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length, fuppress any natural reflection. This may render his work more voluminous than it otherwise would have been ; but it renders it, at the same time, more entertaining; and these incidental objects and reflections serve as a refreshment and interlude between profound and serious disquisitions. Our Author's account of the miners of Clausthal, and, in general, of the mines of Hartz, and the manner of working them, is curious and instructive: and his observation of the primordial and secondary mountains, the former in the chains of Hartz, and the latter in the Kahlenberg, is a new refutation of the hypothesis of those, who attribute the present form of our continents, and the origin of all their mountains, to the operation of the waters alone.-The eighth part contains the second journey of M. DE Luc in Holland and Germany, by a different route, by Helvoet, Grave, Osnabrug, Hanover, Pyrmont, Munden, Cafél, France fort, Heidelberg, Manheim, Mentz, Coblentz, Cologn, Juliers, Maestricht, Tongres, and Brussels. The principal things that we meet with here, are certain particularities, and reflections relative to heaths and the soil that they cover, to the mineral waters of Pyrmont, to the vestiges of volcanic erruptions in some parts of that route, and in the mountain of Cassel, as also, along the borders of the Rhine from Coblentz to Cologn. Several incidental details of a moral and social kind embellish this part; that which relates the meeting with Peternel Van de Schans, a hospitable goody, is the only one that may be thought un-interesting; and such it will appear to many readers.
The ninth part is the largest of all, and takes up entirely the fourth volume. It contains, in thirty letters, our Author's third voyage into Holland and Germany; and as, in this voyage, he passed through, nearly, the same places that he had formerly visited, it was not possible that he should avoid repetitions. But as these repetitions throw new light upon objects, which had been viewed with more or less rapidity, and deserved to be made farther known, they merit rather the name of illustrations; and, indeed, the points of view presented to our Author, and his observations upon them, in this third voyage, are every way adapted to fatisfy a curiosity that was ftill left in the expectation and desire of farther information. The principal objects exhibited here, are-A description of the coast of Harwic considered, with respect to the diminutions or accessions which it has undergone or received ; and remarks on the concretions that are contained in the soil of that coast- An Hydraulic description of Holland-Reflections on the state of the heaths in the low and uncultivated parts of Brabant, and the high and cultivated districts in the neighbourhood of Tongres (whose environs our Author has examined with the most singular and laborious attention, and perfectly refuted the ancient tradi6
tion, that the sea formerly came up to its walls).-Moral reasons for examining the formation of the earth.---Farther remarks on the volcanos on the banks of the Rhine, and on the formation of the Basaltes.-Volcanic erruptions in the Schiftous mountains along the Rhine, and volcanic foil in regular itrata between Andernach and the lake of Loch; and a description of the volcanos and volcanic phenomena in the neighbourhood of this lake.—The quarries of Tra/s, and the volcanos in their environs, (in the road froin Nieder-Mennich to Neu Wied*).Rocks filled with marine bodies, though in strata, almost vertical like those of the Schiftes. ---Continuation of the volcanos, at the back of the natural mountains, on the western side of the Rhine between Andernach and Oberwinter.—Mountains of Bazaltes on the side of the Rhine, opposite to Oberwinter. -An essay on earthquakes.-Hills of lime-stone near Mentz, that confirin our Author's account of the inechanism of petrifaction, and other matters of a like nature.
The fifth Volume comprehends the tenth and the eleventh parts of this work. The tenth contains the observations made by our Author, in a fourth Tour in Germany, and on the coasts of the northern ocean. Here the natural historian will follow him with pleasure, in his description of the mountains in the counties of Paderborn and La Lippe, of the heaths of Luneburg and Winsen, of the duchy of Bremen, and of the cosmological phenomena, which he found at Alteland, near Stade ;-in his descriptions of the Kedingermoor and Duvelfmoor (which signify the Turberies of Keding and the Devil); in his voyage through Oldenburg, East-Friefand, Delfzyl, Groningen, Friesland, and Holland, as also in' his route from Utrecht to Pyrmont, and from Pyrmont to Aix la-Chapelle, by Geismar, Wisbaden, and Coblentź. To all this are subjoined some letters from M. Trosjon to our Author, concerning the ancient volcanos, which lie north-east of Coblentz, and the strata of pumice-stone that are to be seen on the banks of the Rhine and the Motelle; and this Part is terminated by a description of the country and soil between Aix-la-Chapelle and Calais.
From all the observations made in these voyagcs, M. De Luc has been confirmed in his opinion, that our continents are not of a very ancient date—and that not one of the causes, which are known to act upon, and influence our globe, and which, by
• At Neu-wied, there is a Moravian community, which our Author represents in pleasing colours, observing, that it is rather on benevolence of character than on peculiarity of opinion, that the associa. tion of the Moravian brethren and fiiters is founded.-This is, certainly, the most favourable way of representing the Noravians and we hope, and begin to believe, that it is a true one. APP, Rey. Vol, lxii.
their nature, must have acted upon it formerly, as they do now, could have produced the universal change of land into sea, and sea into land, which has undoubtedly taken place, and of whichi the veftiges are evident. What then is the extraordinary cause that operated this revolution in the surface of our globe? This question our Author answers in the eleventh and last Part, by producing his hypothesis, the result of a long and laborious study of nature, and for which he has prepared the reader in the preceding volumes.
The facts and conclusions deducible from the observations related in the preceding volumes, may be reduced to the following:
The existence of marine productions in our continents, and even in the summits of mountains, indicates a change in our globe, and fuppose a cause that placed them there.
