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Britain the Angles spread East and North; the Jutes fixed themselves in Kent and soon disappeared in absorption ; the Frisic Saxons took the South and the West. The Angles, who were probably the most numerous of the three divisions, conquered rapidly all the East country upwards from Suffolk to Lothian and established the kingdom of Northumbria, as well as that of Mercia in the Midlands. They soon became the most powerful and prosperous division of the Theods, while their conquest of the British kingdom of Strathclyde simply served to set hordes of Cumbrian warriors free to move southward into Wales, to maintain the struggle against the Frisic Saxons. This long and bitter struggle which really did not end for eight centuries, was the cause that the name of Saxon has lasted till the present day amongst the Gael and the Cymry to designate the Theodish invaders and their descendants.

At the beginning of the seventh century Pope Gregory sent a mission to civilize the Angles,by which preponderant name he evidently understood the whole of the Theodish settlers in Britain. It was successful in its Christianising efforts, among the Saxons and Jutes (in Essex, Kent, and Sussex); churches were built and priests taught to write in Roman letters ; but the Angles had already met with the Irish missionaries of Iona, and had learned the art of writing. The script Columba had brought from Ireland was the Irish modification of Roman letters which have for many centuries been described as Irish or Anglo-Saxon. They were communicated to the Christianised Angles by the monks of Hy, and the alphabet made perfect by the necessary addition of th and w from the Runic system of the Goths. From that moment the remaining Theods throughout England, Saxons and Jutes, were filled with admiration for the scriptura Anglica or litera Anglicæ, and all the churchmen hurried to learn them in preference to the litera Romana introduced by Augustine in Canterbury. "The Irish script was neater and more easily written than the cursive Roman of that age; and for over four centuries it ruled in Britain under the name of Anglish letters. Consequently the cultivated Anglian speech soon became the language of scholars, and when the southern King Alfred wrote on engelsс he stamped upon the tongue of this country the name which it was to bear henceforward. From this it was but a step to calling the land England and all the people Englishmen.

The so-called Anglo-Saxon language, which was simply Theodish -as written by the Angles

, has gone on modifying, developing, and forming itself from the eighth century to the nineteenth. The speech chosen by writers was that of the North, while the poorer Southern speech sank into the position of a mother of dialects which are still to-day living in the Southern provinces. From about 850 to 1000, invaders from Scandinavia brought the Norse tongue into England, which blended easily with its Anglian sister and helped to give a strain to the future of the English language. From 1050—1200 the Romanic tongue of Northern France was introduced to such an extent that it has left a wide and permanent impress upon the vocabulary. So great was the influx of French speakers into England that from 1150 to 1200 this country was absolutely the chief home of French literature, and the political influence of the kings of England helped to ensure the

triumph of Paris over Toulouse in the formation of a French kingdom haring a dominant North French language. The Anglish language as Il cultivated written speech died out by 1200, and its unwritten spoken form was rapidly modified by French influence. This spoken form waslittle written till after Edward I's conquest of Scotland had brought the purer Anglian of Lothian into touch again with the languishing speech of old England; but in the Prick of Conscience, which made its appearance about 1330, we find ourselves in the presence of distinctly modern English in its rude early phase. A generation or two later Barbour, Gower, Chaucer, and Wickliffe exhibit the language in its perfect mould, but it is not till 1520 that we reach the stage at which the written speech used by Tyndale, Skelton, Surrey, Wyat, and Coverdale becomes familiar and wholly comprehensible to the folk of our own time. The beginning of the sixteenth century may therefore be taken as a starting point for modern literature.

The English language is now spoken by 120,000,000 of people.

1.-ENGLISH, BRITISH, AND ANGLO-NORMAN WRITERS

700—1500
in chronological order

£ $. d. I THE POET OF THE BEOWULF (about 600-700) The Anglo Saxon

Poems of Beowulf, The Travellers Song and the Battle of Finnesburh.
Edited by J. M. KemBLE. Second Edition. 2 vols., 12mo., cloth,
uncut

Pickering, 1835-37 1 12 0 2 THORKELIN. De Danorum Rebus Gestis Secul. III & IV. Poëma Danicum

dialecto Anglosaxonica. Ex Bibliotheca Cottoniana Musæi Britannici
edidit versione Lat. et indicibus auxit G. J. Thorkelin, 4to., Uds.

