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• With regard to the method purfued in the work before us,' to ose the Author's own words, it may be allowable to obferve, that the directions, concerning the respective articles, are not confusedly scattered up and down, in diftant parts of the work, nor are the operations belonging to one, coofounded with those of another: in this Manual the reader will find every Fruit-cree separately and com. pletely treated of, as to its botanic class and genus, its growth, mode of bearing, flowers, fruit, and time of ripening; its method of propagation by grafting, budding, layers, cuttings, fuckers, or feeds; and the different stocks fuitable to the particular nature of the tree, with regard to grafting and budding: All which are pointed out under the name of that fruit-tree to which they respectively be long.
* As wall and espalier trees require angular care in the different operations of pruning and training, both in Summer and in Winter, these works are here explained with refpect to the different stages of growth, and order of bearing.
• Concerning common standards, the reader will also find ample directions: these do not require, indeed, like wall-trees, a general puning; a ftrict attention, however, as well to their early growth, as to their advanced State, being necessary, they were not to be omitted.
-His subjects are arranged in alphabetical order. The firft that presents itfelf is,
· The Almond Tree, eminent both as a fruit-tree, and for orgamenting the shrubbery, &c. early in spring, when in full bloom; it is the original of the ancient genus Amygdalus, which, by the botanic characters of the flowers, comprenends also the Peach and Nectarine, as species and varieties of the same family or genos; all of which belong also to the class and order, icofandria monogynia, i. e. flowers containing twenty of more famina, and one style.
The botanists admit but of one real species of the common Ali mond tree. which they term
• Amygdalus communis, COMMON ALMOND ; and is botanically deferibed, Amygdalus with spear haped fawed leaves, having glands at the baje : and with flower's mostly in pairs, fitting close to the branches, jarraided by large oval, downy, tough fruit, containing eatable kernels, comprehending several eminent varieties, distinguished by the follow iog names and properties, viz.
1. Common Almond with a bitter kernel. • 2. Sweet-kernelled Almond.
3. Sweet Jordan Almond, large and superior in goodness.
5. Hard-shelled Almond. • The fruit, in general, of the Almond tree is valued only for the kernel inclosed in its centre is a stone or nut, it being the only edible part; and is by many greatly esteemed as a choice dessert fruit to eat, as well as afruit tree, the Almond, in all its varieties, de.
varidus ferves a place in almost every garden, to encrease the variety of eatU 2
able fruits, especially as standard and half standard trees, in which they will also adorn the premises very conspicuously in spring, during their general bloom, and supply us with annual crops of fruit without trouble; ripening in September.
• The trees generally assume but a moderate growth, obtaining from fifteen to twenty feet ftature, dividing regularly into many branches, and emitting numerous straight fhoots annually; the whole forming a large full head, adorned with long spear-shaped leaves, and pale red Powers, having five petals, producing flowers and fruit, mostly on young wood of a year or two old, immediately from the eyes of the shoor.
• They flower early in spring, before the leaves; arising in a vast profusion all along the young branches at almost every eye, succeeded by large oval downy fruit, confitting of a thick tough pulp, including an oblong nụt or stone, containing one kernel, which is the Al. mond, and the only esculent part, as before observed ; the whole arriving to maturity in September; the outer tough cover splits open, and discharges the stone, with the kernel therein, which is fit both for immediate eating, and to be kept for future use.
• The trees are all hardy enough to succeed in any common soil of our gardens, in almost any ficuation and exposure ; and in favourable springs, when their early blossom is not destroyed by froft, they generally produce abundant crops of fruit. However, when designed as fruit trees, they thould generally be indulged with a fheltered sunny situation.
They are employed principally as standards and half standards, trained with straight single stems, fix or seven feet high for full standards, and four or five for halt Itandards, branching out at these setpective heights, all around into regular heads, planted at twenty or thirty feet distance, and suffered to extend every way nearly according to their natural order of growth; though, for variety some times a few trees are cultivated, as dwarfs, for walls and espaliers, and trained in the order of wall trees, &c. nearly as directed for Peaches and Nectarines, and in which they often furnish larger and forwarder fruit than on Itandards.'
