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This eminent and excellent prelate, was the second son of the rev. Mr. Samuel Hoadly, and was born at Westram, in Kent, on the 14th of November, 1676. He was educated under the care of his father, who kept a private school, till he was admitted of Ca. therine-hall, Cambridge, under Mr. Long, afterwards bishop of Norwich. As soon as he had taken the degree of master-of-arts, he became a tutor, and discharged that office two years with the highest reputation. In 1698, he was admitted into deacon's orders by Dr. Compton, bishop of London ; and into priest's orders in 1700, by the same prelate. He was now appointed to the lectureship of St. Mildred, in the Poultry, in which office he continued ten years ; 'ufficiating at the same time for Mr. Hodges, rec. tor of St. Swithin’s, during his absence at sea as chaplain-general of the fleet, in 1702. Two years after, he obtained the rectory of St. Peters's Poor, in Broad-street London : and about this time

VOL. IV.

he published a piece, entitled, « The Reasonableness of Conformi. ty to the Church of England,"? &c.

In 1705, Mr. Hoadly preached a sermon before the lord-mayor - of London, which gave great offence to the tories and high.

churchmen. He printed the sermon, and also defended it in a piece, entitled, “ The Measures of Submission to the civil Magistrate considered ; in a Defence of the Doctrine delivered in a Sermon," &c. The following year, he preached a sermon at the assizes at Hertiord, which was printed under the title of " The Happiness of the present Establishment, and Unhappiness of Ab, solute Monarchy.”

In 1709, Mr. Hoadly was engaged in a dispute with Dr. At. terbury, concerning Passive Obedience, occasioned by that divine’s Latin sermon, entitled, “ Concio ad Clerum Londinensem, habita in Ecclesia S. Elphegi.—The doctor, in a pamphlet entitled, 66 Some Proceedings in Convocation, A. D. 1705, faithfully re. presented,” had charged Mr. Hoadly (whom he sneerīngly calls the modest and moderate Mr. Hoadly) with treating the body of the established Clergy with language more disdainful and reviling, than it would have become him to have used towards his presbyterian antagonist upon any provocation"; charging them with re. bellion in the church, whilst he himself was preaching it up in the state." This induced Mr. Hoadly to set about a particular examination of Dr. Atterbury's latin sermon; which he did in a piece entitled, “ A Large Answer to Dr. Atterbury's Charge of 'Rebellion, &c.” wherein he endea yours to lay open the doctor's artful management of the controversy, and to let the reader into his true meaning and design, Thiş "Answer” was added to another treatise, entitled, “The Original and Institution of Civil Govern ment' discussed, viz. 1. An Examination of the Patriarchical Government. 2. A Defence of Mr. Hookes's Judgment, &c. against the Objections of several late Writers.”—In this debate, Mr. Hoadly signalized himself in a very high degree, and immedia ately after the publication of this last work, his constant labours, in the cause of civil and religious liberty, were most honorably distinguished by a vote of the house of commons, in his favor, which was expressed in these terms :-“ Resolved, 1. That the reverend Mr. Benjamin Hoadly, rector of St. Peter's Poor, London, for

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having often justified the principles on which her majesty and the nation proceeded in the late happy revolution, has justly merited the favor and recommendation of this house. 2. That an humble address be presented to her majesty, that she would be graciously pleased to bestow some dignity in the church on Mr. Hoadly, for his eminent services both to church and state.” The queen answered, “ That she would take a proper opportunity to comply with their desires ;" which however she never did.

But though our divine was not honored with the royal patronage, the just and noble principles which he had espoused, notwithstanding they were extremely repugnant to the general temper of those times, recommended him to the favor and protection of private munificence. For in February, 1710, he was presented by Mrs. Howland to the rectory of Streatham, in Surrey; as a qualification for which he was honored with a chaplainship to his grace Wriothesley duke of Bedford. This act of generosity was attended with such circumstances, as greatly enhanced the obligation; the remembrance of which Mr. Foadly has gratefully endeavoured to perpetuate in his writings. “I cannot but think it a due, in point of gratitude to her memory," says he, speaking of his patroness, « publicly to acknowledge this singular obligation to her, that in the year 1710, when fury seemed to be let loose, and to distinguish me particularly, she herself, unasked, unapplied to, without my having ever seen her, or been seen by her, chose by presenting me to the rectory of Streatham, then just vacant, to shew, in her own expression, That she was neither ashamed nor afraid to give me that public mark of her regard at that critical time.. To her likewise he afterwards inscribed his volume of sermons on “ The Terms of Acceptance ;” and on the first of May, 1719, preached her funeral sermon in Streatham church.

Mr. Hoadly was the reputed author of several occasional little political pieces thrown out at this time ; which were reprinted some years after, in one volume, and called, “ A Collection of several Pieces, printed in the year 1710." He likewise distinguished himself in the proper business of his profession, by publishing “ Several Discourses on the Terms of acceptance with God,” &c. the occasion and design of which he thus explains, in a preface addressed to the parishoniers of St. Peter's Poor: “ It has been long my opinion,” says he, “ that the bad lives of christians are not owing so much to their ignorance of what is truly evil and sinful, as to a certain secret hope of God's favor, built upon something separated from the constant practice of all that is virtuous and praiseworthy. This made me choose to spend some time in establishing, after the most unexceptionable manner, the true grounds upon which only it is reasonable to build our expectations of happiness, and in demonstrating the great danger and weakness of depending on any other methods." This publication was fols lowed by some occasional sermons, and political tracts, which together with many other pieces of an earlier date, were collected, and reprinted, in one volume, in the year 1715. Mr. Hóadly was also the concealed, but undoubted author of “A large Dedication to the Pope (Clement XI.), giving him a particular Account of the State of Religion amongst Protestants, and of several other Matters of Importance relating to Great Britain ;" a celebrated performance which appeared about this time, under the name of sir Richard Steele, being annexed to that gentleman's " Account of the State of the Roman Catholic Religion throughout the World.”

Soon after the accession of George 1. our divine was admitted and sworn king's chaplain ; having before been honored with the degree of doctor in divinity by archbishop Wake. This was a prelude to higher promotions, which were not long delayed; for in December, 1715, he was appointed to the bishopric of Bangor, and consecrated on the 8th of March following ; with which he held both his livings in Commendam. . i

The next year, his lordship published a piece, entitled, “A Preservation against the principles and Practices of the Nonjurors both in church and state ; or, An Appeal to the Consciences and Common Sense of the Christian Laity." And in the year 1717, he preached before the king, his famous sermon on “ The Nature of the Kingdom.or church of Christ ;" which being immediately printed by special command, so great offence was taken by the clergy at the doctrines therein delivered, that it was resolved to proceed against him in convocation, as soon as it should sit. The lower house accordingły drew up their representation, &c. but before it could be brought into the upper house, that whole assembly

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