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is, encouraging and persuading us to address God as our Father through faith. This is easily distinguished from the intercession which Christ makes for us in his sacerdotal capacity.

THE KINGLY FUNCTION of Christ is that whereby BEING MADE KING BY GOD THE FATHER, HE GOVERNS AND PRESERVES, CHIEFLY BY AN INWARD LAW AND SPIRITUAL POWER, THE CHURCH WHICH HE HAS PURCHASED FOR HIMSELF, AND CONQUERS AND SUBDUES ITS ENEMIES.

MADE KING BY GOD THE FATHER. Psal. i. 6. "I have set my King upon my holy hill.” cx. 1. compared with Matt. xxii. 44. “ the Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand.” Ezek. xxxvii. 25. “my servant David shall be their prince for ever.” Dan. ii. 44. the God of heaven shall set up a kingdom.” vii. 14. “ there was given him dominion.” Matt. xi. 27. “all things are delivered unto me

of
my

Father.” xxviii. 18. “all power is given unto me.

Luke i. 32. “the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David, and he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever, and of his kingdom there shall be no end.” Eph. i. 20—22. when he set him at his own right hand. ... far above all principality-.” Rev. i. 5. "prince of the kings of the earth.” xix. 16. “ King of kings.

His CHURCH. Psal. ii. 6. “yet have I set my King upon my holy hill of Sion.” Matt. ii. 5, 6. “ thus it is written by the prophet. ... out of thee shall come a governor, that shall rule my people Israel.” Luke i. 33. " he shall reign over the house of Jacob.” Eph. i.22. “who gave him to be the head over all things, to the church. Col. i. 18. “he is the head of the body, the church.” CHIEFLY BY AN INWARD) LAW.

Jer. xxxi. 31, 32. compared with Heb. viii. 8. and x. 16. “this is the covenant that I will make with them.... I will put my laws into their hearts.” Luke xvii. 21. “behold the kingdom of God is within you.” John iv. 23, 24. “in spirit and in truth.” xviii. 36. " my kingdom is not of this world ; if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight.” Hence the law of the kingdom, the gift of the Spirit, was given at Jerusalem on the fiftieth day from the crucifixion, as the Mosaic law was given on the fiftieth day from the passover in Mount Sinai, Acts ii. 1. in sign that the old law was superseded by the new, the law of bondage and of the flesh by the law of the Spirit and of freedom. Rom. xiv. 17. “the king

dom of heaven is not meat and drink, but righteousness and peace and joy in the Holy Ghost.” Psal. lxviii

. 18. compared with Eph. iv. 8. " he gave gifts unto men,” that is, spiritual gifts. Accordingly, the weapons of those who fight under Christ as their King are exclusively spiritual. 2. Cor. x. 4. 1 John v. 4. “this is the victory that overcometh the world.” Herein it is that the pre-eminent excellency of Christ's kingdom over all others, as well as the divine principles on which it is founded, are manifested ; inasmuch as he governs not the bodies of men alone, as the civil magistrate, but their minds and consciences, and that not by force and fleshly weapons, but by what the world esteems the weakest of all instruments.' Hence external force ought never to be employed in the administration of the kingdom of Christ, which is the church. GOVERNS AND PRESERVES. Isai. ix. 6, 7. “ Counsellor

the Prince of peace : of the increase of his government and peace

there shall be no end.” Jer. xxiii. 5, 6. " in his days Judah shall be saved.” John X. 28. “ neither shall any man pluck them out of my hand.” Heb. vii. 2. “ the King of righteousness. ... King of peace."

OVERCOMES AND SUBDUES HIS ENEMIES. Psal. ii. 9. “thou shalt break them with a rod of iron,” namely, at his second coming. Psal. cx. 1, 2. compared with Matt. xxii. 44. Dan. ii. 44. - it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms.” The world ; John xvi. 33. and 1 John v. 4. Death, and the law, and sin ; 1 Cor. xv. 26, 54–57. “the sting of death is sin, and the strength of sin is the law : but thanks be to God which giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus

Satan; Rom. xvi. 20. Luke xix. 27. “ those mine enemies which would not that I should reign over them, bring hither.” Rev. xxii. 14. “ the Lamb shall overcome them.” The kingdom of Christ is also styled the kingdom of grace,

. To guide nations in the way of truth
By saving doctrine, and from error lead
To know, and knowing worship God aright,
Is yet more kingly; this attracts the soul,
Governs the inner man, the nobler part;
That other o'er the body only reigns,
And oft by force, which to a generous mind,
So reigning, can be no sircere delight.

Paradise Regained, II. 473.

by small
· Accomplishing great things, by things deem'd weak

Subverting worldly strong. Paradise Lost, XII. 564.

Christ.”

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and the kingdom of glory. The kingdom of grace is the same as the kingdom of heaven, which is at hand. Matt. ii. 2. The kingdom of glory is that which is destined to be made more manifest at his second advent.

The kingdom of Christ, as appears from the authorities just quoted, is, like his priesthood, eternal; that is, it will endure as long as the world shall last, and as long as there shall be occasion for his mediatorial office. This is clearly taught by the apostle, 1 Cor. xv. 24, 28. “then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father. ... and shall also himself be subject unto him ;" in like manner as a period is assigned to his priestly office (although that also is called eternal) as well as to his prophetical office, that God may be all in all. See more on this subject in the last chapter of the present book, on the kingdom of Christ in glory.

CHAP. XVI.–OF THE MINISTRY OF REDEMPTION. HAVING treated of the mediatorial office, and its threefold functions, we are now to consider the manner in which it is discharged. This includes the state of humiliation to which our Redeemer submitted, as well as his state of exaltation.

