Principles of Cognition, Language and Action: Essays on the Foundations for a Science of Psychology

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Mar 31, 2000 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 492 pages
This book addresses a growing concern as to why Psychology, now more than a hundred years after becoming an independent research area, does not yet meet the basic requirements of a scientific discipline on a par with other sciences such as physics and biology. These requirements include: agree ment on definition and delimitation of the range of features and properties of the phenomena or subject matter to be investigated; secondly, the development of concepts and methods which unambiguously specify the phenomena and systematic investigation of their features and properties. A third equally important requirement, implicit in the first two, is exclusion from enquiry of all other mattes with which the discipline is not concerned. To these requirements must then be added the development of basic assumptions about the nature of what is under investigation, and of principles to account for its properties and to serve as a guide as to what are relevant questions to ask and theories to develop about them.
 

Contents

INTRODUCTION TO ASSUMPTIONS AND ARGUMENTS
3
11 Basic assumptions of Naturalism and Constructivism
7
12 Implications of Constructivist and Naturalist assumptions
9
13 Consequences for Psychology of Perception
18
ALTERNATIVE ASSUMPTIONS AND PRINCIPLES
27
22 Basic assumptions for a science of Psychology
35
23 Principles of Cognition Language and Action
40
PROBLEMS OF EXPLANATIONS AND THEORIES OF VISUAL PERCEPTION
45
PROPOSITIONS ABOUT REAL AS OPPOSED TO FICTITIOUS THINGS
235
112 Brentanos thesis of intentionality reconsidered
239
113 Beliefs about real and fictitious things
242
1131 Conclusion
247
WHY THERE STILL CANNOT BE A CAUSAL THEORY OF CONTENT
249
122 Naturalizing intentionality and the content of beliefs
252
123 Errors in the Crude Causal Theory
260
124 The CCTs psychophysical explanation of content
267

32 MindBody dualism
48
33 Gibsons theory of perception
50
34 Marrs computational model of vision
59
341 The Primal Sketch
61
342 The 2D Sketch
62
343 The 3D Model
65
CONSEQUENCES FOR PERCEPTION PSYCHOLOGY AND EPISTEMOLOGY
69
42 Conditions for carrying out investigations in perception psychology
72
43 General epistemological consequences and implications
81
44 Assumptions and aims for a psychological science of perception
84
THE RELATION BETWEEN LANGUAGE COGNITION AND REALITY
89
THE RELATION BETWEEN LANGUAGE AND REALITY
91
52 Basic assumptions
92
521 The reflexivity of natural language
95
522 The concept of truth of natural language
96
523 Consequences for Subjective Idealism
97
53 The principle of the general correctness of language
104
531 Consequences for Correspondence Theories of truth
107
532 Consequences for LanguageReality Relativism
115
533 The logical space of descriptions
119
LANGUAGE CONCEPTS AND REALITY
123
62 Saussures delimitation of the language form as an independent object of linguistic research
127
621 The Principle of the arbitrary nature of the linguistic sign
130
622 The differential identity and relational value of the linguistic sign
132
623 Problems and consequences of the twinprinciples of the arbitrary and relational nature of the sign
133
624 The nomenclatureview of language reconsidered and revised
140
63 The logical relation between a systematic and a speech act description of linguistic occurrences
143
examples of consequences for theories of language
148
an example from linguistics
150
an example from psychology
152
SITUATIONS ACTION AND KNOWLEDGE
155
72 Situations
157
73 Actions
159
SCIENTIFIC AND OTHER DESCRIPTIONS OF REALITY
165
82 The limits of scientific theories and descriptions
178
83 Conclusion
191
PHYSICALISM AND PSYCHOLOGY
195
92 Anomalous monism or Psychology as Physics
197
CONTEXT CONTENT AND REFERENCETHE CASE FOR BELIEFS AND INTENTIONALITY
205
102 Against Stichs case against beliefs
207
103 The problem of generalizing across radically different cognitive states
216
104 The dependency of scientific beliefs and propositions on contexts and interests
219
105 Some differences between ascribing beliefs to people and properties to objects
225
125 Why a causal theory of the intentionality and content of beliefs does not work
270
126 Conclusion
279
THE RELATION BETWEEN LANGUAGE COGNITION AND REALITY I
283
132 Arguments for the necessity of ontological Mind Matter dualism
288
THE RELATION BETWEEN LANGUAGE COGNITION AND REALITY II
295
142 Putnams Internal Realism
300
knowledge and description for computational functionalism
308
THE RELATION BETWEEN LANGUAGE COGNITION AND REALITY III
311
152 Some difficulties in accounting for the transition from organism to person
315
153 Arguments against the assumption of an innate language or linguistic structures
318
Conclusion
323
IDENTITY
327
IDENTITY AND IDENTIFICATIONSAME AND DIFFERENT
329
162 Recent positions on the problem of identity and reference
331
an alternative view
339
164 Problems in traditional views on the identity of things
343
165 Identification reference and truth
345
Conclusion
349
PERSONS
353
INTRODUCTION
355
SOME CONSEQUENCES OF EPISTEMOLOGICAL IDEALISM
363
172 Constructivism and the disappearance of reality and persons
366
WITTGENSTEINS THEORIES OF LANGUAGE
383
182 Wittgensteins language games
386
183 Tractatus
389
184 Investigations
397
THE EXTERNAL WORLD AND THE INTERNAL
405
192 Wittgensteins private language arguments
409
193 Sensation of the internal as opposed to observation of the external
420
194 Internal states and sensations of the internal
426
195 The internal and external of a person
430
196 The status of descriptions of internal states
432
197 Conclusion
436
THE INTERSUBJECTIVITY OF KNOWLEDGE AND LANGUAGE
439
202 Personal versus public knowledge and experiences
440
203 The principle of the interdependency of the notions of truth and others
443
204 Social Constructionism and the relativism of Wittgensteins later works
452
THE CONDITIONS FOR PEOPLE TO BE AND FUNCTION AS PERSONS SUMMARY AND CONSEQUENCES
467
211 The necessary relation between the personal and the public knowledge of persons
475
212 Equality as a necessary condition for communication and cooperation between persons
478
REFERENCES
483
INDEX
489
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