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C HA P. it's fuperiority to all other parts of that continent. But it's

situation and climate are not now it's only excellencies, as a
port of refreshment; for it abounds with a variety of the
best greens and fruits, and, in particular, with some of the
finest grapes and oranges in the world-articles peculiarly

proper for seamen after long voyages.
Exports. 305. The prodigious expense, and the perfevering atten-

tion which this colony colt, during the uncommonly tedious
period of it's helpless infancy, began at last to fhew their ef-
feéts, in the exportation of a little surplus corn. But, hav.
ing since arrived at a state of comparative maturity, the
Çape not only supplies the ships of all nations, which touch
there, with necessaries and comforts, in abundance, and at
moderate prices ; but supplies all the Dutch, and some fo-
reign, Asiatic fettlements, with great quantities of corn,

flour, biscuit, wines of various sorts, brandy, butter, cheese, Farming and falted provisions. No country feeds a greater number

of cattle than this, nor is their flesh any where cheaper or
better. An ox commonly weighs from 500 to 6oolb. A
farm may make from 1500 to 3000lb. of butter, annually.
Many feed from 1000 to 6 or 8000 sheep, and a few have as
far as 15,000, and cattle in proportion.

306. The Dutch East India company feem, for some time,
evidently to have discouraged all new settlers, by granting
no lands in private property, and by prohibiting the
farmers from fixing their habitations within a mile of each
other; though many parts of the country are so barren,
that less land than a square mile, (640 English acres) would
scarcely make a proper grazing farm. The company are
certainly more solicitous, at present, to promote their East
Indian commerce, than the productions of this flourishing,
but still improveable, colony ; otherwise, not only the cul-

tivation

Tenure of lands.

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tivation, but the manufacture, of several valuable articles, C HA P. might be introduced with advantage. Dr. Sparrman*, who makes this remark, gives several hints for the internal im. C. or Good provement of the colony ; but, being merely local, it is unnecessary to infert them, especially as the company, while they continue to attend almost exclusively to commerce, are not likely to put them in practice.

307. Still the conduct of the company, or, perhaps more Dutch and properly, of their predecessors, has been liberality itself, Portuguese when compared with the extortion and oppression of the trafted. Cape Verd company of Portugal. (See § 234.) were not a little pleafed,” fays Forster, “ with the contrast between this colony and the Portuguese island of S. Jago. There we had taken notice of a tropical country, with a to. lerable appearance, and capable of improvement; but utterly neglected by it's lazy and oppreffed inhabitants. Here, onthe contrary, we faw a neat, well built town, all white, Cape towa. rising in the midst of a defert, surrounded by broken maffes of black and dreary mountains; or, in other words, the picture of successful industry.” The town contains many store-houses of the Dutch East India company, and tolerable fortifications. Here, as in other Dutch towns,

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* I cannot help transcribing from Dr. Forster's voyage, which lies open before mic, his account of my friend and fellow traveller, which I can pronounce to be equally liberal and juft. “ We were fortunate enough,” says he, " to meet with a man of science, Dr. Spartman, at this place, who, after. Atudying under the father of botany, the great Linné, had made a voyage to China, and another to the Cape, in pursuit of knowledge. The idea of gathering the treasures of nature, in countries hitherto unknown to Europe, filled his mind so entirely, that he immediately engage ed to accompany us, on our circumnavigation; in the course of which, I am proud to say, we have found him an enthusiast in his science, well versed in medical knowledge, and endowed with a heart capable of the warmest feelings, and worthy of a philosopher." Voyage round the World, Vol. I. p. 67. B b 2

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C HA P. their genius manifests itself in rows of trees and canals;

though experience proves the noxious effects of flagnant
water; especially in hot climates, and most fatally at Bata-
via.—The company's slaves are lodged and boarded, in a
fpacious house.—The large hospital for the East Indiamen, is
generally pretty much crowded. For these ships sometimes
carry 6, 7 or 800 men, to supply the regiments in India;
and their confined situation, and short allowance of water
and salt provisions, make such havock among them, that it
is not very uncommon for an Indiaman, so freighted, to
lose, between Europe and the Cape, 80 or 100 men, and to

fend 2 or 300 to the hospital. It is a lamentable fact, that the Mortality of facility with which the Zeelverkoopers (Soul-mongers) inmen kidnapi veigle these unfortunate people, makes the company's serSoul-mongers. vants more indifferent than they should be about their pre

servation*. They are plentifully supplied, however, with
an antiscorbutic diet, which, with the air of the place, cer-
tainly contributes more to their recovery than their doctors, ,
who drench them all, indiscriminately, with the cheap con-
tents of two or three huge bottles.

