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with that which was appointed for the most sacred uses, Exod. xxix. 7. and xxx. 31, 32. This was so plentifully poured on his head, that it run down upon his beard, and to the skirts of his garments, Psal. cxxxiii. 2. In like manner, God anointed Christ with the Holy Ghost and with power, Acts x. 38. not by measure, John iii. 34. and his gifts descended plentifully upon all his chosen people, 1 John ii. 20. Whence his name is as ointment poured forth, Cant. i. 3. but the elect only partake of it; for the profane world receiveth not this Spirit, John xiv, 17.

XXXVII. 3. Aaron was likewise clothed with holy garments, 1. He had a mitre of the finest linen on his head, to which was fastened, on a blue lace, a plate of pure gold, having engraven upon it HOLINESS TO JEHOVAH, Exod. xxviii. 36, 37. And by this was signified the most unspotted holiness of Christ, both as to his divine and human nature, Heb. vii. 29. And likewise that Christ was the person, who bears tlie iniquity of the holy things, ver. 38. that is, expiates the sins, with which our most holy actions are otherwise polluted. 2. He was also clothed with a blue robe, upon the hem of which were pomegranates and golden bells interchangeably, quite round, Exod. xxviii. 31, 33. That represented the robe of righteousness, with which Christ was himself clothed, and with which he clothes his

people, Is. Ixi. 10. as also the most acceptable sound of the gospel, to be preached by him, whithersoever he should come, together with the most sweet and fragrant fruits thereof. 3. He also had on the* ephod, or short cloak

* There was a common ephod, which was not peculiar to the high priests, but to other priests also. We read that Doeg the Edomite slew eighty-five persons who did wear a linen ephod, i Sam. xxii. 18. but our author here speaks of the sacred ephod, which none but the high priest was to wear, and none were to make any like it.

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of most curious workmanship, on the shoulders of which were-joined two onyx-stones with the names of the children of Israel, Exod. xxviii. 6, 9. By which was signified, that his chosen people would be very dear to Christ our High Priest, whom he was to carry, as it. were, on his shoulders into the heavenly sanctuary, Is. xl. 11. nay and to carry them with care, as a precious stone, segullah, a peculiar treasure, and as his own inheritance. 4. There was likewise the holy breast-plate of judgment, with twelve precious stones set therein, on each of which was a name of a tribe of Israel, Exod. xxviii. 15, 17. Many are pleased to call this the Urim and Thummim, Lev. viii. 8. This signified, that Christ is he, whose is the judgment, Ezek. xxi. 27. to whom the Father hath given authority to execute judgment, John v. 27. with whom is the light of the most perfect wisdom, and the perfections of the most consummate holiness, and who bears his chosen people on his heart, and presents them by name, by his intercession with his Father. Nor has it without reason been observed by the learned, that when under the Ņew Testament we likewise read of twelve precious stones; the jasper, which had the last place in the Old, has the first in the New, Rev. xxi. 19. as if it was the band or connection of both Testaments, intimating to us, that both have the same scope, namely Christ, whose cherishing and never-failing grace is elegantly represented by the greenness of the jasper. - 5. And lastly, to omit other particulars, Aaron's ephod, which otherwise hung loose, was bound close with a girdle of gold, blue, &c. interwove with fine linen, in a most curious manner; ver. 8. Which signified with what alacrity and readiness, to gether with the most considerable prudence, Jesus undertook his office.


XXXVIII. 4. The authority of Aaron's priesthood was ratified by the miraculous buds, blossoms, and fruits of the rod, which was cut from the almond-tree, which was the only one of all the other rods that suddenly budded, Numb. xvii. That rod signifies Christ, who not only came forth out of the cut stem of Jesse, Is. xi. 1. but was also cut off out of the land of the living, Is. liii. 8. yet budded again immediately after his death, and became a tree of life, having at the same time buds, blossoms, and fruit, yielding new fruit every month, Rev. xxii. 2. It also represents the perpetual fresh and flourishing efficacy of Christ's priesthood, who is a Priest after the power of an endless life, Heb. vii. 16.

