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But Kolben ftates the clear annual revenue, whicli the C H A P. Dutch East India company derives from the Cape, at above 300,000 guilders, annually. He appears, however, to include the profits of that part of their East Indian trade, which is connected with the Cape. 311. There are 700 regular troops in this colony, includ- Military and

population. ing the garrison, of 400. The fencible white men formi a militia of between 4 and 5000, of whom a great number may be assembled in a few hours, by signals of alarm. Hence we may estimate the whites of all ages and both sexes, at between 16 and 20,000. But a part of the colonists are fo very far fcattered, as to be able to afford little protection to one another, and to the community. There are in the colo ny five or more slaves to one white man. Thefe saves are chiefly from Madagascar,with a mixture of Malays, Bengalese and some negroes.-The greater part of the colonists are Germans, with fome French protestants and Dutch. They are industrious, hospitable and fociable; but fonder of good living, than of acquiring knowledge, for which they may plead the plenty of good cheer, and the extreme scarcity of good schools. Such colonists as can afford the expense, generally fend their fons to Holland for improvement; but the education of their females is too much neglected.



312. The Bay of Delagoa, on the east of Africa (lat. about Delacou 26° S.) was discovered in 1545, by Laurenço Marquez, al Portuguese. In this bay his nation afterwards formed a Portuguese fettlement, on the riverManyeeffa, then the only one in settle there Delagoa, navigable for large fhips. They built a fort of which the vestiges still remain ; but abandoned it, on the Manyeessa becoming unnavigable by an accumulation of



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CH A P. fand: and their colony of Mozambique having then ac

quired strength, they did not find it worth while to renew DELAGOA. their settlement in Delagoa Bay.

313. The waters of the Mafoômo, in the same bay, having,

in time, opened a channel of four fathoms over the bar, the and Dutch. Dutch formed a settlement there, which they held till 1727,

when a strong squadron of English pirates, who had their rendezvous at Madagascar, after plundering the Dutch warehouses, razed them and the fort to the ground*.

: 314. Such was then the increasing prosperity of their colony at the Cape of Good Hope, and its dependencies, that

the Dutch gave up all thoughts of re-establishing that of Large tracts Delagoa ; so that, from that day to this, a large and fine by Europe- country, on the east of Africa, from Cabo das Correntes to

the most eastern dependencies of the Cape colony, and on the west, a much larger tract, from Saldanha bay to Benguela, have been unoccupied by the Europeans, and abandoned to the peaceable and rightful possession of the un

christianized Africans. Auftrian at 315. In the spring of 1777, however, an establishment

was made on the river Mafoômo, on behalf of Her late Imperial Majesty, the Empress Queen, Maria Theresa. The circumstances and fate of this colony, as far as I have been able to collect them, were as follow :—With a view to recover the trade of the East, to the Austrian dominions in Flanders, Tuscany and the Adriatic gulph, which had been loft on the abolition of the Ostend East India company, in 1727, Her Imperial Majesty granted a charter, in 1775, to William Bolts, Esq. a gentleman who had been formerly employed in Bengal, by the English East India company,


tempt, under Col. Bolts.

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.* See an account of this settlement and its destruction, in the Dutch Reifen na Indien I. de Buckoi, and the English History of the Pirates.



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in whose service he had been extremely ill treated* His C H A Po
charter contained many advantageous stipulations in his
favour, with full powers from the Empress Queen for mak-
ing commercial and colonial arrangements, with the chiefs
of Africa and Asia. He, at the same time, received a com-
mission as Lieut. Colonel.

316. Having formed a connection with some gentlemen in The Colonel Antwerp, recommended to him by the Imperial ministers, fails Sept.

; Colonel Bolts finally failed in Sep. 1776, from Leghorn, in a large ship, richly laden and well armed, with some soldiers to preserve subordination among a numerous body of people, from almost all the countries bordering on the Mediterranean. Before the ship sailed, the mean opposition of commercial bodiès had shown itself. It was again is opposed

by commermanifested at Madeira, and in short, the Colonel was fol- cial bodies ; lowed to India by such orders from the English East India company to their presidencies, and from these to the Nabobs, under whose names they act when convenient, as were contrary to the rules of friendship between civilized nations, and even to common humanity.

