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On the Scharfherg I had a hay-litter in a and among the echoes, we arrived at the wooden shed and ate goat's cheese and bread mouth of the first shaft, named Freudenberg: and butter. I saw no sunset or sunrise, but The method of descent is called the “ Rolle. had a night of wind and rain, and came down It is both simple and efficacious. Down the in the morning through white mist within a steep slope of the shaft, and at an angle, in rugged guily ploughed up by the rain, to get this case, of forty-one and a half degrees, run a wholesome breakfast at St. Gilgen on the two smooth railways parallel with each other, lake. More I need not say about the journey and each of about the thickness of a scaffold than that, on the fifth day after leaving pole ; they are twelve inches apart, and run Ebensee, having rested a little in the very together down the shaft like two sides of a beautiful city of Salzburg, I marched into the thick ladder without the intervening, rounds. town of Hallein, at the foot of the Dürrnberg, Following the directions and example of the the famous salt mountain, called Tumal by old foremost guide, we sat astride one behind the chroniclers, and known for a salt mountain other on this wooden tramway, and slid very seven hundred and thirty years ago.
comfortably to the bottom, regulating our After a night's rest in the town, I was astir speed with our hands. The shalt itself was by five o'clock in the morning, and went for only of the width necessary to allow room for ward on my visit to the mines. In the case our passage. In this way we descended to of the Durrnberg salt mine, as I have already the next chamber in the mountain, at a depth said, the miner enters at the top and comes of a hundred and forty feet (perpendicular) out at the bottom. My first business, there- from the top of the long slide. fore, was to walk up the mountain, the ap- We then stood in a low-roofed chamber, proach to which is by a long slope of about small enough to be lighted throughout by the four English miles.
dusky glare of our two candles. The walls I met few miners by the way, and noticed and roof sparkled with brown and purple in them few peculiarities of manners or cos- colors, showing the unworked stratum of tume. The national dress about these regions rock-salt. We stood then at the head of the is a sort of cross between the Swiss Alpine Untersteinberghauptstulin, and after a glance costume and a common peasant dress of the back at the narrow slit in the solid limestone lowlands. I saw indications of the sugar- through which we had just descended, we loafed bat; jackets were worn almost by all, pursued our way along a narrow gallery of with knee-breeches and colored leggings. irregular level for a further distance of six The clothing was always neat and sound, and hundred and sixty feet. A second shaft there the clothed bodies looked reasonably healthy, opened us a passage into the deeper regions except that they had all remarkably pale of the mine. With a boyish pleasure we all faces. The miners did not seem bodily to seated ourselves again upon a " Rolle” — this suffer from their occupation.
time upon the Johann-Jacob-berg-rolle, which As I approached the summit of the Dürrn- is laid at an angle of forty-five and a half berg, the dry, brownish limestone showed its degrees - and away we slipped to the next bare front to the morning sun. I entered the level, which is at the perpendicular depth of offices, partly contained in the rock, and ap- another couple of hundred feet. plied for adınission into the dominion of the We alighted in another chamber, where our gnomes. My arrival was quite in the nick of candles inade the same half gloom, with their time, for I had not to be kept waiting, as I ruddy glare into the darkness, where there happened to complete the party of twelve, was the same sombre glittering upon the without which the two guides do not start. walls and ceiling. We pursued our track It was a Tower of London business ; and, as along a devious cutting, haunted by confused at the Tower, the demand upon our purses and giant shadows, suddenly passing black was not very heavy. One gulden-schein cavernous sideways that startled us as we about tenpence
is the regulated fee. Our came upon them, and I began to expect full titles having been duly put down in the mummies, for I thought myself for one minuto register, each of us was furnished with a within an old Egyptian catacomb. After ininer's costume, and, so habited, off we set. traversing a further distance of two thousand
We started from a point that is called the seven hundred feet we halted at the top of the Obersteinberghauptstollen ; our guides only third slide, the Königs-rolle. That shot us having candles, one in advance, the other in fifty-four feet deeper into the heart of the the rear.