308. Toleration, which has been so beneficial to Holland, at the Cape. is unknown at the Cape and at Batavia. In 1772, even a

Lutheran clergy man was not tolerated at the Cape; but the
chaplains of Danish and Swedish ships, now and then offici-

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* I wonder that the Slave-mongers, in their distress for pretexts to justify their traffic, have never mentioned the Dutch Soul-mongers, whose practice would have afforded them this notable argument.-- The Soul-mongers kidnap men in Holland: ergo the slave-mongers may lawfully steal or carry off men, women and children in. Africa, and murder them, if they resist. But this argument will scarcely satisfy those who reason on different principles, and who will never be convinced, that many thousands ought to be actually murdered in Africa, because some hundreds are vidually murdered by the Dutch Zeelverkoopers. See ( 20.

ated

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and revenue,

ated there. As in most other European colonies, no attention CHA P.

x. whatever is paid to the religion of the Naves. A few of them, however, who are believers in Mahomet, meet week. C. of Goon ly, in the house of a free Mahometan, and read or chaunt fome prayers and chapters of the koran.

309. The governor depends immediately on the East In- Government dia company, and presides over a council composed of the

sketched by second, or deputy governor, the fiscal, the major, the secret. Forster. ary, the treasurer, the comptrollers of provisions, and liquors, and the book-keeper; each of whom has the charge of a branch of the company's commerce. This council manages the whole civil and military departments. The deputy governor presides over the court of justice, which consists of some of the members of the council. But no two relations can vote in either. The governor has a fixed salary, house and furniture, a garden and a table. He receives, besides, 10 dollars for every leagre (108 gallons) of wine, exported to Batavia. The company gives 40 dollars for each leagre, of which the farmer receives bút 24. Of the remainder, the governor is paid two-thirds, faid to be worth 4000 dollars annually, and the other third goes to the deputy, who dire&ts the company's whole commerce here.The fiscal is at the head of the police, and fees the penal laws executed. He is also appointed by the mother country, to whom alone he is accountable, as a check on the company's Officers. The major commands the garrison. The designations of the other officers are descriptive of their departments.

310. The above is the substance of the account of the government of the Cape, given by Forster, whose work was published in 1777. But it would appear that some change in it has since taken place; for the author of Das Merkwurdigste,

printed

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CH A P. printed in 1787, says the government of the Cape is divided

into the eight following departments—-ist. The Great Coun€. He Goon cil for the company's political and commercial business. It

also sometimes represents the States General, and corre-
sponds, at all times, with Holland and Batavia.--2. The
Great College of Justice, a deputation of No. 1. and the
three burgomasters of the Cape town. This court is inde-
pendent on the company; but, from it an appeal lies to the
fimilar superior courts in Batavia and Holland.-3. The
lefser College of Justice, also a deputation of No. 1. for decid.
ing fmaller matters.-4. The Matrimonial Court, which takes
care that regular marriages are obferved.-5. The Charity
College, which has the charge of orphans, and the females
cannot marry, without their confent.-6. The Church Col-
lege, which regulates the concerns of external worfhip.-7.
The Civil Court.--Every colony at the Cape has it's own
Burgher Council, chosen from among the moft respectable
citizens, and changed every second year. This council de-
cides small matters between man and man; and, upon the
whole, is represented as fomewhat fimilar to the corpora-
tions in England.-8. The Military College, which con-
ducts all military affairs, including the militia. Of the re-
venue and expenditure of the Dutch at the Cape, Menzell
gives the following statement :

Guilders
A tax on produce, yielding, communibus annis,, ........

806,617
Duties on imports from Holland and Batavia..

206,500 25 per cent. on all cash sent to the Cape from Europe......... 54,520,

467,637
361,330

Annual expenditure, civil and military, is estimated at..

Clear annual revenue of the company.....

106,307

But

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