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LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.- No. 475.-25 JUNE, 1853.
CONTENTS. 1. Henry Arnaud and the Waldenses, .
771 2. Cruise among the Islands of the Western Pacific, Spectator,
789 3. Lady Lee's Widowhood — Part IV.,
793 4. Spiritual Manifestations,
807 5. The Beecher Stowe Demonstration,
821 6. An Old Gentleman's Second Marriage,
823 POETRY: The Planting - The Thought, 769; 1815 and 1853 — Hush, 770; Charissa
Stanzas, 803 ; 'To Michael Angelo Titunarsh, Esq., 822. SHORT ARTICLES : Europe, Popery, America - Dance of Death, 788; Domestic Ilabits of
our Ancestors, 820; Scottish Drunkenness, 824. New Books : 824.
From Chambers' Journal.
I said to my little son, who was watching, with tears, a
Tlien cease watching and cease weeping :
It will grow while thou art sleeping." “But, O father !" says the child,
With a troubled face close creeping “ How can I but think and grieve, When the fierce winds come at eve,
And snows beat - and I lie sleeping? “I have loved my linden so !
In each leaf seen future floweret ; Watched it day by day with prayers, Guarded it with pains and cares,
Lest the canker should devour it. “0, good father !” says the child,
“ If I come in summer's shining, And my linden-tree be dead How the sun will scorch my head,
Where I sit forlorn and pining ! “ Rather let me evermore,
Through this winter-time watch keeping,
Ay, bear aught !- but idle sleeping."
“Who art thou, child, vainly grieving? Canst thou send the balmy dews, Or the rich sap interfuse,
That one leaf shall burst to living ? CCCCLXXV. LIVING AGE, VOL, I. 49
“ Canst thou bid the heavens restrain
Natural tempests for thy praying?
Keep one blossom from decaying ?
Will it praise thee for its blooming ?
Drops it to an equal tombing?
It is safe 'neath His sky's folding
His large eye all things beholding.
For the shelter of the nations,
Human tears, and faith, and patience.
Cease all watching and all weeping.
Beautiful — above thy sleeping !”
Garnered safe with joyful reaping,
“ It will grow while thou art sleeping!”
From Hogg's Instructor.
'Twas not satiety or spleen :
The thought of what he might have been :
1815 AND 1853.— HUSH!—REASONS FOR A SINGER'S COLD.
The thought that virtue might have led him On all the Sun of Freedom shone,
Kindling the hearts of labor's throng ; And love's early vows have made him
Advancing Art was 'companied Pure as music's trancing sound :
By Genius, Poetry, and Song. The thought that knowledge might have placed But now the comet's meteor glare him
Returns from journeyings afar, On the height of truth sublime,
Sweeps on the sight, and shows again Where low vice had ne'er debased him,
The long-forgotten form of war. Outcast in a sensual clime :
Well, be it so, what we have gained The thought that tuneful inspiration
We shall not tamely, calmly lose, Might have lived in lofty lays,
If fight we must, then — to the death, And a poet's aspiration
Though war we may not freely choose. Won the wreath of laurelled praise.
Whate'er betide, the end is sure, Like a distant, trembling river
There lives on earth that cannot die, To the ear at midnight brought,
Great Heaven will give, as in old times,
To Truth and Freedom – Victory.
From Household Words. Scenes of youth to wander o'er,
“I Can scarcely hear,” she murmured,
“ For my heart beats loud and fast,
I can hear a sound at last.”
“It is only the reapers singing,
As they carry home their sheaves ; 1815 AND 1853.
And the evening breeze has risen,
And rustles the dying leaves."
“Listen ! there are voices talking.” Our rulers, glad to quit the strife,
Calmly still she strove to speak, Returned, in hope, to peace again.
Yet, her voice grew faint and trembling,
And the red flushed in her cheek. Then the nation hailed with rapture
“It is only the children playing The dawning of a brighter day.
Below, now their work is done,
And they laugh that their eyes are dazzled
By the rays of the setting sun. Again improvement, long delayed,
Fainter grew her voice, and weaker, Swiftly progressed through Mind's domain,
As with anxious eyes she cried, Neath calmer skies, with broad sails spread,
“ Down the avenue of chestnuts Our ships of commerce ploughed the main.
I can hear a horseman ride." The giant heart of England poured
“ It is only the deer that were feeding
In a herd on the clover grass ;
They were startled, and fled to the thicket
As they saw the reapers pass."
Now the night arose in silence,
Birds lay in their leafy nest,
And the deer couched in the forest, Broad branches bore among the stars,
And the children were at rest ; And strong roots sank in earth below.
