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for a few years on this subject, may be considered as now at an end. On the authority of Mr. William B. Reed's reprint of his grandfather's letters from Washington, certain critics, known and unknown, attacked Mr. Sparks.


tending and impressing us, and that they are permitted to do so? Since the spirit-world is a world of "everlasting progression," the conclusion is to his mind perfectly rational and philosophical. It will be seen, then, that the senator is fairly in for the rappings. He does not cease now from his investigations, but promises if hereafter the preponderance of evidence shall incline to the other side, to announce that result as readily. Such a document as these letters constitute, would once have been deemed astonishing; but now they only strike us as additional evidences of the lamentable depths to which credulity will cast down the strongest minds when circumstances favor the fall. As to the mental questioning and the characteristic answers, have all seen children amusing themselves with putting questions to their dolls their mediums to which perfectly characteristic answers never failed to respond; but we were not wont to fancy that the spirits of dead babes answered for the little waxen images, nor that their baby talk should be quoted in evidence of a spiritual theory. When men who have been busy with the world, who have spent years in grappling its stern actualities, retire to their closets and encourage their lively imaginations to go out on exploring expeditions, they are not often destitute of very fanciful reports from the dreamland of their ramblings. We opine moreover that the old nursery rule would not work badly for the intelligence of this generation, which required that the dreamer should keep his dream to himself, as telling it bred a wilder one for the succeeding night. The ridiculers of the spiritual nonsense, sometimes by courtesy called philosophy, have given great weight to the fact that every age has its share of charlatans, mountebanks and deceivers. They have almost taken it for granted that those who plunged first into this stream that gushed out of Rochester were imposters. They might have been so, indeed. But, of these later converts, no sane man can entertain such a thought. There is no imposture possible in them. They are men of integrity. We know them to be honest. They believe what they say. They think they see the visions they tell us of. They think they hear the voices that resound only to their own ears. Alas! the more 's the pity! When men come to start at sounds to smile rapturously at sights not vouchsafed to others' eyes-pity, is the only emotion we experience. In their superior knowledge, we cannot envy them. Their more transcendent enjoyments we cannot coax ourselves to covet.

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1. For altering the text of Washington, in his edition.

2. For attempting to conceal opinions of Washington.

3. For varying from Judge Marshall's rule about passages omitted.

Mr. Sparks has replied on general grounds before. The publication now of an exact transcript of Mr. Reed's MSS. enables him to show further, in a pamphlet just published,

1. That Mr. Reed's own edition of those MSS. was less accurate than his.

2. That the most important passage of the alleged concealment, where "Connecticut" was printed by Mr. Sparks instead of "Continental," was Mr. Sparks' accuracy, and Mr. Reed's in-That 66 accuracy. Cobweb Scheme" one of original, and omitted by Mr. Reed. was in the Mr. Sparks' supposed additions

3. That Judge Marshall's habit in making omissions was exactly the same as Mr. Sparks'.

The curious reader finds also, in some hundred instances, specimens of the sort of variations between the letter books" Mr. Sparks' chief authority and the letters sent by Washington. But the instances above spoken of, on which so much of the controversy has hinged, are from MSS. not copied in the letter books.

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Mr. Sparks' last pamphlet has been called forth by Mr. William B. Reed's reprint of the original letters from Washington to Joseph Reed. It is a very thorough demolition of the whole case

against him; his single authority being the chief witness called by his critics.- Daily Advertiser.

D. D. Boston: for sale by Burnham & Brothers.
A History of England. By John Lingard,

Volume one of this standard work is just out. The whole, reprinted from the last revised London copy, will be embraced in thirteen volumes. Dr. Lingard is noted as the Catholic historian of England. He was always a conscientious member of the Romish church, although he never had any concern with its dignities or government. To some portions of English history, of course, he gives a different coloring from that of the other celebrated historians. His work, therefore, is valuable as presenting one side of certain mooted questions, while it is generally held to be eminently reliable wherever religious prejudices had no chance to intervene. The present edition is a cheap onebut the general appearance is quite neat. -the paper and type are poor,


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LITTLE AND BAD.- Lord Campbell has intimated that the civic parasites of Louis Napoleon have been guilty of high treason. Considering the littleness of the whole affair, we think petty treason would be the more appropriate name for it. - Punch.

