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e H A P. couraging them to practise agriculture, all the tropical, and

many other productions, might in time have rendered De. lagoa almost as commodious a place of refreshment as the Cape, and, in some cases, preferable.

322. But the Imperialists remained only three years in possession of this promising colony. Colonel Bolts, after succeeding in every part of his mission, returned to Europe, where he found that the Empress Queen had died three

months before his arrival; and, with her, vanished all his But, Prince hopes of support or justice. Prince Kaunitz, the minister, avowing it, on a protest from the court of Lisbon, had disavowed the guese break settlement; and, in consequence, a ship of war, with 300

troops and two field-pieces, was sent from Goa to Delagoa, where the Imperialists were treated in the same manner as we have seen the Dutch were, by the pirates, in 1727, their ships, effects, and men having been seized and carried off.

323. Thus were the extensive views of this able, enterterprising and public spirited man, frustrated, by the very court, for whom he acted, while he had the full powers of the Empress Queen in his pocket; and, at the hazard of his own life and fortune, was bona fide labouring to promote

the Austrian East India trade-a trade which his indefatitrian Eatt In- gable and well directed exertions had so compleatly re-ef

tablished, that we have since seen eight and twenty India ships assembled at Ostend, exclusive of those at Leghorn and Trieste.

324. The cause of Prince Kaunitz's disavowal of this coSpain and

lony, never transpired. But all Europe is acquainted with Portugal ri.

the claims advanced by the courts of Portugal and Spain, on similar occasions. The argument of the former is short and simple.—" The natives of the country are infidels:

a subject

Col. Bolts the restorer of the Auf


Claims of




buse of commerce exem

a subject of the crown of Portugal was the first christian C H A P. who set foot in that country : ergo that country belongs to the christian crown of Portugal.” The logic of the court of Spain, in the affair of Nootka Sound, was equally laconic and conclusive.—“Some Spaniards are settled at California, and on the neighbouring parts of America: ERGO the whole northwest coast of America belongs to Spain.” Our potent casuists never once hint at the original inhabitants. These are favages and infidels, whose claims merit no attention from christians.

325. But the Spaniards and Portuguese are not the only Flagrant aEuropeans who have hitherto disregarded such primitive pretensions, as will appear from the following particulars, plified. which very strongly exemplify the abuse of commerce, one material part of my subject. In the year 1672, Charles II. was graciously pleased to give and grant, unto the Royal African Company of England, “ all and singular the lands, countries, havens, roads, rivers and other places in Africa, from Sallee, in South Barbary, to the Cape of Good Hope, for and during the term of one thousand years; with the sole, entire and only trade and traffic" (N. B. in the perfons of the inhabitants) " into and from the said countries and places.” May it not be doubted, whether Swift himself, that great master of irony, ever penned any thing so consummately ridiculous, to say nothing of it's other qualities?-But Charles gave and granted to himself a participation of the above extraordinary privileges; for he and his brother, afterwards James II. were subscribers to this same company, and were both largely concerned in the Nave-trade. Some other monarchs, however, were far from favouring that traffic; for Louis XI. of France, and the renowned Elizabeth of England, made no secret of their utter abhorrence of the



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CHA P. save-trade. But this was not Charles's only trade; for Sir.

T. Modiford, then Governor of Jamaica, having, by his
fole authority, declared war against the Spaniards, his maf-
ter not only approved of these predatory hostilities; but,
in 1668, sent the governor an inftru&ion, empowering him
to nominate partners, to participate with His Majesty in the
captures,' “ they finding victuals, wear and tear." Charles
was several years actually engaged in this privateering, or
rather bucaneering, trade.He and his immediate succeffor
appear, indeed, to have been par nobile fratrum, and to have
left the British nation fufficient reason to remember them,
and the day when an over-ruling Providence was pleased to
remove their family from the throne, and to bless the nation
with a constitution which has had considerable influence on
the arbitrary governments of Europe, and the radical prin-
ciples of which, it is to be hoped, they will all gradually
adopt, as far as their various circumstances will permit.

Col. Bolts consulted about a Swedish colony.

326. The late Gustavus III. of Sweden, who appeared to favour commerce more than agriculture, having heard of the abilities of Colonel Bolts, in colonial affairs, and his great knowledge of mercantile geography, prevailed on him (through his Ambassador at Paris, Baron Stael von Holstein) to go to Sweden, in order to consult with him about eftablishing a settlement for the convenience of the Swedish East Indian ships. But, when the Colonel arrived at Stockholm, he found the King so deeply involved in the late unfortunate war with Russia, that he could attend to no other * See Pollethwayt's Di&t. Art. Eng. Afr. Co.-Long's Hift. of Jamaica, Vol

626, compared with Vol. II. p. 140.- Edwards's Ditto Vol. II. p. 35, 36.-Hill's Nav. Hift.Labat Nouv. Relat. de l'Afrique.


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business. After a long and fruitless attendance, the Colonel C # A P. returned to Paris, having received, by His Majesty's order, about £ 500 fter. a sum which, though perhaps as much as an almost exhausted treasury could well afford, was, however, very inadequate to the expense he incurred in collecting materials, not to mention the time and labour which the formation of estimates, and the arrangement of an extensive Scheme, must have cost him. But though this plan be intimately connected with my fubject, and may one day be carried into execution, I do not think myself at liberty to detail it's particulars, without the Colonel's express concurrence.




327. I have just been informed that the gentlemen of the African affociation of London, perfevering in their defign of exploring the interior parts of that continent, which reflects so much honour on this age and nation, have equipped two velsels, for a new expedition, which now wait for convoy ; and that they are to be generoufly affisted, by the British government, with the fum of £6000 sterling. The persons appointed to carry this plan into execution, are a Mr. Park,

, who is a good natural historian, and a Mr. Willis, on whom His Majesty,on this occasion, has been pleased to confer the rank of consul. Both the gentlemen have the character of being uncommonly well qualified for such an undertaking ; and they are to be attended by a captain, 60 soldiers, and proper assistants, of every description. Taking for granted,



CHA P. that Goree has been abandoned by the French, they are first

to proceed thither, where they will find a town ready built, and fitted for every purpose of health and accomodation, in a hot climáte. From this first station, I understand, they propose to sail for Fatatenda, on the River Gambia, beyond which vessels of any considerable burden cannot conveniently proceed. From Fatatenda, it is said, Mr. Park takes his departure for Bambouk, whence he is to convey back intelligence of his arrival to Mr. Willis, who will then follow him thither. Both gentlemen having arrived at Bambouk, Mr. Willis will remain there, to preserve a communi cation with the ships, while Mr. Park will endeavour to penetrate to the River Niger, or to the city of Tombuctoo. I have been told farther, that the chiefs of the country are to be engaged to assift in the undertaking; but, with a precaution which, I believe, has never before been taken: they are to receive no previous douceurs, and no rewards whatever, till they shall produce certificates, or other proofs, that they have actually performed their engagements; and then they will be paid the rewards stipulated, on board the vefsels, or at the places where the goods are secured.---If this be the plan, and I have reason to believe that the above are the principal heads of it, I must say that it appears to me, to be better laid, and consequently, to be more likely to succeed, than any one of the kind that has yet come within my knowledge.


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