nountain. We had become quite expert at We were sensible of a pleasant coldness in our exercise, and had left off considering, amid the air when we had gone a little way into all these descents and traverses, what might the sloping tunnel. The tunnel was "lofty, be our real position in the bowels of the earth. wide, and dry. Having walked downwards Perhaps we might get down to Aladdin's gar on a gentle decline for a distance of nearly den and find trees loaded with emerald and threo thousand feet through the half gloom ruby fruits. It was quite possible, for there
was something very cabalistic, very strong of of which all our lights did not serve to define. onchantment, in the word Konhauserankehr- The boat reached the place for embarcation, schachtricht, the name given to the portion and we, wandering ghosts, half walked and of the mine which we were then descending. were half carried into its broad clumsy hulk, Konhauser-return-shaft is, I think, however, and took each his allotted seat in ghostly about the meaning of that compound word. silence. There was something really terrible
So far I had felt nothing like real cold, in it all; in the slow funereal pace at which although I had been promised a wintry we floated across the subterranean lake ; in atmosphere. Possibly with a miner's dress the dead quiet among us, only interrupted by over my ordinary clothing, and with plenty the slow plunge of the car into the sickly of exercise, there was enough to counteract waters. In spite of all the lights that had the effects of the chill air. But our eyes began been kindled we were still in a thick vapor to ache at the uncertain light, and we all of darkness, and could form but a dreainy straggled irregularly along the smooth cut notion of the beauty and the grandeur of the shaft level for another sixty feet, and so crystal dome within which we men from the reached the Konhauser-rolle, the fourth slide upper earth were hidden from our fellows. we had encountered in our progress.
The lights were flared aloft as we crept slugThat cheered us up a little, as it shot us gishly across the lake, and now and then were down another one hundred and eight feet fashed back from a hanging stalactite, but perpendicular depth to the Soolererzeugungs- that was all. The misty darkness about us werk-Konhauser - surely a place nearer than brought to the fancy at the same time fearful ever to the magic regions of Abracadabra. images, and none of us were sorry when we If not Aladdin's garden, something wonderful reached the other shore in safety. There a ought surely by this time to have been rich glow of light awaited us, and there we reached. I was alive to any sight or sound, were told a famous tale about the last archand was excited by the earnest whispering of ducal visit to these salt mines, when some thoumy fellow-adventurers, and the careful direc- sands of lighted tapers glittered and flashed tions as to our progress given by the guides about him, and exhibited the vaulted roof and and light-bearers.
spangled lake in all their beauty. As we With eager rapidity we flitted among the were not archdukes, we had our Hades black shadows of the cavern, till we reached lighted only by a pound of short sixteens. a winding flight of giant steps. We mounted We left the lake behind us, and then, trapthem with desperate excitement, and at the ersing a further distance of seventy feet summit halted, for we felt that there was along the Wehrschachtricht, arrived at the space before our faces, and had been told that mouth of the Konhauser Stiege. Another those stairs led to a mid-mountain lake, nine rapid descent of forty-five feet at an angle of bundred and sixty feet below the mountain's fifty degrees, and we then reached Ruperttop ; two hundred and forty feet above its schachtricht, a long cavern of the extent of base. Presently, through the darkness, we five hundred and sixty feet, through which porceived at an apparently interminable dis- we toiled with a growing sense of weariness. tance a few dots of light, that shed no lustre, We had now come to the top of the last and and could help us in no way to pierce the longest "slide" in the whole Dürrnberg. It pitchy gloom of the great cavern. The lights is called the Wolfdietrichderg-rolle, and is were not interminably distant, for they were four hundred and sixty-eight feet long, upon the other shore, and this gnome lake carrying us two hundred and forty feet lower is but a mere drop of water in the mountain down into the mountain. We went down this mass, its length' being three hundred and slide" with the alacrity of school-boys, one thirty, and its breadth one hundred and sixty after another keeping the pot boiling, and feet.
