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tice, and many of them have gone down in defiance of the protest of Mexico, to to their graves in pinching poverty for the Annexation of Texas to this counwant of their property, thus plundered try ?”_with no party interest in, or inby a foreign power, and reclaimed, but fluence over the measure, who can doubt never restored by their own government. that the result would have been an overWe regret to state that the House did whelming negative? But the President not concur in the passage of this bill. and Cabinet were first enlisted in the
interest of Annexation; then a few promiOf the action of the majority on the nent politicians of the party Mr. Tyler Texas question, what shall history say? had last joined ; and soon a little coterie Must it not be compelled to portray a of avowed Annexationists was formed, the flagrant sacrifice of high national con- Representatives of the Mississippi Repusiderations to subserve the lowest party dialors very properly taking the lead. By ends? And this by those who are eter- dint of the most industrious canvassing, nally mouthing of this matter of Annexa- backed by the power and patronage of tion as a great American question, far the Executive and the money of Texas above the sphere of party objects and land-jobbers and scrip-holders, the numparty struggles. But when the question ber had been gradually swelled, until fifof Annexation was, in truth, no party teen Senators, (nearly one-third of the question, but one of simply National body,) were induced to record their votes concern, and Texas appeared in 1837) for the confirmation of the Tyler Treaty. at our metropolis, an unsolicited applicant Probably a like proportion, say sixty in for Annexation, with a far smaller public all, might have been brought to the same debt and a much larger public domain point in the House, but at no time prior to than at present, and with less complica- May last, could any measure, proposing ted foreign relations, President Van Bu- Annexation in defiance of Mexico, have ren and Secretary Forsyth, the latter as received over one-third of the votes of thorough and ardent a Southron as the either House. But when, near the close sun ever shone upon, at once repulsed of May, the activity and resolution of the kindly proffer, and repulsed it for rea- the Annexationists had accomplished the sons of enduring force. You are at war overthrow of the man who stood in the with Mexico,' said the Secretary of State; way of their obtaining complete control “she claims rightful dominion over you; of the party machinery, the transformaand until this war is terminated, this pre- tion was complete. Thousands who, up tension abandoned, the question of An- to that moment, had been steadfast and nexation is for us a question of peace or open in their hostility to the project, now war with Mexico. We decline to com- joined in the hurrah for Annexation. promise our friendly relations with that Yet it is not wholly true that the Texas power.” Here was a great national ques. Question defeated Mr. Van Buren. It tion promptly and justly met as a national very probably turned against him the question, with the universal acquiescence nicely balanced scale; but his real or and approval of the American people. supposed unpopularity, his many invetSome years afterward (1843), the subject erate adversaries in the ranks of his own came before the Massachusetts Legisla- party, and the disgust excited by the ture, and a unanimous decision was given clumsy manner in which delegations to against Annexation, on grounds as valid Baltimore had been packed in his favor, to-day as then, and most sweeping in had already prepared the train which their range of hostility to the ineasure was fired by the fuse of Texas. Thenceand its incitements. Here was no party forward Annexation became to some exdifference-each party vied with the tent a party Shibboleth, though there other in the freedom and earnestness of were notorious instances of non-conformits assertion of the principles both deemed ity, as in the cases of Senators Benton essential, not to party but to national and Wright, the Evening Post, and the well-being. Some of the members who signers of the exposed Secret Circular were then foremost in condemning, are here. It was found necessary to use the now prominently zealous in approving strength wbich Mr. Wright had acquired the project! And thus is it also with by his opposition to Texas to bridge a many members of the Twenty-Eighth threatening chasm between the Texas Congress. Had the naked question been candidate and the Presidency, and the stated, and the vote taken on its first as- nomination thus made for Governor of sembling-"Will you advise and consent, New York was one without which Mr.
Polk would not have been elected. Anti- has assented to the House Resolutions.
for us more acceptable than the line of the At last, the stupendous wrong and Red River and the Sabine, is quite possimischief devised by the Tyler dynasty, ble, though it is by no means certain that and rendered inevitable by the election the acquisition of Texas, with no single of Polk, have triumphed, so far as the boundary settled but that which has hithersingle action of our Government can effect to divided her from us, will give us, eventhat result. Congress has been coerced, tually, a better frontier. But no sane, hy a most flagrant exercise of executive considerate man, can doubt that if the power and patronage, into a consent novel step is to be taken of uniting two to the Annexation of Texas. Overriding independent nations, there should first be every consideration of constitutional a careful removal of all obstructions or limitation, or respect for popular sov. impediments to the union. If the juncereignty, a bare majority of the Senate tion be one dictated by nature and the
* Merrick, of Maryland.
