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fee no very striking marks of. capacity and genius in his work, and his ftile appears to be affected, and frequently obscure.
There are, however, good materials in this publication, and many hints and remarks, that may suggest salutary views and useful measures to legislators; but we cannot approve of the too great propenfity which this writer discovers to modify penal restraints according to the reigning manpers of the time; for though this is prudent in some cases, yet it may favour corruption in others; and it is one of the purposes of penal legislation to correct the manners of a people, as well as to prevent those enormities, that strike at the subsistence of civil society, - though here we acknowledge, indeed, the imperfection of its influence.
The work before us contains three Parts. In the first, the Author fixes the nature of crimes, and places them in several claffes, agrecably to their names, kinds, and importance, which vary, increase, or diminish, according to the climate, government, manners, and religion of the country in which they are committed. To the list of crimes is annexed a correspondent list of punishments, all adapted to the nature and moment of the crimes. In the second Part, our Author examines the nature and strength of the different kinds of evidence, direct or presumptive, that are generally adopted in the trial of delinquents. A matter of the highest consequence, and not injudiciously discussed. The third Part exhibits a plain and easy method of procedure, adapted to avenge, speedily, the injured citizen, without infringing upon the rights of the accused. But if it is of consequence to society that punishment be inflated upon the disturbers of its peace, it is still more essential to restrain the hand of the delinquent, and to prevent the violation of justice and order. Our Author, therefore, treats two questions relative to this important object. The first regards the beft method of preventing crimes; the second, relates to the execution of good laws, with which the public tribunals are intrusted. The number and constitution of these tribunals, the nomination of the judges, and the permanent or temporary duration of sheir functions are amply considered under this article.
II. La Mechanique appliquée aux Arts, aux Munufaclures, • l’Agriculture, et à la Guerre : i. c. Mechanics applied to Arts, Manufactures, Agriculture, and Military Operations. By M. BERTHELOT, Mechanical-Engineer to the King. Volume I. 410. 141 Pages. Enriched with 120: Plates. Paris. 1782. -This curious and valuable work is the fruit of intense application and expensive experiments, carried on during forty years, and compensated by many useful discoveries. The King and the Royal Academy of Sciences have honoured che inventions of this ingenious Mechanician with solid proofs of their approbation; bis mills have been constructed at Bicitre, by the order
of government, and his carriages for cannon have been adopted in all the fortified cities and porcs of France. We find here a multitude of curious machines circumftantially described, and represented in engravings; and the Author offers his aflittance to those, who may be desirous of having any of them conftructed.
III. Voyage Pittoresque, ou Description des Royaumes de Naples et de Sicile, &c. i.e. Travels, represented in a series of Engravings, through Naples and Sicily, together with a Description of these Kingdoms. Part I. Containing an Account of their Revolutions-Maps, Prans, and Views of the Kingdom and city of Naples, its Palaces, and Sepulchral Monuments—an Account of its Poets, Painters, and Musicians-a Description of Mount Vesuvius, and a History of its Eruptions-a View of - the Manners and Customs of the Neapolitans, and of the Government, Commerce, and natural Productions of their Country. Felio. 250 Pages. Enriched with 50 Plates, together with 40 Head-pieces, representing Medals, Portraits, and Paint. ings. Price about Six Pounds Sterling. Paris. 1781.These beautiful engravings, preceded the description which is here published, and appeared succeslively in separate numbers fince the year 1778. The drawings' were made upon the spot by Messrs. Després, Renard, Chatelet, Paris, &c. and they were engraved by Meffrs. Previt, St. Aubin, Aliamet, &c. all artists of the first merit. The explication is the work of the Abbé St. Non, and the part of this publication thac is relative to Natural Philosophy and the Arts, has been revised by learned men of the greatest eminence, and by the most celebrated artists.- The Second PART, which will soon be published, and of which som: of the plates have already appeared, will contain accounts of Heriulaneum, Pompeia, the Campi Phligrai, Campania, or the environs of Naples and Capua, and a Differtation on the Ro. man Shows.-- The two following parts or volumes will contain descrip:ions of Magna Græcia and Sicily.
