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expon the sacrifice and service of your faith, I joy and rejoice with you all.

XVII. We are next to speak of the RAINBOW, which was given for a sign of the covenant made with Noah, Gen. ix. 12.-16. And here we are, first, to consider, what covenant it was : and then, how the rainbow was a sign of the covenant.

XVIII. Concerning the covenant, we observe the following things. 1. That it was not formally and precisely the covenant of grace. For here there is no mention of a spiritual and saving benefit ; and then the promises of this covenant are not only made to Noah and his elect seed, but to all men, to every living creature without exception, fowl, cattle and every beast of the carth ; an universality this not to be found in the covenant of grace. God indeed says, when he speaks of the covenant of grace made with the church, Is. liv. 9. For this is as the roaters of Noah unto me, &c. nevertheless, by these words, God does not declare, that the covenant made with the church was, in every respect, of the same nature with that universal covenant, which secured the world from being destroyed by a deluge. He only runs the parallel between both, with respect to permanency and stability : just in the same manner, that he compares his covenant made with Israel, with the covenant concerning day and night, Jer. xxxiii. 25.

XIX. 2. However, it would not be consistent with the divine perfections, to make such a covenant with every living creature, but on supposition of a covenant of grace, and with a respect to it. For all the patience

, of God, in the preservation of the world, which was stained with so many crimes, and of men, who more than deserved an avenging deluge, was ordained for the elect, whose salvation God intended, and for whose sake all other things are preserved, to be subservient to


the promoting their salvation, 2 Pet. iii. 9. “ It is a question,” says Pareus, “ whether it is a different covenant from the former in Gen. vi. 18. and from the covenant of grace ?” Ans: “ Certainly it is another with respect to the earthly promise, which is common to men, beasts, and the earth, and as to its peculiar sign. Yet it is the same as to origin and grace ;

for God would not have adopted the sons of Noah into that covenant, unless he had first received them into the covenant of grace. It is therefore an appendage of the covenant of grace with regard to an earthly promise.”

. XX. 3. Nay, in this covenant there is a confirmation and a typical representation of the covenant of

grace. I shall here use the words of Peter Martyr. “This we are carefully to remark; though, in this covenant, God promised to deliver men, as to their bodily life, that they should not perish in the waters ; yet in this there was a shadow or type of the deliverance from eternal death ; namely, they should not be overwhelmed with eternal damnation. And besides, as this is held forth by a shadow, believers may also form an argument to this purpose : If God thus provides for those that trust in him, as to give them assurance, without doubting, of their deliverance from the waters; how much more

; will he deliver their souls, their better part, not from a momentary, but from an eternal death? If he is so careful in these things of less moment, how much more, about what concerns the sum of our happiness ?” See Owen's Theologumena, lib. iii. c. 1. And since we should observe, that, previous to this, there was a symbol of the covenant of grace, whose antitype was baptism, i Pet. iii. 21. in the deluge and the ark of Noahy, which contained, as it were, the universal seeds of the whole world ; why should we not take notice of a con

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firmation of the covenant of grace in the promise, that no deluge should any more come upon the earth ?

XXI. Concerning the rainbow we remark these following things. 1. As that covenant, of which the rainbow was given to be a sign, was not precisely and formally the covenant of grace, so the rainbow should not be accounted a sacrament, strictly and properly so called: and it is also very impertinent to call it a third sacrament of the New Testament. However, the signs of the covenant of grace, in a way of proportion, bear the

very same relation, that the rainbow bore in sealing or ratifying this covenant: and therefore our writers effectually argue from this topic against Bellarmine, who obstinately denies, that the promises of the covenant are sealed or ratified by the sacraments.

XXII. 2. But then, as this covenant presupposed, and, in its universality, implied the covenant of

grace, we are not to deny, but the promises of it were also sealed to believers by the rainbow. Hence John mentions a rainbow, Rev. iv. 3. and Rev. X. 1. which he

a saw round about the throne and the head of Christ : “ that we may acknowledge,” says Rivet, Exercit. 60.

. in Genesin, That Christ's throne is encompassed with mercy, and that he shews it on his countenance, whenever he manifests himself. But especially, that in his face we have that rainbow, by which we are assured, not only that the waters shall no more overflow the whole earth ; but especially, that we are not to be afraid of the deluge of divine wrath, seeing Christ has reconciled the Father, so that while God beholds him, he remembers his mercy and his promises, which in him are Yea and Amen. Christ therefore appears crowned with a rainbow, as the messenger of grace and


peace : for he is the Prince of peace, and our peace, is. ix. 6. Eph. ii. 14.”

XXIII. 3. Every sign should have some analogy with the thing signified. This, in such sacred signs, which, by divine institution, represent such and such things, doubtless chiefly depends on the good pleasure of the institutor. However some natural coincidence or agreement with the spiritual thing signified is generally supposed, as appears from an induction of all the ordinary sacraments. What is natural to the rainbow, was likewise so* before the food ; but its virtue of sig. nifying and sealing the promises was superadded to it by divine institution. We are therefore to take notice of such things in the rainbow, as are proper to represent the patience and grace of God: and they are either general or more special.

XXIV. Musculus has judiciously taken notice of the general analogies. 1. God would have this to be an cverlasting covenant, to continue to the end of the world : and therefore appointed a sign, which not only Noah and his family might view at that time, but also his posterity have before their eyes, while the covenant itself endured 2. That covenant has the nature of a

* Some have thought, that there was no rainbow before the Nood, because it had been small comfort and assurance to the new world, to see that which had been seen before ; but, according to others, it is not likely, that, in the space of sixteen centuries, which were expired before the deluge, the sun should never have darted his rays upon the water in the clouds, in such manner as was necessary to produce a rainbow. Besides, it is not essential to an arbitrary sign, that the matter of it did not subsist before its establishment; it is enough, if it did not subsist as a sign. The rainbow therefore might have often appeared before the food, but God had never joined to it that idea, which he communicated to Noah, viz. that it was appointed, for the future, to scal the covenant he had made with him, and in his person with all mankind.



testament and last will, is absolute, without depending on any condition of our righteousness and piety. And therefore he hath also added such a sign to it, which we can neither make nor repeat, but can only be produced in the course of the seasons, and, being formed by himself, he proposed to the view of our eyes only, and the meditation of our minds. 3. We are also to consider, where he placed the bow, the sign of his covenant; and when he produces it. For he placed it, where it may be seen by all ; namely, in the heavens : not in any place of the heavens whatever, but in the clouds ; he does not produce it but only in time of rain, when thick clouds hang over the earth, and either threaten or actually pour down their showers. Here we must be obliged to acknowledge the singular providence of God; whose goodness calls aloud to every one from those very watery clouds;

“ Be from henceforth not afraid of them; behold in those very clouds the rainbow, the symbol of my favor, and the sign of the covenant between me and all flesh: what was formerly the instrument of my vengeance, shall now present you with a token of my perpetual grace.”

XXV. But Peter Martyr assigns a more especial analogy from the Jewish doctors, as well in the figure as in the colours. The bow, says he, is a military instrument. Upon making leagues and concluding a peace, neither arrows nor the string bent are to be seen;

, but the soldiers carry it, with its horns or extremities down to the earth ; but it is otherwise in the time of battle: then they draw its horns together towards their face, that, aiming with the eye, they may throw thcir arrows at the enemy. In like manner, God being reconciled, has taken out the string, lcinoved the arrows, and turned its horns down to the earth; tab; usuring us, that his anger is appeased.

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