From Household Words.

FIVE years and a half ago certain ladies, grieved to think that numbers of their own sex were wandering about the streets in degradation, passing through and through the prisons all their lives, or hopelessly perishing in other ways, resolved to try the experiment on a limited scale of a Home for the reclamation and emigration of women. As it was clear to them that there could be little or no hope in this country for the greater part of those who might become the objects of their charity, they determined to receive into their Home, only those who distinctly accepted this condition That they came there to be ultimately sent abroad (whither, was at the discretion of the ladies); and that they also came there, to remain for such length of time as might, according to the circumstances of each individual case, be considered necessary as a term of probation, and for instruction in the means of obtaining an honest livelihood. The object of the Home was two-fold. First, to replace young women who had already lost their characters and lapsed into guilt, in a situation of hope. Secondly, to save other young women who were in danger of falling into the like condition, and give them an opportunity of flying from crime when they and it stood face to face.

mitted to prison for disturbances in ill-conducted workhouses, poor girls from Ragged Schools, destitute girls who have applied at police offices for relief, young women from the streets; young women of the same class taken from the prisons after undergoing punishment there as disorderly characters, or for shoplifting, or for thefts from the person; domestic servants who have been seduced, and two young women held to bail for attempting suicide. No class has been favored more than another; and misfortune and distress are a sufficient introduction. It is not usual to receive women of more than five or six-andtwenty; the average age in the fifty-six cases would probably be about twenty. In some instances there have been great personal attractions; in others, the girls have been very homely and plain. The reception has been wholly irrespective of such sources of interest. Nearly all have been extremely ignorant.

Of these fifty-six cases, seven went away by their own desire during their probation; ten were sent away for misconduct in the Home; seven ran away; three emigrated and relapsed on the passage out; thirty (of whom seven are now married) on their arrival in Australia or elsewhere, entered into good service, acquired a good character, and have done so well ever since as to establish a strong prepossession in favor of others sent out from the same quarter. It will be seen from these figures that the failures are generally discovered in the Home itself, and that the amount of misconduct after the training and emigration, is remarkably small. And it is to be taken into consideration that many cases are admitted into the Home, of which there is, in the outset, very little hope, but which it is not deemed right to exclude from the experiment.

The Home is managed by two Superintendents. The second in order acts under the first, who has from day to day the supreme direction of the family. On the cheerfulness, quickness, good-temper, firmness and vigilance of these ladies, and on their never bickering, the successful working of the establishment in a great degree depends. Their position is one of high trust and responsibility, and requires not only an always accumulating experience, but an accurate observation of every character about them. The ladies who established the Home, hold little confidential communication with the inmates, thinking the

The projectors of this establishment, in undertaking it, were sustained by nothing but the high object of making some unhappy women a blessing to themselves and others instead of a curse, and raising up among the solitudes of a new world some virtuous homes, much needed there, from the sorrow and ruin of the old. They had no romantic visions or extravagant expectations. They were prepared for many failures and disappointments, and to consider their enterprise rewarded, if they in time succeeded with one third or one half the cases they received.

As the experience of this small Institution, even under the many disadvantages of a beginning may be useful and interesting, this paper will contain an exact account of its progress and results.

It was (and is) established in a detached house with a garden. The house was never designed for any such purpose, and is only adapted to it, in being retired and not immediately overlooked. It is capable of containing thirteen inmates besides two Super-system better administered when it is undisintendents. Excluding from consideration ten turbed by individuals. A committee, comyoung women now in the house, there have posed of a few gentlemen of experience, meets been received in all, since November eighteen once a month to audit the accounts, receive hundred and forty-seven, fifty-six inmates. the principal Superintendent's reports, invesThey have belonged to no particular class, tigate any unusual occurrence, and see all the but have been starving needlewomen of good inmates separately. None but the committee character, poor needle women who have robbed are present as they enter one by one, in order their furnished lodgings, violent girls com- that they may be under no restraint in any CCCCLXXII. LIVING AGE. VOL. I. 40