Hauniae, 1815 0 4 6 3 ST. ADAMNAN, 624-703. The Life of St. Columba, founder of Hy,

written by Adamdan . . Latin (from an eighth-century MS.), with
copious notes and dissertations : by William Reeves, small 4to.
facsimiles from the MS., and map; cloth, uncut

Irish Archæological and Celtic Society, Dublin, 1857 2 0 0 the same, issued on Large Paper, 4to. cloth Bannatyne Club, 1857 6 0 0

Altbough an Irishman, Adamnan or Awnan was nevertheless a native of the Prytanic Islands. It was his monastery which taught the Angles to write and thus led to the baptism of the written language as Anglish. He wrote the life of St. Columba

about 690.
5 THE LAW-MAKERS, 680-1150. ANCIENT LAWS and Institutes of

England; also Monumenta Ecclesiastica Anglicana ; and the ancient
Latin Version of the Anglo-Saxon Laws. With a Compendious
Glossary by Thorpe, etc. 2 vols., roy. 8vo., cloth

1840 2 0 0 6 CÆDMON (died about 700) Metrical Paraphrase of parts of the Holy

Scriptures, Anglo-Saxon and English, by Benjamin Thorpe, roy. 8vo.,
gilt binding

1832 1 8 0 the same, roy. 8vo. bds. uncut

1832 1 10 0 8 Ellis (Henry) Account of Cædmon's Metrical Paraphrase, an illuminated

MS. of the tenth century, 4to. with 53 plates in facsimile of the minis-
tures; sd. 158 ; or, hf. bd.

1833 0 18 0 9 ROYAL CHARTERS (about 700-1000). Codex Diplomaticus Ævi

Saxonici opera Johannis M. Kemble. 6 vols. 8vo. with facsimile plates ;
cloth

1839 5 0 0 - the same, bds. uncut

1839 5 10 0

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Britain the Angles spread East and North ; the Jutes fixed themselves in Kent and soon disappeared in absorption ; the Frisic Saxons took the South and the West. The Angles, who were probably the most numerous of the three divisions, conquered rapidly all the East country upwards from Suffolk to Lothian and established the kingdom of Northumbria, as well as that of Mercia in the Midlands. They soon became the most powerful and prosperous division of the Theods, while their conquest of the British kingdom of Strathclyde simply served to set hordes of Cumbrian warriors free to more southward" into Wales, to maintain the struggle against the Frisic Saxons. This long and bitter struggle which really did not end for eight centuries, was the cause that the name of Saxon has lasted till the present day amongst the Gael and the Cymry to designate the Theodish invaders and their descendants.

At the beginning of the seventh century Pope Gregory sent a mission to civilize the Angles,by which preponderant name he evidently understood the whole of the Theodish settlers in Britain. It was successful in its Christianising efforts, among the Saxons and Jutes (in Essex, Kent, and Sussex); churches were built and priests taught to write in Roman letters ; but the Angles had already met with the Irish missionaries of Iona, and had learned the art of writing. The script Columba had brought from Irelanul was the Irish modification of Roman letters which have for many centuries been described as Irish or Anglo-Saxon. They were communicated to the Christianised Angles by the monks of lly, and the alphabet made perfect by the necessary addition of th and w from the Runic system of the Goths. From that moment the remaining Theods throughout England, Saxons and Jutes, vere filled with admiration for the scriptura Anglica or litera Anglicæ, and all the churchmen hurried to learn them in preference to the litera Romana introduced by Augustine in Canterbury. The Irish script was neater and more easily written than the cursive Roman of that age ; and for over four centuries it ruled in Britain under the name of Anglish letters. Consequently the cultivated Anglian speech soon became the language of scholars, and when the southern King Alfred wrote on engelsс he stamped upon the tongue of this country the name which it was to bear henceforward. From this it was but a step to calling the land England and all the people Englishmen.