+ Tappan and Allen, Ohio ; Niles, Connecticut.
enduring interests of the two nations re- of Congress, and rush to consummate spectively, there can certainly be no dan- their project. Who can fail to discern ger in awaiting such removal. The in these proceedings the elements of junction should clearly not take place future convulsion and calamity ? while one country is at war with a nation But no remonstrance will avail. The with which the other is at peace, nor first act of the Annexation drama has while the territory of one is claimed to been played out by Tyler and the be the rightful property of a third power. Twenty-Eighth Congress, and these inAll such difference should be settled be- different performers have retired from the fore the untrammeled nation should ven- stage, leaving to Polk and a new Conture to complicate its relations with the gress the task of concluding their work. cther. But, should it farther appear that That it will be pressed with zeal by the a very large proportion of the people of former, we need not remark; and already the one country were utterly averse to we have significant whispers that the any such union, then a decent self-respect new Congress must be called together, in should impel those of the other to decline extra session,
at an early day, to receive it; while no wise and just government, the assent of Texas, and perfect the ensurely, would force its own citizens into terprise. The cost of this may well be so intimate a relation, for which so disregarded, in view of the aggregate of many of them entertained a deep aversion. expenses which this acquisition is to Thai no effort should first be made to fasten upon us. Bravely ended, then, is secure the favorable regard of other the first act of Annexation, amid roar nations, with whom these two had dif- of cannon and shouts of approving thouferent and perhaps irreconcilable treat- sands! What, think you, shall be the ies, would seem impossible. And yet, end of the next ?—and the next? the people of the United States are sud- Enough for the day is the evil thereof. denly and recklessly involved in this In the next Congress—before, its close, union, while a full half of them are if not at its outset-three new Statesresisting and struggling against it; while Iowa, Florida, and Texas—will be reTexas is at open war with Mexico, and presented in either House. Florida has her independence unacknowledged ; and a deficient population; but a slave State when it is known that other and far was insisted on to balance Iowa, and more powerful nations are greatly averse now the admission of Texas will give us to this union. No effort is made to con- fifteen slave to fourteen free States-in ciliate adversaries, to terminate the War, all twenty-nine. And here, with the or to quiet the internal resistance. With exception of mere business of routine, an indecent haste, which the whole world like the passage of the Annual Approwill understand, our Annexationists have priation Bills, closes the record of the screwed a consent through the Houses doings of the Twenty-Eighth Congress.
And lo! the dazzling picture ! Every tree
Wo! oh, bitter wo
Then the bland wind comes winnowing from the South,
MR. EMERSON AND TRANSCENDENTALISM.*
1. PERHAPs some of our readers are still universe to be so dependent upon the inignorant of the meaning of the term Tran- dividual soul that we might properly be scendentalism. We will, for their sakes, said to create it ourselves. He thought attempt a definition. Transcendentalism that we ourselves produced all forms and is that form of Philosophy which sinks the world, that we might create whatGod and Nature in man. Let us ex- ever we would, isolatedly and instantaplain. God, man, and nature, in their neously, and hoped to construct a system mutual and harmonious relations (if in- of magic on this fact as a basis. In truth, deed the absolute God may be said ever if all outward things depend for their beto be in relations) are the objects of all ing and manner of existence upon ourphilosophy; but, in different theories, selves, and upon our inward states, a greater or less prominence is given to one change in those states involves a change or the other of these three, and thus sys. in outward nature. If we discover, theretems are formed. Pantheism sinks man fore, the connection of our thoughts and and nature in God; Materialism sinks feelings with outward nature, the whole God and man in the universe ; Transcen- universe is in our power; and we may, dentalism sinks God and nature in man. by a modification of ourselves, change In other words, some, in philosophising, the world from its present state into what take their point of departure in God we all wish it might become. Mr. Alalone, and are inevitably conducted to cott thinks the world would be what it Pantheist ;-others take their point of should be were he only as holy as he departure in nature alone, and are led to should be; he also considers himself perMaterialism; others start with man sonally responsible for the obliquity of alone, and end in Transcendentalism. It the axis of the earth. A friend once is by no means difficult to deny in words,' told me, while we watched the large the actual existence of the outward uni- flakes of snow as they were slowly fallverse. We may say, for example, that ing, that, could we bút attain to the right the paper on which we write has no spiritual state, we should be able to look more outward existence than the thoughts on outward nature, and say, “I snow, I we refrain from expressing; we may af- rain.” To Mr. Emerson a noble doubt firm that it has merely a different kind of perpetually suggests itself, “ whether existence within our soul. When I sayl nature outwardly exists.” In the eighth perceive an outwardly existing tree, I number of the Dial we find a beautiful may be mistaken; what I call a tree poem touching upon this theory, from may have no outward existence, but may, which we make an extract :on the contrary, be created by my perception. Who knows that a thing which
“ All is but as it seems appears red to me may not appear blue The round, green earth, to my neighbor? If so, then is color
With river and glen;
The din and mirth something which I lend to the object. But why stop at color? Perhaps hard
Of busy, busy men; ness and weight have no existence save
The world's great fever,
Throbbing for ever ; that which the mind gives. " Whether
The creed of the sage, nature enjoy a substantial existence The hope of the age, without (says Mr. Emerson), or is only All things we cherish, in the apocalypse of the mind, it is alike All that live and all that perish, useful and alike venerable to me. Be it These are but inner dreams what it may, it is ideal to me so long as I cannot try the accuracy of my senses.
“ The great world goeth “What differs it to me (he asks on an
To thy dreaming.
To thee alone other page) whether Orion be up there in
Hearts are making their moan, heaven, or some god paint the image in Eyes are streaming. the firmament of the soul?'”
Thine is the white moon turning night Fabre d'Olivet believed the outward
Essays : Second Series. By R. W. Emerson. Boston: James Munroe & Co. 1944,