These marine bodies are inclosed in certain substances well known, and entirely distinct from them, which substances surround them perfectly, and even sometimes fill their little cavities; and therefore, these substances were in a state of softness or fufion when they inclosed these marine bodies.-The natural arrangement of these substances is in regular parallel beds, or ftrata, often horizontal, always a little inclined, such, in a word, as the waters form, when they remove any quantities of matter from one place to another, and such as they alone form: —this arrangement, according to our Author, is due to them. - In these beds the fragments of primordial subitances are discovered, and therefore thefe latter existed as they are before thcle beds were formed.-The fragments of the primordial substances, found in these beds, though they appear, by undoubted marks, to have belonged to larger marles, have their angles blunted by friction, and thus appear to have been rolled by the walers that formed these beds ;-and as this operation required time, it was not by sudden shocks or movements, that the waters formed the beds, which contain the fragments under consideration. -These deposits made by the waters have been raised, one above the other, even so as to form high mountains, whole composition is the same from the summit to the bufe; therefore the waters that formed them were deep, and a considerable space of time was taken up in their formation.-These mountains contain also marine substances, throughout, but unequally distributed; and the fame inequality is observable in the trata of the plains and hills : fome of these strata contain almost an equal mixture of marine and earthy substances: others contain few or none of the former : sometimes the shells are of one kind -at other times, of various forts ;--frequently there is a mixture of young, old, entire, and broken, with all the marks of the accidents that happen to them in the ocean, &c. “ Therefore
our continents have once been the bottom of a fea, on which i every thing passed in the same manner, as things pass on the
present bottom of the ocean."-Among the marine bodies, deposited in the bottom of the sea that is now become our continent, there are several kinds, that only live in the seas, that are far distant from it. “ Therefore, the fea, that covered “ our continent, did not withdraw from it flowly; for, by such “ a gentle retreat, the marine animals that lived in it would ós have continued to live in it, and we should find in the waters, " that are near our coasts, the kinds, whose fragments and car« cases we discover in the contiguous lands."-9. We find also, in the earth, even near the sea-coasts, marine, foffile, animal, bodies, of species which we have not as yet discovered living in any sea, though it would seem, that, did they exist, they would not have escaped the notice of men. “ There must,
therefore, have been a cause, which made the sea to with « draw itself from our present continents ; some circumstances, « also, which have either destroyed these marine animals, or conis cealed them from our view, or changed their aspect."-10. If we consider the external form of our continents, we shall not find in the whole, taken together, any thing that denotes the sea's having withdrawn from them in a violent manner. They consist of a great number of hills and plains, composed of strata or layers of sand (or other unconnected matters) which have not undergone any confusion. We see no great opening extending itself towards the present ocean, and even the greatest part of the rivers must have formed their own beds in order to arrive at it.-“ From hence it follows, according to our Au“ thor, that, though it be evident, that the sea has not with “ drawn itself from our continents, in a revolution extremely « flow and fucceffive, it appears, nevertheless, on the other « hand, that its removal was not attended with a sudden passage “ of the whole mass of the ocean into a new bed.”-11. We perceive, at the surface of our continents, a prodigious quantity of accumulations different from the preceding, which have been undoubtedly exposed to the action of fire, which is now quite extinguished, and neither history nor the most ancient traditions convey any notice of the time when these mountains were formed. • Therefore, there is a class of volcanic moun. " tains, whose origin has probably been always unknown.”— 12. These mountains have marks, that diftinguish them from the volcanos that burn ftill: more particularly, they are often covered with accumulations of distinct substances, which are the work of the sea. " Therefore the fea has also covered this « particular class of volcanic mountains:" and several circumstances indicated by our Author, Thew that these mountains were formed, when our continents were yet the bed of the Nn 2
ocean : for their strata discover alternate marks of the operations of fire and water; and there are examples on record, of such mountains arising from the bottom of the sea.-13. It appears by a variety of phenomena, mentioned by our Author, “ that * the present continents have their primordial base precisely er where it was, when it constituted the foundation of the “ ancient ocean, and that it is upon this stable and permanent “ bale, that the secondary eminences, produced, some by fire “ and others by water, have been raised.” - It appears farther, that when the sea produced its last accumulations of calcareous matter and fand, upon our continents, it then occupied these continents entirely. - Again-as foils, difengaged from water, and exposed to the influence of the air, are covered, in process of time, with plants, whose fucceffive generations, left upon the place, produce strata of vegetable earth, these strata, when they remain untouched, assist us in calculating, by their progreflive growth, the time that a soil has been exposed to the influence of the air. Accordingly, by considering, not the mountains, where, from various causes, vegetation does not follow a uniform rule, but the last firata of fand which the fea has spread over extensive districts of our continent; our Author concludes, from a variety of circumstances here specified, that the time elapsed, since there frata have been exposed to the influences of the air, is not so considerable as some have imagined, and that all the extent of the base of our continents was thus exposed at one and the same period. An observation also of the phenomena, that are discernible on the borders of the present ocean, have led our Author to conclude, that the level of the sea undergoes no more alterations, that since it left our continents it discovers no tendency to change its bed, and that the period when it left our continents is not extremely remote.
The result of all these phenomena is reduced, by our Author, to the following propositions.-1. The sea covered formerly out continents, and covers them no more.. -2. There existed, at the fame time, other continents, that seem to exist no more —3. The fea occupies a bed, in which it is permanent, and there is no discernible cause that has a tendeney either to destroy this bed or to form a new one.-4. The revolution that produced this new state of things, must have affected, at the fame time, all the parts of our continents, where the untouched layer of vegetable earth is of the same thickness.-5. The thickness of that layer or fratum is not very considerable, if we attend to the known effects of the cause that produced it, M. De Luc's system may be then expressed in the following sentence : Ancient continents, which were contemporary with the ancient sea, sunk, or fell in below the level of its bed : and the sea, Rowing into