There was only a sound of weeping Then days of science were like years
From watchers around a bed, In the old chronicles of time,
But Rest to the weary spirit,
Peace to the quiet Dead !
REASONS FOR A Singer's Cold. — “What is Swift through the loom the shuttle plied,
the reason that fellow is always indisposed at the O'er iron roads our steam steeds ran,
moment he is wanted to sing ?” inquired an Like thought th' electric courier hied.
Exeter Hallite, just as a sort of Sims REEVIAN
apology had been made for a popular singer. Then fair Religion, calm and mild,
“Oh! it's easily accounted for," answered his The true conserver of the world,
stall neighbor ; “when you think of the great Glowed with immortal youth, and smiled airs he is continually giving himself, it's no
O’er War's dread standard, once more fiuled. I wonder he so often catches cold.” – Punch.
From Chambers' Repository. The inhabitants of a land producing nothing HENRY ARNAUD AND THE WALDENSES. else, could only subsist by robbery. In fact,
The return of the Waldensian exiles to however, the lowest ranges of these valleys their native valleys, to which they fought almost unmatched in richness. Their owners
are generally stripes of flat, soft, alluvial soil, their
way under the guidance of their pastor consider every yard of the earth's surface so and general, Henry Arnaud, in 1689, is one valuable here, that they grudge even what is of the most remarkable and romantic events in modern history. It will be found fully to necessary for the narrowest pathways; and deserve the few pages here devoted to an
the stranger feels that he must pick his way
it account of it ;' but before beginning with the carefully, to avoid injury to the rich crop. actual incidents of their lighting-journey,
will be clear, that, from the nature of the which were minutely recorded day by day, it country, no class of inen could well be more may be as well to give a sketch of the circum- isolated from their neighbors than the cultistances which opened this curious chapter in vators of these pastures. The richness and the romance of history. The Waldenses, narrowness of the alluvial stripes kept thein or Vaudois, are supposed to have received in the pursuit of their living within a narrow their name from vallis, or valley, owing to the compass ; and the great mountain barriers, by extremely secluded and peculiar character of which they were nearly surrounded, prevented the three valleys in which they lived as
them froin paying unnecessary visits to their
neighbors. Dr. Johnson almost describes community, separated by immense mountains from the rest of the world. In the general in his romance of Rasselas, where he isolates
such a place as the valleys of the Waldenses inap of Europe, the position of these valleys his hero from the world. It was not unnatuwill be best described by saying, that they lie in the slopes of the great range called the ral, then, that in such places old opinions Pennine_Alps, on the side which stretches and traditions would remain longer untowards Italy. This great barrier separates changed than in the more open parts of Euthem from Western and Northern Europe ; but rope: they are also secluded even from the rest of
It is well known to all readers of history Italy, as their districts are only approachable
that, from an early period, these Waldenses by narrow openings, as it were, between prosessed a religious creed and observances subsidiary ranges of bills. These, in other differing from those of the surrounding naparts of the world, would be called great Italians. Since they thus differed from the
tions, and especially of their neighbors, the inountain-ranges ; but here they are only the lateral spurs or offshoots of the vast central practice of the Pope's immediate dominions, Alpine chain. The district, generally speak- that of the Church of Rome. It has been
of course their religion was distinguished from ing, is bounded on the sides by Mount Viso and the Col de Sestrieres ; and the three main identified ---- even as it existed at a very early valleys of which it consists are Lucerna or
time - with the Protestant opinions of later Luzern, Perosa or Perouse, and San Martino days. It was thus very natural to suppose, or St. Martin. Considerable confusion is as the religious rites of the Waldenses were soinetimes created in the reader's mind by simple, and they had from time immemorial the names in this district, as elsewhere differed from those of Rome, that they were throughout the Piedmontese part of Italy, it were, within the wall of mountains, and
a relic of the primitive church, preserved, as being sometimes given in Italian, and sometimes in French. Though situated within showing to after-ages what that church bad the sunny territory of Italy, these valleys their pomp and power. This is not a place
really been before the ecclesiastics acquired have the characteristics rather of a than a southern clime, and nourished a hardy for the investigation of the question as to race, such as Goldsmith describes on the will readily be understood, however, that this
whether such views are well founded. It other side of the Alps :
simple people, differing in religious tenets Thus every good his native wilds impart
from powerful nations and ambitious monImprints the patriot passion on his heart ;
archs, were not allowed to entertain their And e'en those ills that round his mansion riso Enhance the bliss his scanty fund supplies.
peculiar views in tranquillity. In fact, it is Dear is that shed to which his soul conforms,
too well known in history, that from generar And dear that hill which lifts him to the storms; tion to generation they were oppressed and And, as a child, when scaring sounds molest, persecuted. One of the latest and most signal Clings close and closer to the mother's breast; attacks made on them was the cause of the So the loud torrent and the whirlwind's roar adventurous history we have now to relate. But bind him to his native mountains more.