Saturday is devoted to an extraordinary cleaning up and polishing of the whole establishment, and to the distribution of clean clothes; every inmate arranging and preparing her own. Each girl also takes a bath on Saturday.

thing they wish to say. A complaint from | evening, they sit all together at needlework, any of them is exceedingly uncommon. The and some one reads aloud. The books are history of every inmate, taken down from her carefully chosen, but are always interesting. own mouth-usually after she has been some little time in the Home-is preserved in a book. She is shown that what she relates of herself she relates in confidence, and does not even communicate to the Superintendents. She is particularly admonished by no means to communicate her history to any of the other inmates; all of whom have in their turns received a similar admonition. And she is encouraged to tell the truth, by having it explained to her that nothing in her story but falsehood can possibly affect her position in the Home after she has been once admitted. The work of the Home is thus divided. They rise, both in summer and winter, at six o'clock. Morning prayers and Scripture reading take place at a quarter before eight. Breakfast is had immediately afterwards. Dinner at one. Tea at six. Evening prayers are said at half-past eight. The hour of going to bed is nine. Supposing the Home to be full, ten are employed upon the household work; two in the bed-rooms; two in the general living room; two in the Superintendents' rooms; two in the kitchen (who cook); two in the scullery; three at needlework. Straw-plaiting has been occasionally taught besides. On washing-days, five are employed in the laundry, three of whom are taken from the needle-work, and two are told off from the household-work. The nature and order of each girl's work is changed every week, so that she may become practically acquainted with the whole routine of household duties. They take it in turns to bake the bread which is eaten in the house. In every room, every Monday morning, there is hung up, framed and glazed, the names of the girls who are in charge there for the week, and who are, consequently, responsible for its neat condition and the proper execution of the work belonging to it. This is found to inspire them with a greater pride in good housewifery, and a greater sense of shame in the reverse.

The book-education is of a very plain kind, as they have generally much to learn in the commonest domestic duties, and are often singularly inexpert in acquiring them. They read and write, and cipher. School is held every morning at half-past ten (Saturday excepted) for two hours. The Superintendents are the teachers. The times for recreation are half an hour between school time and dinner, and an hour after dinner; half an hour before tea, and an hour after tea. In the winter, these intervals are usually employed in light fancy work, the making of little presents for their friends, &c. In the fine summer weather they are passed in the garden, where they take exercise, and have their little flower-beds. In the afternoon and

On Sundays they go to church in the neighborhood, some to morning service, some to afternoon service, some to both. They are invariably accompanied by one of the Superintendents. Wearing no uniform and not being dressed alike, they attract little notice out of doors. Their attire is that of respectable plain servants. On Sunday evenings they receive religious instruction from the principal Superintendent. They also receive regular religious instruction from a clergyman on one day in every week, and on two days in every alternate week. They are constantly employed, and always overlooked.

They are allowed to be visited under the following restrictions; if by their parents, once in a month; if by other relatives or friends, once in three months. The principal Superintendent is present at all such interviews, and hears the conversation. It is not often found that the girls and their friends have much to say to one another; any display of feeling on these occasions is rare. It is generally observed that the inmates seem rather relieved than otherwise when the interviews are over.

They can write to relatives, or old teachers, or persons known to have been kind to them, once a month on application to the committee. It seldom happens that a girl who has any person in the world to correspond with fails to take advantage of this opportunity. All letters despatched from the Home are read and posted by the principal Superintendent. All letters received are likewise read by the Superintendent; but she does not open them. Every such letter is opened by the girl to whom it is addressed, who reads it first, in the Superintendent's presence. It never happens that they wish to reserve the contents; they are always anxious to impart them to her immediately. This seems to be one of their chief pleasures in receiving letters.

