in that early period, no existence. This natural and unrestrained state of commerce accorded perfectly with the primitive simplicity of those ages: and it certainly tended to promote a diffusion of the comforts of life commensurate to the wants of mankind, whom it united by the bond of mutual interests.

115. A mixture of sensible and virtuous Europeans with encouraged

simple, untutored Africans, may be expected, by the reciprocal action and re-action of their habits and manners, to produce a social character nearly approaching the ancient simplicity. It were therefore to be wished, that the beneficial species of commerce, just mentioned, could be fo fixed in every new African colony, as for ever to exclude that perverted system which I shall call speculation-commerce, on which it seems necessary to dwell somewhat more particularly *.

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116.

* In order to give the reader some idea of the extent to which a trade in the productions of Africa may be carried, it may not be amiss to mention a few facts which show that a communication between very diftant parts of that continent, is already open. And it will scarcely be denied, that this might be made the channel of conveying regular supplies of European goods into those central regions which have hitherto seldom received any, except when the precarious success of the predatory expeditions of their chiefs happened to enable them to make returns in

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