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Voluntarily therefore and of right we congratulate this acces-
sion of dignity to your egregious merits, and the most worthy
guerdon of so much virtue. And that it may be lucky and
prosperous to your majesty, to the nation of the Swedes, and
the true Christian interest, which is also what you chiefly wish,
with joint supplications we implore of God. And whereas
your majesty assures us, that the preserving entire the league
and alliance lately concluded between this republic and the
kingdom of Sweden shall be so far your care, that the present
amity may not only continue firm and inviolable, but, if pos
sible, every day increase and grow to a higher perfection, to
call it into question would be a piece of impiety, after the
word of so great a prince once interposed, whose surpassing
fortitude has not only purchased your majesty an hereditary
kingdom in a foreign land, but also could so far prevail, that
the most august queen, the daughter of Gustavus, and a
heroess so matchless in all degrees of praise and masculine
renown, that many ages backward have not produced her
equal, surrendered the most just possession of her empire to
your majesty, neither expecting nor willing to accept it. Now
therefore it is our main desire, your majesty should be every
way assured, that your so singular affection towards us, and
so eminent a signification of your mind, can be no other than
most dear and welcome to us; and that no combat can offer
itself to us more glorious, than such a one wherein we may,
if possible, prove victorious in outdoing your majesty's
civility by our kind offices, that never shall be wanting.
Your majesty's most affectionate,

OLIVER, protector of the commonwealth of
England, Scotland, and Ireland, &c.

Westminster July 4, 1654.

To the most Illustrious Lord, Lewis Mendez de Haro.

WHAT We have understood by your letters, most illustrious lord, that there is an ambassador already nominated and appointed by the most serene king of Spain, on purpose to come and congratulate our having undertaken the government of the republic, is not only deservedly acceptable of itself, but rendered much more welcome and pleasing to us by your singular affection, and the speed of your civility, as

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being desirous we should understand it first of all from yourself. For, to be so beloved and approved by your lordship, who by your virtue and prudence have obtained so great authority with your prince, as to preside, his equal in mind, over all the most important affairs of that kingdom, ought to be so much the more pleasing to us, as well understanding that the judgment of a surpassing person cannot but be much to our honour and ornament. Now as to our cordial inclinations toward the king of Spain, and ready propensity to hold friendship with that kingdom, and increase it to a stricter perfection, we hope we have already satisfied the present ambassador, and shall more amply satisfy the other so soon as he arrives. As to what remains, most illustrious lord, we heartily wish the dignity and favour, wherein you now flourish with your prince, perpetual to your lordship; and whatever affairs you carry on for the public good, may prosperously and happily succeed.

Your illustrious lordship's most affectionate,

Whitehall, Sept. 1654.

To the most Serene Prince, CHARLES GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS King of the SWEDES, GOTHS, and VANDALS, &c.

BEING SO well assured of your majesty's goodwill towards me by your last letters, in answer to which I wrote back with the same affection, methinks I should do no more than what our mutual amity requires, if as I communicate my grateful tidings to reciprocal joy, so when contrary accidents fall out, that I should lay open the sense and grief of my mind to your majesty, as my dearest friend. For my part, this is my opinion of myself, that I am now advanced to this degree in the commonwealth, to the end I should consult in the first place and as much as in me lies, for the common peace of the protestants. Which is the reason, that of necessity it behoves me more grievously to lay to heart what we are sorry to hear concerning the bloody conflicts and mutual slaughters of the Bremeners and Swedes. But this I chiefly bewail, that being both our friends, they should so despitefully combat one against another, and with so much danger to the interests of the protestants; and that the peace of Munster, which it was

thought would have proved an asylum and safeguard to all the protestants, should be the occasion of such an unfortunate war, that now the arms of the Swedes are turned upon those whom but a little before, among the rest, they most stoutly defended for religion's sake; and that this should be done more especially at this time, when the papists are said to persecute the reformed all over Germany, and to return to their intermitted for some time oppressions, and their pristine violences. Hearing, therefore, that a truce for some days was made at Breme, I could not forbear signifying to your majesty, upon this opportunity offered, how cordially I desire, and how earnestly I implore the God of peace, that this truce may prove successfully happy for the good of both parties, and that it may conclude in a most firm peace, by a commodious accommodation on both sides. To which purpose, if your majesty judges that my assistance may any ways conduce, I most willingly offer and promise it, as in a thing, without question, most acceptable to the most holy God. In the mean time, from the bottom of my heart, I beseech the Almighty to direct and govern all your counsels for the common welfare of the Christian interest, which I make no doubt but that your majesty chiefly desires.