They make and mend their own clothes, but do not keep them. In many cases they are not for some time to be trusted with such a charge; in other cases, when temper is awakened, the possession of a shawl and bonnet would often lead to an abrupt departure, which the unfortunate creature would ever afterwards regret. To distinguish between these cases and others of a more promising nature, would be to make invidious distinctions, than which nothing could be more prejudicial to the Home, as the objects of its

care are invariably sensitive and jealous. For girl are withheld until she emigrates, in order these various reasons their clothes are kept to form a little fund for her first subsistence under lock and key in a wardrobe room. on her disembarkation. The inmates are They have a great pride in the state of their found without an exception to value their clothes, and the neatness of their persons. marks highly. A bad mark is very infre Those who have no such pride on their admis- quent, and occasions great distress in the sion, are sure to acquire it. recipient and great excitement in the comFormerly, when a girl accepted for admis- munity. In case of dismissal or premature sion had clothes of her own to wear, she was departure from the Home, all the previous allowed to be admitted in them, and they gain in marks is forfeited. If a girl be ill were put by for her; though within the In-through no fault of her own, she is marked, stitution she always wore the clothing it pro- during her illness, according to her average vides. It was found, however, that a girl marking. But if she is ill through her own with a hankering after old companions rather act (as in a recent case, where a girl set relied on these reserved clothes, and that she herself on fire, through carelessness and a put them on with an air, if she went away or violation of the rules of the house) she is were dismissed. They now invariably come, credited with no marks until she is again in therefore, in clothes belonging to the Home, a condition to earn them. The usual earnings and bring no other clothing with them. A in a year are about equal to the average suit of the commonest apparel has been pro- wages of the commoner class of domestic vided for the next inmate who may leave servant. during her probation, or be sent away; and it is thought that the sight of a girl departing so disgraced, will have a good effect on those who remain. Cases of dismissal or departure are becoming more rare, however, as the Home increases in experience, and no occasion for making the experiment has yet arisen.

When the Home had been opened for some time, it was resolved to adopt a modification of Captain Macconnochie's inark system; so arranging the mark-table as to render it difficult for a girl to lose marks under any one of its heads, without also losing under nearly all the others. The mark-table is divided into the nine following heads. Truthfulness, Industry, Temper, Propriety of Conduct and Conversation, Temperance, Order, Punctuality, Economy, Cleanliness. The word Tenperance is not used in the modern slang acceptation, but in its enlarged meaning as defined by Johnson, from the English of Spenser: Moderation, patience, calmness, sedateness, moderation of passion." A separate account for every day is kept with every girl as to each of these items. If her conduct be without objection, she is marked in each column, three-excepting the truthfulness and temperance columns in which, saving under extraordinary circumstances, she is only marked two: the temptation to err in those particulars, being considered low under the circumstances of the life she leads in the Home If she be particularly deserving under any of the other heads, she is marked the highest number-four. If her deserts be low, she is marked only one, or not marked at all. If her conduct under any head have been, daring the day, particularly objectionable, she receives a bad mark (marked in red ink, to distinguish it at a glance from the others) which destroys forty good marks. The value of the good marks is six shillings and sixpence per thousand; the earnings of each

They are usually brought to the Home by the principal Superintendent in a coach. From wheresoever they come, they generally weep on the road, and are silent and depressed. The average term of probation is about a year; longer when the girl is very slow to learn what she is taught. When the time of her emigration arrives, the same lady accompanies her on board ship. They usually go out, three or four together, with a letter of recommendation to some influential person at their destination; sometimes they are placed under the charge of a respectable family of emigrants; sometimes they act as nurses or as servants to individual ladies with children, on board. In these capacities they have given great satisfaction. Their grief at parting from the Superintendent is always strong, and frequently of a heart-rending kind. They are also exceedingly affected by their separation from the Home; usually going round and round the garden first, as if they clung to every tree and shrub in it. Nevertheless, individual attachments among them are rare, though strong affections have arisen when they have afterwards encountered in distant solitudes. Some touching circumstances have occurred, where unexpected recognitions of this kind have taken place on Sundays in lonely churches to which the various members of the little congregations have repaired from great distances. Some of the girls now married have chosen old companions thus encountered for their bridesmaids, and in their letters have described their delight very pathetically.

