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The professed design of this work is, to check the progress of ir, religion, infidelity, and popery, by a review of the lives of the moit eminent persons in the proseliant churches, from the beginning of the reformation to the present day. “It may be safely faid,' this compiler observes,' that nothing has contributed so much to the secep:ion of impious and superstitious tenets among us, as the spiritual darkness of our present enlightened age, which indeed has made great improvements in the knowledge of every thing but one-and that is, the one thing needful. Our youth are trained up according to the fahion, in the ignorance and contempt of every thing sacred; and no man is allowed either sense or discretion, unless he is quite at ease with respect to religion, and indifferent to the great concerns of eternity.'
Should the features in the above picture be thought too strong,
is. Goldney. 1779.
explanatory; for the Use of young people. By A. Crocker,
These notes seem to be well calculated for the purpose which they
Grounds, Principles, and Duties of Religion. By way of Question
Attempts for the instruction and alliance of youth are truly laudable.
never advertised. The copy now before us was sent by an unknown hand.
S E R M 0 NS, &c. 1. Prayer for those in Civil and Military Ofices recommended. Before
the Election of the Magiftrates of Edinburgh, Oct. 5, 1779. By John Erskine, D. D. one of the Ministers of Edinburgh. 8vo. 6 d. Edinburgh printed.
Whether this is the Dr. Erskine who has distinguished himself by his public disapprobation of the American war, we cannot with certainty say. The sermon before us, from Joshua i. 17, is plain, pious, and practical. It leads us to an over-ruling Providence in Huencing and governing all human affairs; we find in it also some sensible observations on the present flare of our country. It seriously, and warmly recommends feivent prayer and reformation. H. II. Preached before the University of Oxford, Nov. 7, 1779. Ву
George Bellas, D. D. Rector of Yattendon, and Vicar of Basilden,
I S. Biyih, &c.
H. III. Preached in the Parish Church of Whitby, before the Friendly
Society, at their Anniversary Mecting, on Whit-Monday, 1779, and published at their Requeit. By the Rev. Joseph Robertson, Curate of the said Church. 4to. i s. York, printed; London, fold by Baldwin, &c.
• Every member of the Friendly Society, we are told in a note, by contributing eight-pence per month, is allowed five Thillings a week, out of the joint stock, when rendered incapable of working by sickness, lameness, or blindness. On the decease of any member, his widow receives five pounds for défraying his funeral expences i and when any member's wife dies, he is allowed forry Millings for the same purpose.' We conclude also, though we are not directly informed, that a collection is made at the time of the sermon for supporting this design. Mr. Robertson, in this discourse, urges the Jexercise of charity by convincing arguments, and pathetic represenKations.
M. IV. The Watchfulness incumbent on Ministers, confidered, in a Charge,
delivered at the Ordination of the Rev. Isaac Smith, at Sidmouth, Devon, June 24, 1778. By Joshua Toulmin, A. M. 8vo. 6d. Taunton, printed, London, fold by Johnson.
This Charge, which now appears in a second edition, was published together with the fermon, &c. delivered on the same occasion, in 1778 *. All of them have been noticed in our Review, and the Vide Review for September 1778, p. 239.
account which was then given of them in their united Aate, is applicable to the piece now separately printed; viz. that it is pious, rational, and praclical. Such discourses cannot fail of doing honour to the Protestant Dissenters. I may be proper to add, that this second edition of the Charge is owing to the earnest solicitation of Sir Harry Trelawney. Some small parts of the discourse, which, for want of time, were surpressed in its firft delivery, are here inserted.
M. CORRESPONDENCE. T has ever been our custom to pay due regard to the decent re
monftrances of respectable writers, who think their works, in any degree, mifrepresented in our Review. On this principle, we publith the following letter from Mr. Hey, of Leeds, relative to our Jate account of bis Observations on the Blood: see Review for November lait, Art. VII. Our ftri&tures on that performance appeared, to us, to be just, at the time when we printed them ; and we do not apprehend that he will attribute them to any personal disrespect. To enter into a controversy on the subject, is not only unsuitable to the nature of our plan, but incompatible with our other engagements. What we have already said, is submitted to the judgment of oor Readers ; and to the same respectable court we now convey the plea of Mr. Hey, in his own behalf.