XXXIX. 5. Aaron, by the legal sacrifices, expiated the sins of the people, and by his prayers interceded for them, Numb. xvi. 43. especially on the solemn day of expiation, when, with the blood of the slain sacrifice, he entered into the holy of holies. So Christ in like manner, through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, and entered not into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true ; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us; nor with the blood of others, but with his own, he obtained eternal redemption, Heb. ix. 14, 24, 25.

XL. These are a few instances, from among many, of the historical types. To which we shall subjoin two of the legal types, from a great number of others. And in the first place let us consider the mystery of the ark of the covenant, which is, as it were, the centre and compendium of all the ceremonies. The construction of this ark is described, Exod. xxv. 10. It was made of shittim wood, or, as is generally thought, of the most excellent cedar. That wood, when made into the form of an ark, was overlaid within and without, with the purest gold. The ark had a crown or cornice of gold

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around it. Four rings of gold were put in the sides ;
and into these two staves made of cedar-wood, but
overlaid with gold, to carry the ark by; and were never
to be taken out of the rings, even while it remained in
its place. In the ark the tables of the testimony were
put: but the covering mercy-seat, of pure gold, was
placed above on the ark. And two cherubims of gold,
made of one piece with the mercy-seat, covered it with
their wings, having their faces so turned towards each
other, as, at the same time, to look downwards to the
mercy-seat. The figure of these cherubims is a matter
of much dispute among writers. The description which
Josephus gives of them is not amiss, Antiq. lib. jii. c. 6.
when he says, that they were winged animals, resem-
bling, nothing that was ever seen by men.
came the nearest to the shape of an ox, may be gather-
ed from Ezek. i. 10. compared with Ezek. x. 14. For
in the latter place what is called the face of a cherub,
is in the former called the face of an or.

Further CHARAB, whence the name cherubim is derived, signifies in the Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic, to plough, for which oxen were formerly much employed. On the mercyseat, between the two cherubims, was the throne of the divine majesty, from whence answers were given to the inquirers. The ordinary place of the ark was within the vail, in the holy of holies, Exod. xxvi. 33. but in such a manner, that the ends of the staves were seen from the holy place, towards the front of the holy of holies, 1 Kings viïi. 8. While the tabernacle stood, the ark was taken out of it, when the Israelites were to march, that it might search out a resting place for them, Numb. x. 33. and be to them as the symbol of the divine presence, for their comfort ; but a terror to their enemies, ver. 34, 35. But after it was once brought into the temple, it was not taken from thence, till that

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was destroyed, Psal. cxxxii. 13, 14. 2 Chron. v. 3. Now let us inquire into the meaning of all this. XLI. This ark principally signified, or was a type

of Christ. 1. Its matter, being partly of wood, and partly of gold, was proper to represent the two natures of Christ;

the wood might denote his human nature, according to which he is the fruit of the earth, Is. iv. 2. and that it was incorrupted, free from all putrefaction, even when it was dead and laid in the


Psal. xvi. 10. as Pliny ascribes eternity to cedar, lib. xiii. c. 5. Gold was accounted a symbol of divinity, in respect of solidity, purity, brightness, and value ; and so that represented the eternity, holiness, and glory of Christ ; and at the same time shewed us, how valuable he ought to be in our eyes ; even of such value, as to count all things else but loss and dung, in comparison of him, Phil. ii. 8. But as the gold only was conspicuous, and not the wood, which was within and without overlaid with gold ; did not this signify, that Christ was not then manifested in the flesh, but his manifestation, which had hitherto been wrapped up in the most precious promises of God, was reserved for a happier period ? 2. The form of the ark, by which it was capable to contain a great treasure, denoted that Christ was the person, in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, and of all manner of happiness ; from whose fulness the elect may receive grace for grace. 3. The cornice or crown of gold, which encompassed the ark, seems to be a type of the crown and kingdom of Christ. 4. The tables of the covenant, which were put into the ark, signified, that Christ was to have the law of God in the midst of his bowels, or within his heart, and to fulfil all the righteousness of it for his chosen people, VOL. III.


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