After the powerful intervention of Oliver The poet's description does not, however, Cromwell on the behalf of the Waldenses, apply very accurately where he says – seconded by the good-wishes of other EuroNo product here the barren hills afford,
pean potentates, they appeared to be entering But man and steel — the soldier and his sword. upon a career of peace and independence.
This lasted for some years ; but in 1685 they protection, which was basely broken ; and were, with too much justice, alarmed when the solution seems to be a probable one, Louis XIV. revoked the 'Edict of Nantes, although it is proper say,
that no sufficient which had been passed for the toleration of evidence of the fact has been adduced. They the French Protestants. The many fugitives were committed to prison in great multiwho on that occasion were dispersed through- tudes ; but it is impossible to believe, what out Europe, carried the inelancholy news of their own authorities relate, that more than the growing despotism of the great French two thirds of their grown men perished in monarch. It soon became clear, that he dungeons. Many certainly did so; and the would exert his power against a small body number of the captives was much thinned, like the Waldenses, who assailed his pride ere a resolution was taken to release them and by giving sympathy and protection to his send them out of the country: fugitive subjects so close to his own domin- This resolution was adopted in consequence ions. Many threatening hints were made to of the reinonstrances of the Protestant cantons, the Duke of Savoy on the subject. He was and their offer to provide for the unfortunate told that he must either compel liis subjects Waldenses. In 1687, these set out to join to conform to the Church of Rome, or drive their kind neighbors, to the number, it is them out of their valleys. At last he was said, of 3000. To reach their destination, it informed, that if he would not set himself was necessary to cross the great chain of the heartily to this task, the King of France Alps, where a few passes only, and these would do it himself with 14,000 men, and proverbially formidable, occur at distances of would then consider the territory a conquest, many miles. The fugitives, unacquainted and take possession of it.
with the route, should have had guides and it Urged by this threat, which imported no plentiful supply of provisions — but they had less than a partition of his territory, the neither; and the hardships they suffered duke gave the Waldenses the alternative of would have exterminated them, if they had submitting, or being driven forth by an armed pot possessed mountain constitutions. Learforce. This was not, however, destined to be ing behind them the great mass of glaciers easily accomplished. The men of the valleys and precipices, over which Mont Blanc reigns gave an uncompromising refusal to the pro- supreme, they descended along the lovely posal, and prepared for resistance. In their valleys, reminding them of their homes, many series of persecutions, they had ac- which slope towards the blue waters of the quired a capacity for warfare, which descended Lake of Geneva. Here, exhausted, attenfrom generation to generation; and their uated, and ragged — like spectres rather than swords were the terror of the enemy wherever living beings — they inet a warm reception they appeared. They set at effectual defiance from their sympathizing friends. They were the feeble efforts of the ducal monarch of now dispersed chiefly among the towns and Savoy; and he required to call in the assist- villages of the canton of Bern, and were ance of the French troops. At that period, gradually introduced to the means of gaining owing to the stiff and uniform system of a livelihood. campaigning which had been adopted, regu
But mountaineers seem to have ever a lar troops never met the warlike mountaineers, strong yearning after their native valleys, especially on their own rough and dangerous which, in peculiar circumstances, becomes ground, without suffering severely: The an ungovernable passion. The feeling might Waldenses, acting on the defensive, beat off have been less ardent had they been removed their foes on both sides — the French on the to some great distance from their early homes, one, and their Savoyard neighbors on the and seen nothing to recall them. But every other : their successes were remarkable ; and, bright day, as they looked southwards, they carried away by the preternatural fervor saw, clear against the sky, as if they were in which seems ever to bave possessed them, reality close at hand, the range of snowy they followed up their victories with ruthless summits among which their beloved valleys determination, instead of seeking, by moder- nestled ; they could see even the commenceation, to secure for themselves terms of ac- ment of that slope downwards from the commodation.