To the MONTHLY REVIEWERS. GENTLEMEN, Considering the great variety of subjects which come daily onder your notice, it cannot be deemed a want of candour to suppose, that sometimes the meaning of an author may be so far mistaken, as to occafion a criticism, which, upon second thoughts, you would wish to alter or retract. My partiality, perhaps, may lead me to think, that this remark is applicable to some parts of your criticism on my Observations on the Blood. I fhall beg leave to point out a few passages in which, I apprehend, you have mistaken my meaning, as well as that of Mr. Hewson, whose theory of fizy blood I have animadverted upon.
The first passage I shall take notice of is that, in which you represent me as allowing the fundamental principle of Mr. Hewson's theory, and mistaking the meaning of his terms: “ This” (Mr. Hewson's) “ doctrine is, that inflammation, instead of increasing, lessens the dispofition of blood to coagulate, and instead of chickening, thins it, at least its coagulable part. And Mr. Hey, instead of controverting this fundamental principle, admits as a fact, that the surface of blood which is about to form a crust of size, remains much longer fluid, than that of blood in different circumstances. So far, then, - they agree; but Mr. Hewfon fupposes, that what foats on the fura face of such blood is coagulable lymph, attenuated by the increased action of the blood vessels: whereas Mr. Hey contends, that it is coagulable lymph diluted with serum. We must own, that the kec of experiments which Mr. Hey produces here, to prove (what nobody would doubt) that the Gzy crust of blood really contains a watery or serous part, does not seem to us at all conclusive against the opinion of Mr. Hewson, who, by ufing the term attenuated, certainly 3
meant to convey the idea of its being of a dilute or aqueous con life ence. The cause here may be different; but the effect, as far as dircoverable by experiment, will certainly be the fame; dilution and attenuation being qualities not diftinguishable, as we imagine, by common sensible relts." Monthly Review, November, p. 341.
From several parts of Mr. Hewson's Experimental Inquiry it appears, that by the term coagulable lymph, Mr. Hewson mean, that . part of the blood which gives folidity to the crasamentum, and retains e solid form when separated from the serum and red globules. As p.6. “ The crassamentum confilts of two paris, of which ore gives it lolidity, and is termed the coagulable lymph; and of ano:her, which gives the red colour to the blood, and is called the red globules. These two parts can be separa.ed by washing the crassamentum in water, the red particles disolving in the water, whilit the coagulable lymph remains Jolid.” And again, p. 106. “ We sometimes see almost the whole coagulable lymph collected at the top, forming a firm crust, which being free from the serum, as well as from the glo. bules, contracts the surface into a hollow form :" though sometimes “ there is not time for its being separated from the serum, of which it therefore contains a considerable quantity, and is of course more spongy and cellular."- In this last fentence, the coagulable lymph is as clearly distinguished from the ferum which it contains in forming the white crull; as in the former it is distinguished from the red globules, with which it unites to form the craftamentum. I have followed Mr. Hewfon in using the term in this frict and proper fense, though both of us have sometimes ufed it in a more lax way, for the white crust itself found upon the crasiamentum.