IV. ADELE et THEODORE ; ou, Lettres sur l'Education, &c. i. e. Adele and THEODORUS; or, Letters concerning Educa. tion; containing all the Principles, that are relative to the dif. ferent Plans of Education, which are to be followed in forming the Characters of Princes, and Persons of both Sexes in Civil Society. 3 Vols. 8vo. Paris. 1782.–The Public is in debted for this performance, which has very great merit amidit feveral imperfections, to Madam Genlis, whose Theatre, which has also education for its object, is well known *. 'These lecters undoubtedly contain wise and usetul instruction, conveyed
An Englih translucion of it was record
mended, in our Review for April 1781. Rev. June 1782. Hh
in a most entertaining and agreeable manner. The imagination of this French Lady is lively, and sometimes leads ber a dance (as the saying is); but, nevertheless, sound reason, good taste, and an extensive knowledge of human nature and human life prevail in this work, which is one of those sensible and well designed romances, that are adapted to form the manners of youth, and to serve the cause of virtue. There is a great variety of portraits in these letters, and malicious interpreters have considered many of them as personal representations ;—but such fufpicions are illiberal: that is levelled at me, may often be a cry against moral writers, who paint life, and catch the manners living as they rise; but it proves no more than that the complainant has looked at himself in the glass,-not that the glass was particularly held up for him.-Thefe letters will be of fingular use to those who prelide over, or are concerned in the education of youth, and indeed for such they seem to have been principally intended. The file is lively, easy, and elegant : it has all the tone of a woman who has kept the best company; and we find often in the expresfion, and in the reflections that reign in this performance, the true philosopher, though without the beard.
V. Leçons elementaires d'Histoire Naturelle et de Chymie, &c. i. e. Elementary Instructions in Natural History and Chemistry; in which it is propoled, ift, To give a methodical Summary of all the Chemical Knowledge that has been obtained from the first Periods of that Science to the present Time ; and 2dly, To exhibit a comparative View of the Doctrines of Stabl, and of some celebrated modern Chemists. By M. DE FOURCROY, M. D. Member of the Royal Scciety of Medicine at Paris. 8vo. 2 Vols. Price 12 Livres. Paris. 1782.- This work is useful for beginners, may atlit those that have proceeded some length in the endlels path, and will be read with pleasure even by adepts.
VI. Memoires concernant l'Histoire, les Sciences, les Arts, &c. i.e. Memoirs concerning the History, Sciences, Arts, Manners and Customs of the Chinese. By the Millionaries of Peking. Vols. VII. and VIII. 410. Pr. 21 Livres. Paris. 1782.-The publishers of this work are much obliged to the labours of the late Father AMIOT, whose pen was always in motion, till death stopped it, for the materials of these two volumes. But we are furprised to see the whole seventh volume filled with a Treatise on the Military Art of the Chinese, compiled and translated by that learned Father from Chinele authors, and which was pubJilhed in the year 1772. This shews pretty clearly, that the materials for the continuation of these Memoirs are not abundant. There is a Supplement to this treatise, published at the end of the oth volume. At the head of this volume, we find the characters of several famous men among the Chinese, trans. lated by F. Amiot from the writers of that country. These are followed by two essays; one on the hierogliphical manner of writing, the other on the Chinese language. These are the labours of M. Cibot, who has treated these subjects with erudition and acuteness, and enriched bis Efiays with ample notes, in which he discusles several points, hitherto little known, relative to the natural history of China, and the state of arts, sciences, and manners in that empire. We are indebted to the same author for the Differtation on the Chinese Pleasure-gardens, in which there are some curious details. But upon the whole, these two volumes do not permit us to say of this work, Crescit eundo.