The so-called Anglo-Saxon language, which was simply Theodish as written by the Angles, has gone on modifying, developing, and forming itself from the eighth century to the nineteenth. The speech chosen by writers was that of the North, while the poorer Southern speech sank into the position of a mother of dialects which are still to-day living in the Southern provinces. From about 850 to 1000, invaders from Scandinavia brought the Norse tongue into England, which blended easily with its Anglian sister and helped to give a strain to the future of the English language. From 1050—1200 the Romanic tongue of Northern France was introduced to such an extent that it has left a wide and permanent impress upon the vocabulary. So great was the influx of French speakers into England that from 1150 to 1200 this country was absolutely the chief home of French literature, and the political influence of the kings of England helped to ensure the

triumph of Paris over Toulouse in the formation of a French kingdom having a dominant North French language. The Anglish language as a cultivated written speech died out by 1200, and its unwritten spoken form was rapidly modified by French influence. This spoken form waslittle written till after Edward I's conquest of Scotland had brought the purer Anglian of Lothian into touch again with the languishing speech of old England; but in the Prick of Conscience, which made its appearance about 1330, we find ourselves in the presence of distinctly modern English in its rude early phase. A generation or two later Barbour, Gover, Chaucer, and Wickliffe exhibit the language in its perfect mould, but it is not till 1520 that we reach the stage at which the written speech used by Tyndale, Skelton, Surrey, Wyat, and Coverdale becomes familiar and wholly comprehensible to the folk of our own time. The beginning of the sixteenth century may therefore be taken as a starting point for modern literature.

The English language is now spoken by 120,000,000 of people.

I.-ENGLISH, BRITISH, AND ANGLO-NORMAN WRITERS

700—1500
in chronological order

£ 8. d. 1 THE POET OF THE BEOWULF (about 600-700) The Anglo Saxon

Poems of Beowulf, The Travellers Song and the Battle of Finnesburh.
Edited by J. M. KEMBLE. Second Edition. 2 vols., 12mo., cloth,
uncut

Pickering, 1835-37 1 12 0 2 THORKELIN. De Danorum Rebus Gestis Secul. III & IV. Poëma Danicum

dialecto Anglosaxonica. Ex Bibliotheca Cottoniana Musæi Britannici
edidit versione Lat. et indicibus auxit G. J. Thorkelin, 4to., Vds.

Hauniae, 1815 0 4 6 3 ST. ADAMNAN, 624-703. The Life of St. Columba, founder of Hy,

written by Adamdan . . Latin (from an eighth-century MS.), with
copious notes and dissertations by William Reeves, small 4to.
facsimiles from the MS., and map; cloth, uncut

Irish Archæological and Celtic Society, Dublin, 1857 2 0 0 the same, issued on Large Paper, 4to. cloth Bannatyne Club, 1857 6 0 0

Although an Irishman, Adamnan or Awnan was nevertheless a native of the Prytanic Islands. It was his monastery which taught the Angles to write and thus led to the baptism of the written language as Anglish. He wrote the life of St. Columba

about 690.
: THE LAW-MAKERS, 680-1150. ANCIENT LAWS and Institutes of

England; also Monumenta Ecclesiastica Anglicana ; and the ancient
Latin Version of the Anglo-Saxon Laws. With a Compendious
Glossary by Thorpe, etc. 2 vols., roy. 8vo., cloth

1840 2 0 0 6 CÆDMON (died about 700) Metrical Paraphrase of parts of the Holy

Scriptures, Anglo-Saxon and English, by Benjamin Thorpe, roy. 8vo.
gilt binding

1832 1 8 0 the same, roy. 8vo. bds. uncut

1832 1 10 0 8 Ellis (Henry) Account of Cædmon's Metrical Paraphrase, an illuminated

MS. of the tenth century, 4to. with 53 plates in facsimile of the minis-
tures; sd. 158; or, hf.bd.

1833 0 18 0 ROYAL CHARTERS (about 700-1000). Codex Diplomaticus Ævi

Saxonici opera Johannis M. Kemble. 6 vols. Svo. with facsimile plates ;
cloth

1839 5 0 0 the same, bds. uncut

1839 5 10 0 £ 8. d.

