Perception & Reality: A History from Descartes to Kant
In 1984, John W. Yolton published Perceptual Acquaintance from Descartes to Reid. His most recent book builds on that seminal work and greatly extends its relevance to issues in current philosophical debate.
Perception and Reality examines the theories of perception implicit in the work of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century philosophers which centered on the question: How is knowledge of the body possible? That question raises issues of mind-body relation, the way that mentality links with physicality, and the nature of the known world. In contrast to commonsense realism, which suggests that the world is as it appears to be, a more complex theory developed throughout this period. Yolton traces its evolution from Descartes to Kant, via Arnauld, Malebranche, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume.
Yolton explains that the new theory postulated two interactive relations between perceivers and the physical world, one physical and causal, the other cognitive. An understanding of this double relation is important for an accurate construction of the history of philosophy. It is also important for contemporary thought because it suggests a way to account for representation (cognitivity) and realism at the same time.
Gibsons Realism and Valbergs Puzzle
The Term Idea in Seventeenth
The Language of Presence to the Mind
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analysis Antoine Arnauld appearances Arnauld Ayers Berkeley and Hume Berkeley's body brain motions causal causal relation cause chapter characterizes claim cognitive color concept Descartes direct realism distinction doctrine epistemic Essay example experience external objects faculty Gibson Hume's ical idealism Ideas as Images imagist interactive relation interpretation Kant Kant's knowledge language Leibniz Locke Locke's Malebranche means mental contents modes of mind natural signs nerves and brain objective reality objects existing ontic ontology open to experience ordinary objects passages perceiver Perception and Reality Perceptual Acquaintance perceptual awareness phenomena philosophers physical motion physical objects physical world present principle processes properties psychological qualia reality of ideas refers Reid rejection representation representative resemblance Rorty Semantic Relation sensations sense impressions sense organs sensible shapes sign relation significatory signifies soul speaks substance suggests talk term idea theory things Thomas Reid thoughts tion transcendental transcendental idealism Treatise understanding Valberg words writers