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CH A P. lated to an intimate friend of mine by the surgeon of the
ship who was present at the inauguration.
38. The conduct of the king (formerly grand marabou *) of Almammy, while I was in Africa, appeared to me more interesting; as it seemed to evince the manly and sagacious character of the negroes, when enlightened, even by an. African education. His understanding having been more cultivated in his youth than that of the other black princes, he foon rendered himself entirely independent on the whites. He not only prohibited the slave-trade throughout his dominions; but, in the year 1787, would not suffer the French to march their slaves from Gallam, through his country, so that they were obliged to change their route. He redeemed his own subjects, when seized by the Moors, and encouraged them to raise cattle, to cultivate the land, and to practise all kinds of industry. As grand marabou, he abstained from strong liquor, which, however, is not an universal rule among that order; for some who travel with the whites are not very scrupulous in this respect. His subjects, imitating his example, were more sober than their
neighbours. thewing that
39. This instance seems to prove to what a degree of ciluxury
would incite them vilization these people might be brought, if this noble enterture, and o- prize should be pursued with prudence and patience; for
it will undoubtedly require a great deal of both. But some degree of luxury (in my restrained sense) appears to me to be absolutely necessary to the success of any plan of this kind. Indeed, I cannot comprehend how the human understanding can be led on, from it's first imperfect dawn
* The marabous ere the chief priests among the negroes, and are the only people I have seen who can read and write Arabic.
ings,“to that state of improvement which is necessary to the CHA P.
40. To accomplish this magnificent design, in Africa, let Agricultural
CHA P. men, than ever they have been, or can be, as slaves. Thus,
on the wreck of tyranny, let us build altars to humanity,
41. On principles nearly approaching to these, a colony
varies with the nature of the soil, in it's dryness or
* See an excellent discourse on this subječt, delivered in the Royal Acad Sciences at Stockholm, by B. Ferner, counfellor of the king's chancery.
of the Andes, in South America, though under the equator, C HA P. and the high lands of Camarones, on the coast of Africa, though within between three and four degrees of it, are covered with everlasting snow.
43. In the temperate zones, the year is divided into win- Wet and dry ter and fummer; for spring and autumn may be considered as transitions from each of these extremes to it's opposite. But, in most parts of the torrid zone, nature has distinguished the seasons into the wet and the dry. The former is, in Guinea, the season of sickness; but during the greater part of the latter, that country is, upon the whole, as healthful as any other whatever.
44. From what I have seen, and been able to collea, the rainy seafons follow the passage of the sun to either tropic, fo as generally to prevail in those places where the sun is vertical. East of Cape Palmas, however, they feldom set in before June, when the sun returns from the northern tropic; but to the westward of that
the whole country, those feasons generally commence within the month of May, and continue for three or four months. In the beginning of this season, the earth being foftened with rain, the negroes till and plant their grounds; and, after the return of dry weather, they gather in their crops; occupations which they feldom abandon, even though allured by the most advantageous commerce.
45. To give the reader some idea of the quantity of rain, Quantity of which deluges Africa during the wet season, I need only mention that, at Senegal, one hundred and fifteen inches in depth of rain were found to fall in four months; a quantity which exceeds that which falls in most parts of Britain during four years *. Even during the dry season, the dews are + See Lind on the Diseases of hot Climates, p. 43.
CHA P. so copious as to preserve young and ripening' vegetables
from being scorched by the heat. It may indeed be ques-
parts of the western tropical coast of Africa.
in the tropical regions; and, what is still more remarkable,
year, says that in a hurricane, or violent storm, which
ter and Ba.
SO I L.
47. The soil all along the coast is very unequal. From
very sandy; but the sand contains a very large admixture
* Lind ibid.
+ Bidrag til Beskrivelse over St. Croix, &c.