all regulating our movements with great cirOur guides lighted more candles, and we cumspection, for we knew that we had far to began to see their rays reflected from the go and we could never see more than a few water ; we could hear too the dull splashing yards before us. of the boat, which we could not see, as old Having gained the ground beneath in Charon slowly ferried to our shore. More safety, our attention was drawn to a fresh lights were used; they flashed and dickered water well or spring, sunk in this spot at from the opposite ferry station, and we began great cost by order of the archduko, and to have an indistinct sense of a spangled dome, blessed among miners. Amid all the stone and of an undulating surface of thick, black and salt and brine, a gush of pure fresh water water, through which the coming boat loomed at our feet was very welcome to us all. The darkly. More candles were lighted on both well was suuk, however, to get water that sides of the Konhauser lake, a very Styx, was necessary for the mining operations. We defying all the illuminating force of candles, did not see any of these operations underdead and dark in its dim cave, even the limits ground, for they are not exhibited; the showtrip underground is only among the ventilat-promised us a rapid journey: In another ing shafts and galleries. Through the dark ininute, and we were whirring down an incline openings by which we had passed, we should with a rush and a rattle, through the subterhave found our way (had we been permitted) ranean passage tunnelled into solid limestone to the miners. I have seen them working in which runs to the outer edge of the Dürrnthe Tyrol, and their labors are extreinely berg. The length of this tunnel is considersimple. Some of the rock-salt is quarried in ably more than an English mile. transparent crystals, that undergo only the The reverberation and the want of light process of crushing before they are sent into were nothing, but we were disagreeably senthe market as an article of commerce. Very sible of a cloud of fine stone dust, and knew little of this grain salt is seen in England, but well that we should come out not only stone on the continent it may be found in some of deaf, but as white as millers. Clinging to the first hotels, and on the tables of most our seats with a cowardly instinct, down we families. It is cheaper than the loaf salt, and went through a hurricane of sound and dust. is known in Germany under the title of At length we were sensible of a diminution in salzkorn, and in France, as selle de cuisine. In our speed, and the confusion of noises 80 far order to obtain a finer grained and better salt, ceased, that we could hear the panting of our it is necessary that the original salt-crystals biped cattle. Then, straight before us, shinshould be dissolved, and for this purpose ing in the centre of the pitchy darkness, there parallel galleries are run into the rock, and was a bright blue star suddenly apparent. there is dug in each of them a dyke or cistern. One of the poor lads in the whisper of exhausThese dykes are then Aushed with water, tion, and between his broken pantings for which is allowed to remain in them undis- breath, told us that they always know when turbed for the space of from five to twelve they have got half way by the blue star, for months, according to to the richness of the that is the daylight shining in. soil; and, being then thoroughly saturated A little necessary rest, and we were off with the salt that it has taken up, the brine is again, the blue star before us growing graddrawn off through wooden pipes from Hallein ually paler, and expanding and still growing over hill and dale into the evaporating pans. whiter, till with an uncontrollable dash, and
We had traversed the last level, and had a concussion, we are thrown within a few feet reached what is generally called the end of of the broad incomparable daylight. With the salt-mine ; but we were still a long way how much contempt of candles did I look up distant from the pure air and the sunshine. at the noonday sun! The two lads, streamWe had travelled through seven galleries of ing with perspiration, who had dragged us an aggregate length of nearly two miles : we down the long incline were made happy by had floated across an earthy piece of water; the payment we all gladly offered for their had followed one another down six slides, and services. Then, as we passed out of the had penetrated to the depth of twelve hundred mouth of the shaft, by a rude chamber cut out feet into the substance of the mountain lime- of the rock, we were induced to pause and stone, gypsum, and marl. Having done all purchase from a family of miners who reside this, there we were in the very heart of the there a little box of salt crystals, as a memenDürrnberg, left by our guides, and entrusted to of our visit. Truly we must have been to the care of two lank lads with haggard among the gnomes, for when I had reached faces. We stood together in a spacious the inn I spread the brilliant crystals I had cavern, poorly lighted by our candles : there brought home with me on my bedroom winwas a line of tram-rail running through the dow sill, and there they sparkled in the sun iniddle of it and we soon saw the carriage and twinkled rainbows, changing and shifting that was to take us out of the mountain emerg. their bright colors as though there were a liring from a dark nook in the distance. It was ing imp at work within. But when I got up a truck with seats upon it, economically ar- next morning and looked for my crystals, in ranged after the fashion of an Irish jaunting the place where each had stood, I found only
The two lads were to be our horses, a little slop of brine. That fact may, I have and our way lay through a black hollow in no doubt, be accounted for by the philosoone side of the cavern, into which the tram- phers; but I prefer to think that it was some
thing wondrous strange, and that I fare: We took our seats, instructed to sit perfectly marvellously like people of whom I had read still, and to restrain our legs and arms from in German tales, how they received gifts from any straggling. There was no room to spare the good people who live in the bowels of the in the shast we were about to traverse. Our earth, and what became of them. I have bad car was run on to the tram-line, and the two my experiences, and I do not choose to be sure lads, with a sickly smile, and a broad hint at whether those tales are altogether founded their expected gratuity, began to pull, and I upon fancy.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE TIMES.