2 12 6

10 CARTULARIUM SAXONICUM: a Collection of Charters relating to

Anglo-Saxon History, by Walter de Gray BIRCH, F.S.A., of the British
Museum, 32 parts, forming Vols. I, II, and III, crown 4to. (published
at £4.), cloth

1883-93
As far as the work has advanced, it comprises upwards of 1500 documents in Latin
and Saxon, from A.D. 4:30 to 968, with an analysis of the contents of each Charter in
English.

In addition to the Charters published in the Codeo Diplomaticus of the late Mr. J. M. Kemble, the Diplomatarium Anglicum of the late Mr. B. Thorpe, the Councils of the late Rev. A. W. Haddan and Rev. W. Stubbs, M.A., Lord Bishop of Oxford, the Facsimiles of Ancient Charters in the British Museum, edited by Mr. E. A. Bond, late Principal Librarian, and the Facsimiles of the Ordnance Survey, a considerable number of texts are included that have never been printed before, from MSS. in the British Museum, and other libraries, and the correct reading has been restored to many texts hitherto printed inaccurately.

11 INDEX SAXONICUS: an Index to the Names of Persons in the

CARTULARIUM Saxonicum, a Collection of Charters relating to Anglo-
Saxon History, by WALTER DE GRAY Birch, LL.D., F.S.A., of the
Department of MSS. British Museum.

It is proposed to issue a full Index to the names, upwards of twelve
thousand in number, of the witnesses and other personages mentioned
in the thirteen hundred and fifty Charters which constitute this work.
It need scarcely be pointed out that this Index will add greatly to the
value of the largest collection of Anglo-Saxon Charters and documents
that has been published, and will form the most extensive Index
Nominum of this period yet attempted ; valuable not only as a list of
the most noted persons, both in Church and State, but also for the
Anglo-Saxon or earliest English family nomenclature, which throws
light on the origin of many of our modern surnames.

The Index has been carefully compiled under the superintendence of the Editor, and will be issued uniformly with the CARTULARIUM Saxonicum in one thick part, bound in paper boards, at the price of £1. ls, or bound in cloth, uniform with the CARTULARIUM

Two hundred copies only will be printed, and names of intending Subscribers should be sent to me at once.

1 30

12 BÆDA, BEDE, 672-735. DE ARTE METRICA. Page 1: dux aut in unam

desinit consonantem .. Page 3 : At uo in exametro carmine concatena-
tio ūsuŭ plurimo2 solet ēē gratissima Page 12: Explicit de
metrica Arte lib bede famuli xpi lege feliciter 4to.

MS. ON
VELLUM, 6 leaves, not perfect ; in bds.

About 880-900 48 0 0
Said to be the oldest text now extant of this work of Bede's.

:

13 BEDA DE RATIONE TEMPORUM. Pag. 1: Incipit Liber de Temporibus Bede

Prbri. De compoto vel loquela digitorum. Pag. 2: De Temporum
ratione domino iuuante dicturi necessarium duximus utilissimam
primo promptissimamque flexos digitorum paucis premonstrare soller-
tiam ut cum maximam computandi dederimus facilitatem .. Pa. 27:
. . De mensibus Anglorum .. Pa. 136 : . . Explicit liber Bede de
temporibus .. Sequuntur quedam partes de ratione computandi ab
ipso viro insite. Page 147 : : . Finito xps rex libro sit benedictus.
Folio, FINE MS. ON VELLUM; old French calj gilt About 1140-50 20 0 0

The chapter on the months of the Angles contains some expressions which
represent almost the earliest occurrence on books of words of the English language.
For instance, January is called Giuli = Yule ; February Solmonath sun month;
March Rethmonath Reed month; April Eustermonath - Eastermonth; May
Trimilci = Three-milk-month ; June and July Lithamonath Light month; August
Weodmonath Wood-month; September Aligmonath Holy month ; October
Uinterfillith Winter-filling ; November Blodmonath = Blood month ; December,
the same as January, Giuli = Yule. The MS. comprises further twenty-one leaves of
Chronological Tables (said to be by Magister Hugo) ending in one section with A.D.
1038, in another A.D. 1048 ; sixteen leaves of an astronomical Treatise, said to be
ISIDORUS de Natura Rerum, in which the forty-sixth (the last) chapter is about Mount
Eina ; and twenty-one leaves of Isidori Differentiæ.

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