He next proceeds to the method of propagating them; and then, after pointing out the manner of planting, and the general culture, he concludes with particular directions for the pruning.
There is a use in this book we have not yet remarked. By describing the genus or species of each tree botanically, it will insensibly infuse into the reader, who has not yet applied to botanical studies, such general ideas of systematic botany, as may lead him forward to a more intimate acquaintance with that amusing science. There are some few inaccuracies in the style of this performance, for which candour will make allowances.
Art. V. Sermons By Hugh Blair, D.D. One of the Ministers of
the High Church, and Professor of Rhetoric and Belles Lettres in the University, of Edinburgh. Vol. II. Octavo. 6 s. Bound. Cadell. 1780, HOSE who have read the first volume of Dr. Blair's Dira
courses (and we believe there are few readers of sermons who have not perused them) will naturally form great expectations from his second; and we may venture to assure them, that they will not be disappointed. The same elegance of compofis tion, the same beauty and variety of sentiment, in a word, every excellence which marked the first, is conspicuous in the second volume ; and cannot fail of rendering it highly acceptable to the friends of rational religion.
The subject of the first sermon is--the importance of order in conduct." Let all things be done – in order.” The Doctor introduces it with the following very juft observation, viz. that order, method, and regularity, whether it be considered as, in itself, a moral duty, or not, is essential to the proper discharge of almost all duties,-and merits, on that account, a greater attention than is commonly paid to it in a religious view. He proceeds to recommend to his Readers, order in the conduct of their affairs; in the distribution of their time ; in the management of their fortune ; in the regulation of their amusements, and in the arrangement of their fociety.
The second and third are admirable sermons indeed! the subject of them is extremely important, though its importance is but seldom perceived by the generality of mankind, who are apt to consider the regulation of external conduct as the chief object of religion. The words from which the Preacher dircourses are—Keep thy heart with all diligence, &c. In treating of the government of the heart, he confiders, separately, the government of the thoughts, of the passions, and of the tem:per.
The subject of the fourth fermon is, The unchangeableness of the divine nature. The Doctor introduces it with observing, that the power, wisdom, and goodness, of the Supreme Being, are founds familiar to our ears, but that we are less accustomed to consider him in his immutability, though it is this perfection, perhaps, which more than any other distinguishes the divine nature from the human; gives complete energy to all its other attributes, and entitles it to the highest adoration. Goodness, he says, could produce no more than feeble and wavering hopes, and power would command very imperfect reverence, if we were left io fufpect, that the plans which goodness haŭ framed might alter, or that the power of carrying them into execution might decrease. The contemplation of God, therefore, as unchange
able in his nature, and in all his perfections, muft undoubtedly be fruitful, both of instruction and of confolation to man.
The subject of the fifth sermon, preached at the celebration of the sacrament of the Lord's fupper, is the compaffion of Chrift. That of the fixth, the love of praise, from these words, John xii. 43. For they loved the praise of men more than the praise of God. In discoursing on this subject, the Preacher considers how far the love of praise is an allowable principle of action; when it begins to be criminal; and upon what accounts we ought to guard against its acquiring the entire ascendant. Those who aspire after real dignity of character; those to whom the approbation of Omniscience is the higheft obje&t of ambition, will receive peculiar pleasure from this excellent discourse.
After Mewing, that the love of praise is, in various respects, a natural and uteful principle of action, the Doctor proceeds to confider the arguments which fhould guard us againft the im. proper influence of praise, or censure, in the course of our duty.
