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than the reputation, either of the Count or the Ministry: C H, A P. and I fear that their conduct to him cannot be even politi. cally justified, without impeaching their wisdom.--- The American troubles were coeval with the Madagascar colony. The ministry dropped the substance, and snatched at the shadow. Neglecting Madagascar, with her valuable and increasing productions * and her three millions of docile and ingenious people, + they lurked behind the malk of profeffions, for, what they thought, an opportunity of humbling: Great Britain. The consequences to France have been already hinted at. But Britain, disencumbered of her financial burden, and having her strength concentrated, rose superior to the blow, and has since resumed, and, if undisturbed by war, was long likely to maintain, her respectability among the nations. Her altonishing restoration, I think, ought, in candour, to be partly ascribed to the diftinguished. ability and industry of the statesman who has
* Having, under the preceding articles, enumerated the most valuable productions of the continent of Africa, it did not seem necessary to dwell on those of Madagafčar, which are very inuch the same. But, as the natives are far dess har. rassed by the flave-trade, and upon the whole, more civilized; the produce of their labour is proportionably more abundant. This is evident from the great quantities and value of provisions, &c. exported and supplied to shipping, by the Count. See the statement of charge and discharge above inserted.
A respectable merchant in London, of great experience in the French Eaft India commerce, affures me, that the cotton of the east coast of Madagascar is fully equal to that of Bourbon ; and that a great part of the cotton which comes to Europe, under the name of Bourbon cotton, is either smuggled from the East Indies or brought regularly from Madagascar into Bourhon, where it is stored and repacked for exportation to Europe. For an account of the Bourbon cotton see $ 271.
+ See Memoirs, vol. 2, p. 397. This, however, can be but a vague conjecture sespecting the population,
CH A P. since conducted her finances.-What should I say more of
statesmen and of their abilities or infirmities, but “ Alas ! poor human nature ?"
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300. The Dutch East India ships began to frequent the
Cape, about the year 1600; but it was not till 1650, that Van Riebeck Van Riebeck, a surgeon, first discovered the advantages that colony there. would result from forming a regular colony there. On re
turning to Holland, he presented a memorial on the subject, to the directors of the Dutch East India company, who approved of his proposal, and ordered four ships to be equipped for the Cape, with some artificers, a few colonists, and the necessary tools and stores. Van Riebeck was appointed admiral of this fleet, and governor of the new colony; trusts which he fulfilled with such fidelity and success, that he well deserves to be recorded, as founder of that important
establishment. Liberality of 301. In executing this design, the directors acted with a
degree of wisdom and disinterestedness, too seldom found in the representatives of joint stock companies, and for which, in many other instances, the conduct of their predecessors and successors have not been very remarkable. They authorized Van Riebeck, to purchase territory from the natives, which he did, with goods to the amount of
the Dutch E. India co.
* This sketch of the colony at the Cape is compiled from Mortimer's Diet. of Trade and Comm. 1776.—Menzel's Beschreibung von Cap de Bonne Esper. 1785. -Das merkwurdigfte aus den besten Beschreibungen von Cap 1787.–Tableau de Commerce, 1787.- Forster's Voy, round the World, 1777, and Sparrman's Voy. to the Cape of Good Hope, Perth edition.
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50,000 guilders.--In the choice of colonists, their discern: CH A P.
induced laborious peasants, and honest artificers to
* Since I wrote 128 and 12g, I have heard it objected, that, in time of war, it would be improper to encourage colonization; as the people who might be expected to become colonists, are wanted for the armies.—The objectors, however, would do well to recollect, that, of all people, those who are disposed to become foldiers are, generally speaking, the most unfit for any new colonial undertaking; and that such being taken off by the war, a greater proportion of sober and industrious perfons will be left, from among whom to make a prudent fele&tion. Besides, that the war itself, and the general posture of public affairs, have disposed many worthy people, throughout Europe, to embark in any undertaking, likely to afford them more peace and security than they expect to enjoy in their respective countries.
+ The company, however, at present, never part with the property of the land; but rent it at the annual rate of about 25 dollars, for every 60 acres.
CHA P. land, were sent out, with superintendants to educate them
at the Cape ; and, on their marriage, the company assigned C. of Good them small dowries. Expense very
302. The expense incurred by the company, in establishing this colony, has been immense--not less, it hath been computed, than a million of guilders annually, for the first 20 years; and in, 1713, above fixty years after it's first settlement, it still continued to be chargeable. But seldom has the property of a joint-stock company been so beneficially employed; for all difficulties are now surmounted, and the colony amply repays the expenses of it's establishment.
303. Those difficulties were of a kind which nothing short
of cool, Dutch perseverance could have overcome. This
304. Yet this country is not without it's advantages.--
* The Dutch have, ftri&tly speaking, four colonies in this part of Africa, namely the Cape, properly so called, Stellenbosh, Drakenstein and Waveren. The farms in many places are very much scattered.
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on the mountains, especially far inland, there are hard Ċ HA P. frosts, with snow and hail storms. The climate, however, upon the whole, is so falubrious, that the inhabitants are rarely troubled with any disorders more serious than colds, caused by the sudden changes of air, from the strong winds, to which the Cape is exposed at all seasons; and strangers foon recover from the scurvy and other complaints. The support of so many wild beasts, implies the existence of nu- Animals. merous tribes of milder animals; and accordingly an astonishing variety, from the mighty buffalo and camelopard, to the least of the beautiful genus of antelopes, and many smaller quadrupeds, are common, in this part of Africa. The elephant, rhinoceros and hippopotamus, formerly came within a short distance of the Cape; but they have been so much hunted, and are so seldom seen at present, that the government have issued an order against killing them, within many miles of the town*.—The neighbouring feas and bays abound with excellent fish.—I know not Metals. whether the metallic ores of the interior mountains ought to be mentioned as an advantage ; as it does not appear, that the colonists can work them with profit, on account of their remote and rugged situation. Some tribes of Hottentots; however, extract both copper and iron from the ores they find in their native mountains. See $71, 287. But the grand A ftation for advantage of the Cape, at least that which appeared such in Dutch Eart
India fhips. the eyes of the Dutch East India company, was it's convenient situation, as a place of refreshment for their ships; and, in this view, the bare inspection of a map of Africa, shows
* The flesh of the hippopotamus, is eaten at the Cape. In Mr Forster's opinion, it's taste is that of coarse beef, but the fat rather resembles marrow. It's tusks are the best of ivory.