THE LAW ABOUT BETTING ON PUBLIC ing, a soldier of high rank in the service has AFFAIRS.
in some measure in his own power means of provocation and opportunities of giving of
fence, which might be made matters of excuse Sir, — Will you allow me to draw the atten- for that very attempt at an invasion which is tion of your readers and yourselves to a few the subject of his bet. He has no right to put
that show how careful our law has himself before the public in such a position ever been to discountenance such silly and as to make it possible that the faintest shado mischievous wagers as that which Mr. Cobden of such a suspicion should attach to him; and is making with General Brotherton ?
however upright, highminded, and honorable Before quoting a case, I may mention that (as, thank God, we know them to be) our in the seventh year of Queen Anne's reign, 80 soldiers are, it is not the less public policy general do wagers of this kind appear to have and public duty to restrain them from placing become, and the mischief of them so apparent, themselves wantonly in the way of temptation. that an act was passed actually prohibiting It is not to the public advantage that any them under a penalty.
subject, be he civil or military, should have a This act, it appears, only applied to the large direct pecuniary interest in the invasion then existing war, and, after reciting that of his country being attempted. “ Whereas several persons have of late years
There is another case of still closer analolaid
Wagers and executed policies for payment sy, in which, although no judgment was of great sums of money upon contingencies given, the majority of the judges were against relating to the present war, which practice the validity of the wager. It is that of • Fors. has been found inconvenient to the public," it ter v. Thackeray,” cited in “ Allen v. Hearn," was enacted that after a certain day in 1709, 1 Term Reports. That was “a wager that all wagers relating to the war, and all policies war would be declared against France within of assurance for payment thereof, should be three months. The opinion of the twelve void, and all persons making such wagers judges was taken on the point whether the should forfeit double the sum of such wager, wager were void. The Courts of B. R. and one half to the Queen, the other to the prose-C. P. were of opinion that it was, and the cutor. This act expired with the war. Court of Exchequer contra. No judgment
Perhaps the best known case in which a was given.” gambling agreement of the present kind was Such wagers, then, appear to have been at held void as contrary to sound public policy one time prohibited by a penalty, and if, when is the case of “ Gilbert v. Sykes.” This case occurring after that prohibition was removed, is to be found in the 16th volume of East's they were not always put a stop to, they were, Reports, and bears the following marginal at least, always questioned, and inostly disnote—“A wager by which the defendant re- couraged. ceived from the plaintiff 100 guineas on the
I am, Sir, yours, 31st of May, 1802, in consideration of paying
A BARRISTER. the plaintiif a guinea a day as long as Napoleon Bonaparte (then First Consul of the Republic) should live, which bet arose out of a A CORRESPONDENT of the New York Observer conversation upon the probability of his com- objects to the title Reverend being applied to ing to a violent death by assassination or
He says : otherwise, is void on the grounds of immoral- “Where is the scriptural or ecclesiastical anity and impolicy."