THE HUMILIATION OF CHRIST is that state in which UNDER HIS CHARACTER OF GOD-MAN HE VOLUNTARILY SUBMITTED HIMSELF TO THE DIVINE JUSTICE, AS WELL IN LIFE AS IN DEATH, FOR THE PURPOSE OF UNDERGOING ALL THINGS REQUISITE TO ACCOMPLISH OUR REDEMPTION.

UNDER IIIS CHARACTER OF GOD-MAN. Philipp. ii. 6—8. “ he made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant.” Luke xxii. 43. “there appeared an angel unto him from heaven, strengthening him." sence of an angel would have been superfluous, unless the dirine nature of Christ, as well as his human, had needed support. So also Matt. xxvii. 46. “My God, why hast thou forsaken me?" If his divine nature had not partaken of the trial, why was it not at hand to sustain him when he demanded succour? or, if it had the ability, but not the will to help him, of what avail was it to call upon

his Father, whose will wa identically one with his own? IN LIFE.

Rom. viii. 3. “in the likeness of sinful flesh." This is conspicuous even from his birth, Luke i. 7. in his cir.

Now the pre

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cumcision, Rom. xv. 8. by which he became “a debtor to do the whole law,” Gal. v. 3. whence an offering was made for him, Luke ii. 24 ; in his flight into Egypt, Matt. iii. ; in his subjection to his parents, Luke ii. 51; in his submitting to manual labour, Mark vi. 3. ; in his baptism, Matt. iii.; in his temptation, Matt. iv. Heb. ii. 18. iv. 15; in his poverty, Matt. viii. 20. 2 Cor. viii. 9. “ that ye through his poverty might be rich;” in the persecutions, insults and dangers which he underwent; for an account of which, together with the whole of his passion, it is better to refer to the gospels, than to cite the passages at length. To the same purport is the prediction of Isaiah, l. 6. "I gave my back to the smiters—,” Compare also xlix. 6, 7. liii. 2, 3.

IN DEATH. Psal. xxii. Philipp. ii. 8. “ he became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross.” This death was ignominious in the highest degree ; Deut. xxi. 23. “he that is hanged, is accursed of God.” The curse also to which we were obnoxious, was transferred to him, Gal. iii. 13. panied with a dreadful consciousness of the pouring out of the divine wrath upon his head, which extorted from him the dying exclamation, Matt. xxvii. 46. “My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?” Lastly, he was detained in the grave three days after death ; 1 Cor. xv. 4. And here may be found the solution of the difficulty respecting the descent into hell, which has occasioned so much acrimonious controversy among divines ; for if Christ's death was real, his soul must have died on the same day with his body, as was above shewn. There is another question which seems less easy of solution; namely, whether he yielded to death in his divine nature likewise. For not a few passages of Scripture intimate that his divine nature was subjected to death conjointly with his human ; passages too clear to be explained away by the supposition of idiomatic language. Rom. x. 9. “if thou shalt confess with thy mouth

? It has not been questioned whether the soul of Christ descended into hell, (as seems to be implied in the words of Milton) which none but an infidel will deny,' says St. Augustin, it is so clearly delivered in this prophecy of the Psalmist (Psal. xvi. 8–10.) and application of the apostle (Acts ii. 25.);' but the controverted point has been, what that hell was into which he descended. See the various opinions stated at large, in Burnet and Beveridge On the Third Article ; Pearson On the Cree Fifth Article; see also Bp. Horsley's Sermon on 1 Pet. iii. 18—20, VOL II. 145. Hey's Lectures, Book II. Art. 3.

VOL. IV.

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the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved.” Him whom we ought to confess with the mouth, God raised from the dead. But he whom we ought to confess with the mouth is the Lord Jesus, that is, the whole person of Jesus; therefore God raised from the dead the whole person of the Lord Jesus. 1 Cor. ii. 8. “ had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.” Gal. i. 1. "not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised him from the dead.” Christ therefore was not raised in his human nature alone, but in the whole of his person; and Paul received his mission from him not as man, but as God-man. Philipp. ï. 6—8.

who being in the form of God. ... made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant.... he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death." 1 John iii. 16.“hereby perceive we the love of God, because he laid down his life for us.” Rev. i. 17, 18. “I am the first and the last; I am he that liveth, and was dead.” See also ii. 8. The only uncertainty, therefore, arises from the words of Christ to the thief, this day thou shalt be with me in Paradise ; a passage which has on other accounts given much trouble to the learned. As to the conciseness of expression in 1 Pet. iii. 18. I consider it as of comparatively little importance ; “ being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by (or in) the Spirit ;" since, if the antithesis be correct, the apostle's intention is to specify, on the one hand, the part in which he died, and on the other, that in which he was quickened. Now that which was quickened 'must have been previously dead. But if the Spirit be here put for that which causes life, it must be understood, on comparing it with less obscure texts of Scripture, to signify the Spirit of God the Father. The fact, that Christ became a sacrifice both in his divine and human nature, is denied by none; and as it was requisite that the whole of the sacrifice should be slain, Christ, who was the sacrificial lamb, must be considered as slain in the whole of his nature.

TO THE DIVINE JUSTICE. Luke xxiv. 26. “ought not Christ to have suffered these things ?” Isai. liii. 6. “Jehovah hath laid on him the iniquity of us all."

the humiliation of Christ was succeeded by his exaltation. THE EXALTATION OF Christ is that by which, HAVING

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