smooth white summit, the end of which A very strange and unaccountable result, rested on their own green pastures. The however, followed these victories, and the use sight seems to have excited them beyond enso made of them. All at once, as if driven durance, and they resolved, at all hazards, to by some fatality, the Waldenses, in the mo- return. Their first attempt was discovered ment of victory, and when they had by no and defeated. Their second was not more means shown themselves to be clement con- successful as to immediate results, but the querors, threw down their arms, and made preparations made for it were of service an entire submission. To account for this afterwards. Three of their number had been singular incident, it has been said that they sent to examine the passes among the moun: acted under a secret promise of pardon and I tains, to ascertain which could be crossed with least risk of detection, and to lay down denses, who had taken service in the garrison a plan of operations for the whole body. At of Geneva, deserting to take part in the adthat time there was much less habitual wan- venture, created suspicion, and their motions dering from place to place, in any class of were watched. A powerful guard was placed the community, than at present. Gentle- at the bridge of St. Maurice, to dispute their men did not inake tours of pleasure, and passage. In fact, their friends of the Protescommon people did not go about seeking tant cantons, although readily affording them work. In fact, the latter class were in gen- a hospitable retreat, were extremely anxious eral slaves, who dared not leave the fields to not to be committed by any line of conduct which they were attached or restricted. Be- they might pursue calculated to offend the sides the liability of being questioned and neighboring states. They would rather be at examined at every city-gate, the bridges had the expense of supporting the exiles among each a warden, living in a tower, whose duty themselves, than be suspected of encouraging it was to look after all suspicious wanderers. them in an aggressive movement. Hence, Commerce was the only legitimate excuse for they not only let it be known to the Piedtravelling; and those who could not prove montese government that there were suspicious that they were merchants, were generally movements among the Waldenses, but traced presumed, when found away from their places their proceedings, and persuaded them to of residence, to be robbers or political spies. abandon their project. About 700 of them The three messengers or spies of the Wal- found themselves on the way to the hridge, denses had thus to proceed with extreme with the unpleasant certainty that it could caution. They succeeded in reaching the not be crossed. Being near the town of valleys, and acquiring a knowledge of the Aigle, the bailiff, or chief-magistrate, assemsafest routes through which an expedition bled them in the church, and preached to might penetrate secretly towards them. They them an exhortation to patience. He chose were not, however, fortunate in their return. the text, “ Fear not little fuck ;' and told They were found in a wild district of the them that they had but to be patient, and Tarentaise, and arrested by the authorities as abide the right time, for they were predestined robbers. Some sheets of paper were found in to return to their beloved valleys. This kind their possession, whence it was inferred that magistrate gave them 200 crowds to enable they might be political spies ; and the sheets them to return to the places they had left. were held to the fire, in the idea that this In their own account of the affair afterwards, would bring out writing in sympathetic ink, they contrasted his conduct with that of the but without success. They stated that they town of Vevay, which not only refused to were dealers in lace, and had come to that admit them within its walls, but to allow district, where they knew it was made in them to purchase provisions. A courageous abundance, to make purchases. This was and zealous widow of that town, however, at not a very fortunate venture. An agent was inuch risk, went forth to them, and gave employed to offer them lace for sale, and they them comfort and aid. They tell us, that at once agreed to give him twice what the afterwards, when the rest of Vevay was article was worth a liberality which was by burned down, this widow's house was spared no means appreciated. They persisted, how- in the general conflagration ; and of course, ever, in their story; and one of them, who after the fashion of those times, it was imhad actually been a pedler in Languedoc, possible to avoid connecting the one circumproved satisfactorily to a brother of the stance with the other. ellwand that he was a true man, and obtained The failure of this attempt brought addihis testimony in their favor. They were ulti- tional gloom over the prospects of the wanmately released, and went to their brethren derers. The very success with which they with the information they bad collected. had conducted it so far, in making their The body at large resolved to make the ven- arrangements, and in marching silently to a ture, and managed secretly to collect hard- common centre, showed how formidable they baked bread for their subsistence, and make could make themselves. The Duke of Savoy other arrangements.
greatly increased the frontier forces, to interThe route they proposed to take was a very cept them in any future adventure. But, formidable one. They were to creep by night- what promised to be more calamitous, their journeys from their several places of abode, friends of the Protestant cantons were strongly dispersed among different cantons, to Bex, as a urged to abandon their cause, and were even general place of rendezvous ; and thence pass- told that unless they did so they must stand ing the Rhône at the neighboring bridge of under an accusation of having connived at St. Maurice, they were to cross the great St. their late attempt. The authorities of the Bernard - a perilous route, even to those who cantons felt that, in the conduct of the Walhave every appliance of the traveller, and are denses, they had a sufficiently good excuse for not afraid of pursuit. The plan, however, compliance with these demands. They aswas nipped in the bud. Some of the Wal- ! sumed the tone of persons who had been