By the term attenuation, Mr. Hewson meant to express the approach of a fubstance towards the state of perfect fluidity by an alteration made in the fublance itself; by dilution, the approach towards perfect fluidisk, by the addition of some other subftance of greater tenuity. When Mr. Hewson afferts, that the coagulable lymph is attenuated by infiammation, he does not mean to say, that inflammation causes the lymph to be of a more dilute o: aqueous con. fistence than usual, by the addition of serum, or any other fruid of greater tenuity than itself* ; for he exprelly fays, that "the wbole mass of blood seems to be thinner than the serum alone; or, that the coagulable lymph seems to be so much attenuated in these cases, as even to dilute the serum.” P. 55. But his meaning plainly is,
On the contrary, Mr. Hewson declares his opinion to be, that the more alle. tuated the coagulable lymph is, the less dilure is its confifteoce after coagulation. • The size is fomeines very firm, aná at other times spongy and cellular; these differences in its denfity are, I fufpe&t, in proportion to the degree of attenuation and leffined difpofition of the blood to coagulate; for be more obe lympb is attenuaied, and the lower it coagulare , the more will the film be able to separate it from the red globules and the ferum : thence perhaps it is, that we sometimes see the whole coagulable lymph collected at the top, forming a firm cruft, &c. But when the bloo has its disposition to coagulate lefs diminished-then-the lymph-contains a considerable quantity of serumn, and is of courie more sporgy aud clular," P. 105, 106.
It is certain likewise, that Mr. Hewson did not think that the coagulable lymph was rendered thin, in its fluid Nare, by the admixture of serum ; because he expressly says, that the coagulable lymph, when a tenuated, diluted the serum. P. 55.
that inflammation increases the tenuity of the lymph, while circulating in the vessels, by altering its properties, and that this tenuiry remains for some time after the blood is let out of the vessels, previously to its coagulation.
The force of Mr. Hewson's arguments, which are drawn from the properties of the fluid observed upon the surface of blood, when a white cruft is about to be formed, depends entirely upon the supposition, that this fluid is coagulable lymph. My experiments have, therefore, in the plainest manner shewn these arguments to be inconclusive, by thewing that the fluid is not coagulable lymph; but that sometimes to, and sometimes near fs of it are something else, viz. ferum. Indeed, it is needless to attend to any arguments, which are designed to prove that this Auid is thinner than serum, as Mr. Hewson asserts ; since the teftimony of the senses will soon convince any one of the contrary, who will give himself the trouble of examining it.
Your next paragraph relates to an inconsistency into which you fuppose I have fallen by asserting, that the blood may, at the same time, have an increased proportion of coagulable lymph and serum. " How these two opposite principles in the blood (one giving it density, and the other tenuity) can both be augmented at the same time, and from the same cause, we own ourselves at a loss to conceive.” Review, p. 342.
I have no where said, that the coagulable lymph and serum are increased by the fame caufe; on the contrary, I have expressly attributed their increase to different causes, as in the following passages : • That the proportion of coagulable lymph is increased by inflammation, will be allowed by all, &c. Obs. on the Blood, p. 22. need not wonder, that the watery liquors, which are drunk plentifully in these disorders, should thin the blood.' Ib.
28. Neither have I said that it (viz. the same thing) is at the same time thicker and thinner. But I have said, that the proportion of coagulable lymph and ferom are sometimes increased at the same time, and I cannot see the difficulty, either of conceiving the pos. fibility, or allowing the reality of this fact. Whenever we see the craffamentum of a very firm texture, or covered with a strong buffy coat, and throwing off a great quantity of serum, (which is the case in violent inflammatory disorders after repeated bleeding) then we see the proportion of lymph and serum increased at the fame time. And whenever this happens, the whole mass of blood will look thin as it Aows from the vein; though the cralfamentum, by having more than its usual proportion of coagulable lymph, will be of an increased tenacity.
The last part of your criticism, which I shall beg leave to take notice of, would have been obviated by comparing Mr. Hewson's expressions with mine, in our different accounts of the experiment made on the blood of flaughtered sheep. You would not, I think, have imagined, that our difference might arise in part, from the am. biguous use of a term. “ One cause of fallacy, indeed, we discern, in the different idea annexed to the term coagulation. Mr. Hey obferves, that the latt blood was more viscid as it flowed, though it was the longest in coagulating completely. Now viscidity differs only in