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but that was when Judea was a Roman province, and had a Roman governor : for then it was a part of the wilderness of the people. And it is plain enough that, by the dragon, Rev. xii. is represented the Roman people. He made himself ready to devour Christ, as soon as he was born. Moreover, the first promise declares, Gen. iii. 17. that Christ was to be given up into the hands of the devil, who deceived Eve, under the

appearance of a serpent. The Jews ascribe this to Sammael. As therefore the slaying of the one goat represents the death of Christ, and the shedding of his blood ; so the sending away of the other goat into a place uncultivated and desert, denotes the delivering of Christ into the hands of the devil, who has the power of death, in order to vex and disquiet him ; and that by the hands of sinners, and of such men, to whom the land was subject, like the rest of the wilderness of the people, and a part thereof. That this was done by the appointment and will of God, Christ himself declares, John xiv. 30, 31. As if he should say, The Prince of this world, who has nothing in me, is come to exercise his cruelty upon me ; which will happen, to the end that my obedience may appear to the world.

We have therefore a figure of a twofold delivering up of Christ. First, of that, by zohich he delivered up himself, as Priest. Secondly, of that by which he was given up into the hands of sinners, or the Gentiles.” Thus far Cocceius. To the like purpose, the very learned Momma, Oecon. Temp. tom. i. lib. ii. c. xi. $ 36. seq. where, after explaining the same opinion with neatness and elegance, and proving it from scripture, he then subjoins : “ We might rest contented with these things, and proceed to others.” Let

( therefore none be offended, that being satisfied with these things, which exhibit a doctrine sound and cer

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tain, I pass over other things, in which I find neither that soundness nor that certainty.

LXXIV. Very lately were published the Varia Sucra of the very famous John Vander Waeyen, in which are two dissertations concerning the goat Azazel ; the former of which is principally levelled at me.

But I would neither have my reader, nor the illustrious author ignorant, how much I have profited by the perusal of that dissertation. By it I was really brought under a kind of necessity, to consider more accurately the whole of this subject. Which I have also endeavoured to do with a mind so free from, and divested of all prejudices, as if I had never written any thing on the point before. Nor do I conceal, that from thence I had an opportunity to explain some things more clearly, others also more distinctly, and to set a keener edge on my arguments, than I had done in the former editions of this book. On that account therefore, if he will accept of it, I return him my thanks. But then he must suffer me to say, that I have not found reasons cogent enough in his dissertation to render his opinion more probable, or mine less so. While he opposes my sentiment, and seems to charge it with many inconveniences, he opposes what Dr. Cocceius himself has dexterously explained, and confirmed by scripture-testimonies, and, as far as I know, never condemned or disapproved ; though he superadded another opinion.

But I could never yet think it probable, that one and the same ceremony should signify things so very remote from one another. As for my particular, I leave the entire decision of this controversy with the equitable reader ; who, if he is

; not wiser than us both, may profit by our writings. But as to the manner in which the illustrious person manages the dispute, I imagine, I have very weighty Vol. III.



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grounds of complaint. Whoever happens to enter the
lists with him, contend indeed on unequal terms. While
he thinks, he may say what he will against others, he gives
no quarter to any expression of his opponent, if it has
but the least appearance of harshness in it; and assum-
ing to himself what is the prerogative of God alone,
canvasses not only the heart and inmost principles of the
thoughts, but also boldly pronounces what sentence up-
on them he thinks proper. Indeed I should appear ri-
diculous, was I seriously to ward off from myself the
grudge conceived against Cocceius, as the origin and
the cause of this dissension.


book shews my esteem for that celebrated person.

And though I cannot assent to him in every particular with an implicit faith, yet I never once dreamed of charging him with heresy : much less in this controversy, where the dispute is not so much about a doctrinal point, as about the mystical signification of some Mosaic institutions, without


detriment to our common faith. In which kind of subjects if I inay not be allowed, for John Vander Waeyen, the liberty to dissent, in what pray shall I be allowed it? But I will suffer no mortal ever to deprive me of this liberty. But, good Sir, whenever I am to dispute, I desire my method of writing may be as different from yours as possible. While your language breathes nothing but harshness, mine shall be all mildness. As in this dispute I have struck out every word, that had but the least tendency to harshness, and substituted softer. And let this suffice, by way


specimen, concerning the types.

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Of the Sacraments of Grace dozun to Abraham.

We have explained with what wisdom and com

descension God saw it proper to confirm and seal the promises of his covenants by certain sacred symbols. As he did this under the covenant of works, so especially he was likewise pleased to do the same upon

introducing the covenant of grace. To which, under whatever æconomy it stood, he apprehended, as it were, certain peculiar signs and seals, which the church has, now for many ages past, been accustomed to call sacraments. In some of the types, which we have already explained, and in others of the like nature, there was also indeed something sacramental; as they prefigured the Messiah, and the spiritual benefits he was to procure for his people : yet more especially we call by the name of sacraments, those things which were given by God to man, to be seals of his covenant, or earnests and pledges of his favor.

II. And these again were, indeed, very different ; consisting either in things natural, on which God inscribed that character in order to be vouchers and seals of his testaments. To which Calvin refers Noah's arts, Instit. lib. iv. c. 14. § 18. or in things rniraculous ; such as the manna, which was rained down from heaven, and the water issuing out of the rock, which constituted the miraculous meat and drink of the Israelites in the wilderness : or in certain ceremonies, and sacred rites, instituted by God to represent spiritual things. Some were also extraordinary, in favor of some certain persons, and but of a short continuance, Others ordina


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ry, given for the use of the whole church, and not to cease but with that particular æconomy of the cove

And hence it is, that, in reckoning up the sacraments of the Old Testament, divines are not agreed; for some take the term in a larger extent, and others in a more restricted sense. We are not inclined to confine ourselves within too narrow bounds ; but shal? freely and calmly consider, according to our capacity, what has any relation to a sacrament,


every period of time.

III. Some would have the first sacrament of the covenant of grace to be the ejection of man dut of puradise, and blocking up his access to the tree of life, lest he should put forth his hand and eat of it, thinking that he should thereby obtain eternal life. For man being deprived of this sacrament of works, was, at the same time, given to know, that righteousness was to be sought for from another covenant ; and thụs he was led by the hand from the covenant of works to the covenant of

grace. But we cannot be satisfied with these things. 1. Because man's ejection out of paradise, and exclusion from the tree of life, were the effects of the divine wrath and vengeance against his sin, as appears from that truly-holy, but stinging irony : Behold the man is become as one of us. But the institution of a sacrament is an act of the highest goodness and mercy. We deny not, that man was already received into favor, and had the hopes of eternal life : nevertheless some things were inflicted upon him because of his transgression, that he might, by his loss, experience the direful nature of sin, and God's hatred of it. Among these was this ignominious ejection out of paradise. It was an instance of grace and favor, that God placed him in paradise immediately upon his creation, but of wrath, that he turned him out wlien he had sinned. 2. This ejection doubt

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