A considerable part of the needle-work done in the Home is necessary to its own internal neatness, and the preparation of out fits for the emigrants; especially as many of the inmates know little or nothing of suak work, and have it all to learn. But, as they become more dexterous, plain work is tala

in, and the proceeds are applied as a fund to defray the cost of outfits. The outfits are always of the simplest kind. Nothing is allowed to be wasted or thrown away in the Home. From the bones, and remnants of food, the girls are taught to make soup for the poor and sick. This at once extends their domestic knowledge, and preserves their sympathy for the distressed.


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that they can get the better of the management. Judicious commendation, when it is deserved, has a very salutary influence. It is also found that a serious and urgent entreaty to a girl, to exercise her self-restraint on some point (generally temper) on which her marktable shows her to be deficient, often has an excellent effect when it is accompanied with such encouragement as, "You know how Some of the experiences, not already men- changed you are since you have been here; tioned, that have been acquired in the man- you know we have began to entertain great agement of the Home are curious, and hopes of you. For God's sake consider! Do perhaps deserving of consideration in prisons not throw away this great chance of your and other institutions. It has been observed, life, by making yourself and everybody in taking the histories especially of the around you unhappy-which will oblige us more artful cases that nothing is so likely to send you away. but conquer this. Now, to elicit the truth as a perfectly imperturb- try hard for a month, and pray let us have no able face, and an avoidance of any leading fault to find with you at the end of that question or expression of opinion. Give the time." Many will make great and successful narrator the least idea what tone will make efforts to control themselves, after such reher an object of interest, and she will take it monstrance. In all cases, the fewest and directly. Give her none, and she will be plainest words are the best. When new to driven on the truth, and in most cases will the place, they are found to break and spoil tell it. For similar reasons it is found desir- through great carelessness. Patience, and the able always to repress stock religious profes- strictest attention to order and punctuality, sions and religious phrases; to discourage will in most cases overcome these discourageshows of sentiment, and to make their lives ments. Nothing else will. They are often practical and active. "Don't talk about it rather disposed to quarrel among themselves, do it!" is the motto of the place. The particularly in bad weather when their lives inmates find everywhere about them the same are necessarily monotonous and confined; kind discriminating firmness, and the same but, on the whole, allowing for their different determination to have no favorite subjects, breeding, they perhaps quarrel less than the or favorite objects, of interest. Girls from average of passengers in the state cabin on a Ragged Schools are not generally so im- voyage out to India. pressible as reduced girls who have failed to As some of the inmates of the Home have support themselves by hard work, or as women to be saved and guarded from themselves from the streets probably, because they more than from any other people, they can have suffered less. The poorest of the Ragged scarcely be defended by too many precautions. School condition, who are odious to approach These precautions are not obtruded upon them, when first picked up, invariably affect after- but are strictly observed. Keys are never wards that their friends are "well off." This left about. The garden gate is always kept psychological curiosity is considered inexpli- locked; but the girls take it in turn to act cable. Most of the inmates are depressed at as porteress, overlooked by the second superfirst. At holiday times the more doubtful intendent. They are proud of this trust. part of them usually become restless and Any inmate missing from her usual place for uncertain; there would also appear to be, ten minutes would be looked after. Any sususually, a time of considerable restlessness picious circumstance would be quickly and after six or eight months. In any little diffi- quietly investigated. As no girl makes her culty, the general feeling is invariably with own bed, no girl has the opportunity of safely the establishment and never with the offender. hiding any secret correspondence, or anything When a girl is discharged for misconduct, else, in it. Each inmate has a separate bed, she is generally in deep distress, and goes but there are several beds in a room. The away miserable. The rest will sometimes occupants of each room are always arranged intercede for her with tears; but it is found with a reference to their several characters that firmness on this and every point, when a and counteracting influences. A girl declardecision is once taken, is the most humane ing that she wishes to leave, is not allowed to course, as having a wholesome influence on do so hastily, but is locked in a chamber by the greatest number For this reason, a herself, to consider of it until next day: mere threat of discharge is never on any when, if she still persist, she is formally disaccount resorted to. Two points of manage charged. It has never once happened that a ment are extremely important; the first, to girl, however excited, has refused to submit refer very sparingly to the past; the second, to this restraint. never to treat the inmates as children. They must never be allowed to suppose it possible

One of the most remarkable effects of the Home, even in many of the cases where it does

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