thority for licensing and ordaining women to Lord Ellenborough, in his judgment, com- preach the gospel ? I have endeavored to ex. ments, on the one hand, on the adverse in-amine the Bible prayerfully on this subject ; I terest which the loss of an annuity of 365 can find no authority or warrant for any such guineas a year, dependent upon thỏ French order of ministers or bishops ; and, as far as I ruler's life, might arouse in the mind of a have examined ecclesiastical history, I still resubject of this country to the performance of main in the dark.. I need more information, his duty in case of an invasion by that ruler ; tiates, ministers, or bishops. It causes me to
before I can fellowship any such order of licenand, on the other hand, upon the temptation feel very unpleasant when I meet with such charto encourage so foul a crime as assassination, I acters."; or, at all events, to countenance the idea of it.
The Observer adds: “We are not enough in And he says, “ Is it to be allowed to a subject to say that the moral duties which bind advance of our friend to give him any informaman to man are in no hazard of being neg approved bishop, enumerated by Paul, which we
tion. But there is one of the qualifications of the lected when put in competition with individ- do not see how these feminine licentiates are to ual interest?
acquire – viz., that a bishop must be the This general objection, sir, I think, may husband of one wife.” We fear this text was well be applied to the case before us. As I not duly considered by the association that lithink you said in your article of this morn-censed the candidates referred to. — Ev. Posl.
LITTELL'S LIVING AGE.— No. 466.- 23 APRIL, 1853.
POETRY : Friend Sorrow, 215; On the Marriage of Napoleon III., 221 ; Haunted Ground,
225 ; Elegy written in a Railway Station, 236. SHORT ARTICLES : Prediction, 254 ; Lamartine's Eastern Estate, 256.
AN EVENING CONTEMPLATION IN A How jocund are their looks when dinner calls !
How smoke the cutlets on their crowded plate ! COLLEGE.
Oh ! let not Temperance, too disdainful, hear BY JOHN DUNCOMBE.
How long their feasts, how long their dinners, The curfew tolls the hour of closing gates ;
last : With jarring sound the porter turns the key, Nor let the fair, with a contemptuous sneer, Then in his dreary mansion slumbering waits,
On these unmarried men reflections cast! And slowly, sternly, quits it, though for me.
The splendid fortune, and the beauteous face Now shine the spires beneath the paly moon,
(Themselves confess it, and their sires bemoan) And through the cloisters peace and silence Too soon are caught by scarlet and by lace ; reign ;
These sons of science shine in black alone. Save where some fiddler scrapes a drowsy tune, Forgive, ye fair, th' involuntary fault, Or copious bowls inspire a jovial strain ;
If these no feats of gayety display,
Where through proud Ranelagh's wide-echoing Save that in yonder cobweb-mantled room,
vault Where sleeps a student in profound reposo,
Melodious Frasi trills her quavering lay. Oppressed with ale, wide echoes through the gloom
Say, is the sword well suited to the band ? The droning music of his vocal nose.
Does 'broidered coat agree with sable gown?
Can Mechlin laces shade a churchman's hand ? Within those walls, where through the glimmer
Or Learning's votaries ape the beaux of town? ing shade Appear the pamphlets in a mouldering heap, Perhaps in these time-tottering walls reside Each in his narrow bed till morning laid,
Some who were once the darlings of the fair, The peaceful fellows of the college sleep. Some who of old could tastes and fashions guide,
Control the manager, and awe the player. The tinkling bell proclaiming early prayers,
The noisy servants rattling o'er their head, But Science now has filled their vacant mind The calls of business, and domestic cares,
With Rome's rich spoils, and Truth's exalted Ne’er rouse these sleepers from their downy
Fired them with transports of a nobler kind,
And bade them slight all females — but the No chatting females crowd their social fire,
No dread have they of discord and of strife, Unknown the names of husband and of sire, Full many a lark, high towering to the sky Unfelt the plagues of matrimonial life.
Unheard, unheeded, greets the approach of
light ; Oft have they basked beneath the sunny walls, Full many a star, unseen by mortal eye, Oft have the benches bowed beneath their With twinkling lustre glimmers through the weight;
night. CCCCLXVI. LIVING AGE, VOL. I.