Your majesty's most affectionate,


Whitehall, Oct. 26, 1654.

To the Magnificent and most Noble, the Consuls and
Senators of the City of BREME.

By your letters delivered to us by your resident Henry Oldenburgh, that there is a difference kindled between your city and a most potent neighbour, and to what straits you are thereby reduced, with so much the more trouble and grief we understand, by how much the more we love and embrace the city of Breme, so eminent above others for their profession of the orthodox faith. Neither is there anything which we account more sacred in our wishes, than that the whole protestant name would knit and grow together in brotherly unity and concord. In the mean time, most certain it is, that the common enemy of the reformed rejoices at these our dissensions, and more haughtily everywhere exerts his fury.


in regard the controversy, which at present exercises your contending arms, is not within the power of our decision, we implore the Almighty God, that the truce begun may obtain a happy issue. Assuredly, as to what you desired, we have written to the king of the Swedes, exhorting him to peace and agreement, as being most chiefly grateful to heaven, and have offered our assistance in so pious a work. On the other side, we likewise exhort yourselves to bear an equal mind, and by no means to refuse any honest conditions of reconciliation. And so we recommend your city to divine protection and Providence.

Your lordship's most affectionate,

OLIVER, protector of the commonwealth of England, &c

Whitehall, Oct. 26, 1654.

OLIVER, Protector of the Republic of ENGLAND, to the most Illustrious Prince of TARENTUM.

YOUR love of religion apparently made known in your letters to us delivered, and your excelling piety and singular affection to the reformed churches, more especially considering the nobility and splendour of your character, and in a kingdom, too, wherein there are so many and such abounding hopes proposed to all of eminent quality that revolt from the orthodox faith, so many miseries to be undergone by the resolute and constant, gave us an occasion of great joy and consolation of mind. Nor was it less grateful to us, that we had gained your good opinion, upon the same account of religion, which ought to render your highness most chiefly beloved and dear to ourselves. We call God to witness, that whatever hopes or expectations the churches according to your relation had of us, we may be able one day to give them satisfaction, if need require, or at least to demonstrate to all men, how much it is our desire never to fail them. Nor should we think any fruit of our labours, or of this dignity or supreme employment which we hold in our republic, greater than that we might be in a condition to be serviceable to the enlargement, or the welfare, or, which is more sacred, to the peace of the reformed church. In the mean time, we exhort and beseech your lordship to remain steadfast to the last minute in the orthodox

religion, with the same resolution and constancy as you profess it received from your ancestors with piety and zeal. Nor indeed can there be anything more worthy yourself, or your religious parents, nor in consideration of what you have deserved of us, though we wish all things for your own sake, that we can wish more noble or advantageous to your lordship, than that you would take such methods, and apply yourself to such studies, that the churches, especially of your native country, under the discipline of which your birth and genius have rendered you illustriously happy, may be sensible of so much the more assured security in your protection, by how much you excel others in lustre and ability.

Whitehall, April —, 1654.

OLIVER, the Protector, &c., to the most Serene Prince, IMMANUEL Duke of SAVOY, Prince of Piemont, Greeting.

Most Serene Prince,

LETTERS have been sent us from Geneva, as also from the Dauphinate, and many other places bordering upon your territories, wherein we are given to understand, that such of your royal highness's subjects as profess the reformed religion, are commanded by your edict, and by your authority, within three days after the promulgation of your edict, to depart their native seats and habitations, upon pain of capital punishment, and forfeiture of all their fortunes and estates, unless they will give security to relinquish their religion within twenty days, and embrace the Roman catholic faith. And that when they applied themselves to your royal highness in a most suppliant manner, imploring a revocation of the said edict, and that, being received into pristine favour, they might be restored to the liberty granted them by your predecessors, a part of your army fell upon them, most cruelly slew several, put others in chains, and compelled the rest to fly into desert places, and to the mountains covered with snow, where some hundreds of families are reduced to such distress, that it is greatly to be feared, they will in a short time all miserably perish through cold and hunger. These things, when they were related to us, we could not choose but be touched with extreme grief and compassion for the sufferings and calamities of this afflicted people. Now in regard we must acknowledge ourselves

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