317. As it would have been extremely imprudent to rely on the accidental good reception of any nation actuated by that pest of society, the jealousy of commerce, Colonel Bolts, instead of touching at the Cape of Good Hope, resolved to push on to Delagoa Bay +. Having arrived there, arrives at the security for shipping in the river Mafoômo, the re

Delagoa bay: sources he saw in the country, and the facility of treating with the chiefs, through a Mahommedan from Bengal, whom he found settled there, convinced him that it was a proper place for forming an establishment. After a short residence,

+ See § 294

* See his Considerations on India Affairs, 3 vols. 4to. in 1772.




CHA P. with the help of presents, and the influence he acquired by

performing fome ordinary operations with an electrical machine, the Colonel was fo fortunate as to gain the friendship of Capell and Matôla, the chiefs of the opposite sides of the

river, though declared enemies to each other. buys land of

318. These chiefs possessed the country all round, could two chiefs ;

each raise 15,000 men, acknowledged no dependence on any European nation, and had no intercourse even with the Dutch and Portuguese, their nearest neighbours. Colonel Bolts, therefore, in the name of her Imperial Majesty, purchafed from them a part of their respective territories on each fide the Mafoômo, and commanding it's entrance. The goods agreed for were delivered, and the Imperial flag hoisted, in prefence of a great concourse of people, includ. ing the crews of two British ships from Bombay, trading for ivory and commanded by Captains M-Kenny and Cahill.

319. The ship remained in the river four months, dur. Roules, &c. ing which temporary houfes and a brick warehouse were

erected; when Colonel Bolts, thinking his presence might, for some time, be difpensed with, resolved to make a voyage in the ship, to the coast of Malabar, which appeared, on several accounts, adviseable and even necessary. By the good will of Capt. M*Kenny, a retreat on board his ship was provided, in case of necessity, for the resident, Mr. A. D. Pollet,

who was to remain, in charge of the infant fettlement. begins a

320. The Colonel, having arrived on the Malabar coast, trade;

bought and fitted out three vessels, with cargoes proper for the trade, as well as the necellities of the infant settlement. One of them remained in the river Mafoômo, as a floating battery, while the others were constantly carrying ivory to Cambay, and returning to Delagoa, with articles suited to the African barter --By artificers fent


builds tem

from Surat, the houses and warehouses were rendered more C HA P. commodious and solid, and a 12 gun battery was erected

DELAGOA. on the south side of the Mafoômo. From Surat, the Colonel also sent a Mullah, or Mahommedan priest, with his family, sends a Main order to convert to his religion, those Africans who were millionary to attached to, or connected with, the colony, and whose num.

to the colony bers constantly increased. For, seeing that, from their predeli&tion for polygamy, christianity was not likely to be agreeable to them, he judged (in conformity with the commercial principles on which it was his business to act) that for the purposes of civilizing, and then governing a rude people, any religion is better than none. Besides, their intercourse with the black Mahommedan crews of the vessels coming regularly from India, seemed to facilitate and encourage the attempt, by giving to precept the advantage of example. 321. The natives of this part of Africa are well made, Natives in

telligent. lively, active, intelligent, and imitative. Happily they did not then allow the Nave-trade, and Colonel Bolts hopes, this barbarous custom has not yet vitiated them. Elephants' teeth were then their only important commodities; but cowries and sea-horse teeth were also occasionally exported. The Colonel, however, among other important objects, had in view the cultivation of cotton and sugar-canes, Wild cotton which are indigenous there, and grow luxuriantly all about and sugar; the country. In time too, he hoped to open a trade in rice, &c. gold dust, with the independent inland chiefs, by the river Mafoômo, and particularly with a kingdom called Quitive, which, though said to abound in gold, has hitherto been unexplored by the Europeans. Rice and other vegetables grow luxuriantly; though the natives seldom cultivate more than they think they want. By instructing and en.

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