• In the first place, the 'praise of men is not an object of any such value in itself as to be intitled to become the leading principle of conduct. We degrade our character when we allow it more than Subordinate regard. Like other worldly goods, it is apt to dazzle us with a false luftre ; but if we would ascertain its true worth, let us reflect both on whom it is bestowed, and from whom it proceeds, Were the applause of the world always the reward of merit; were it appropriated to fuch alone as by real abilities, or by worthy a&tions, are entitled to rise above the crowd, we might justly be flattered by poflefling a rare and valuable distinction. But how far is this from being the case in fact ? How often have the despicable and the vile, by dexterously catching the favour of the multitude, soared upon the wings of popular applause, while the virtuous and the deserving bave been either buried in obscurity, or obliged to encounter the at. tacks of unjust reproach? The laurels which human praise confers are withered and blalled by the unworthiness of those who wear them. Let the man who is vain of public favour be bumbled by the reflection that, in the midft of his success, he is mingled with a crowd of impostors and deceivers, of hypocrites and enthusiasts, of ignorant pretenders and superficial reasoners, who, by various arts, have attained as high a rank as himself in temporary fame.
• We may eally be satisfied that applause will be often shared by the undeserving, if we allow ourselves to confider from whom it proceeds. When it is the approbation of the wise only and the good which is pursued, the love of praise may then be accounted to contain itself within just bounds, and to run in its proper channel. But the testimony of the discerning few, modest and onaffuming as they commonly are, forms but a small part of the public voice. It feldon amounts io more than a whisper, which amidit the general clamoor is drowned. When the love of praise has taken pofletion of the mind, it confines not itself to an object fo limited. It grows into an ap. perite for indiscriminale praise. And who are they that confer this praisei A mixed multitude of men, who in their whole conduct are 6
guided by humour and caprice, far more than by reason; who admire false appearances, and pursue false goods; who inquire superficially, and judge rahly; whose sentiments are for the most part erroneous, always changeable, and often inconfitent. Nor let any one imagine, that by looking above the crowd, and courting the praise of the fashionable and the great, he makes sure of true honour. There are a greac vulgar, as well as a small. Rank often makes no difference in the understandings of men, or in their judicious diftribution of praise. Luxury, pride, and vanity, bave frequently as much inAuence in corrupting the sentimen:s of the great, as ignorance, bigotry, and prejudice, have in milleading the opinions of the crowd. -And is it to such judges as there that you submit the supreme di. rection of your concuát? Do you loop to court their favour as your chief distinction, when an object of lo much juiter and higher ambition is presented so you in the praise of God? God is the only unerring judge of what is excellent. His approbation alone is the subdance, all other praise is but the hadow, of honour. The character which you bear in his fight is your only real one. How contemptible does it render you to be inditterent with respect to this, and to be solicitous about a name alone, a ficti:ious, imaginary character, which has no existence except in the opinions of a few weak and credulous men around you. They see no farther than the outlide of things. Tbey can judge of you by actions only; and not by the comprehensive view of all your actions, but by such merely as you have had opporiunity of bringing forth to public notice. But the Sovereign of the world behoids you in every light in which you can be placed. The talent virtues of a generous purpose and a pious heart attract his notice equally with the most splendid deeds. From him.you may reap the praise of good actions which you had no op. portunity of performing. For he sees them in their principle; he judges of you by your intentions; he knows what you would have done. You may be in his eyes a hero or a martyr, without undere going the labours of the one, or the sufferings of the other. His inspection, therefore, opens a much wider field for praise than what the world can afford you: and for praile, too, certainly far more illuitrious in the eye of realoo. Every real artist studies to approve bimieif to such as are knowing in his art. To their judgment he appeals. On their approbation he relts his character, and not on the praile of the uokilled and rude, la the highet art of all, that of life and conduct, thall the opinions of ignorant men come into the mot ditane competition with his approbation who is the searcher of all hearts, and the standard of all perfection - The testimony of his praise is not indeed, as yet, openly beltowed. But though the voice of the Almighty found not in your cars, yet by conscience, his sacred vicegerent, it is capable of being conveyed to your heart. The softest wbilper of divine approbation is sweeter to the soul of a virtuous man, than the loudelt houts of that tumultuary applause which proceeds from the world.
• Confider, farther, how narrow and circumscribed in its limits that fame is which the vain-glorious man so eagerly pursues. In order to thew him this, I shall not bid him reflect that it is confined 10 a small district of the earth ; and that when he looks a little be