VII. Chronologie Physique des Eruptions des Volcans eteints de la France Meridionale, depuis celles qui avoisinent la formation de la Terre, jusqu'à celles qui font decrites dans l'Histoire. i. e. A PhysicoChronological Account of the Eruptions of the Volcanos (now extinguished) in the South of France, from those Eruptions that were near the Period of the Earth's Formation, to those which are recorded in History. By the Abbé GIRAUD SOULAVIE. Paris.- Though this publication forms the 4th volume of this Author's Natural Hijiory of the Southern Parts of France, yet it may be considered as a work apart, and is accordingly fold separately. Our philosophical traveller stops sort in his excurfions through the mountains, to meditate on their ancient conflagrations, and avails himself of their modern eruptions to determine the times and periods of those which they must have undergone in the remoti ft ages. Three methods of investigation, founded on the following plain and palpable truths, are employed by this ingenious Naturalist: one current of lava that appears under another, is the anterior of the two-when found on a shelly rock, it announces a submarine volcano, when it covers a Naty or chiffous substance, with impreffions of plants, it fhews that the place was enriched with vegetables before the eruption—when found on the pudding-stone, it indicates the ancient course of a stream, which has been changed by a volcanic effusion. On these plain principles our Author builds his history of the extinguished Volcanos in the South of France, which forms fix diftinct succeflive epochas.
VIII. Cai Silii Italici de Bello Punico secundo Poema, ad fidem Veterum Monimentorum Cafiigatum. Fragmento Operis Integri Auctum; Editio Princeps, Curante J. B. LEFEBVRE DE VILLEBRUNE. 4 Vols. 8vo. 1782.- This is the firft corre&t edition we have of this Roman poet. The happy and elegant corrections of the text have been drawn from four manuscripes, and the first edition published by Pomponius in the year 1471, which seems to have been unknown to all former editors. The work is also rendered more complete by a long fragment, found in H h 2
the library of the King of France, and the whole is accompanied with a French translation, and enriched with a learned and ju. dicious preface, which contains, among other things, a compatative view of the epic poets, ancient and modern. Those who desire to purchase this valuable edition of Silius Italicus without the French translation, may be furnished with the Latin poem alone, which Mr, Lefebvre de Villebrune has published apart.
For J U NE, 1782.
POLITICAL. Art. 17. Corruption corrected: Or the Axe laid to the Root
Bew. 1782. MIDST the acclamations of his country, the author thinks he A
has an undoubred right to discharge his rocket; and like a school. boy in the rear of an applauding multitude, to express, by as after.fhout, his feeble approbation.' APOLOGY prefixed, p. 1.-10 this After-Shout we have Huzza for Fox! Huzza for BURKE! $HELBURNE for ever! KEPPEL for ever! CAMDEN! CONWAY! BARRE'! ROCKINGHAM! RICHMOND! &c. &c. Huzza for ALL!
In discriminating the species of oratory by which Demofthenes and Tully are respectively characterized (in order to introduce some remarks on the eloquence of Mr. Fox), the author juftly confiders the illu!'rious modern as perhaps the most convincing and interesting orator that has yet appeared on the stage of public life.' Art. 18. The Criterion : Or, Disquisitions on the present Ad
miniftration, addressed to Sir George Saville, Bart. By Joseph Williams, E'q; Author of Confiderations or the American War. 410. 19. Hookham. 1782.
Mr. Williams appears to be a man of sense, but, in this performance, at least, be hews himself to be a defultory writer; throwing out hines and remarks in a loose, abrupt, unconnected way. He ireads the whole circle of political ground; but it is difficult for ibe reader to ascertain, with precision, what the Author would eltablic or avcw, except it be his utter reprobation of every idea of Añerican Independency: A point on which he inlisted more at large in his " Conhde:ations on the American War," mentioned in our Review for April, p. 300.-What he now means by his title of “ The Criterion," is not very obvious to us. Art. 19. Impartial Reflections on the Conduct of the late Admini
niftration and Oppofition, and of the American Congresi : In which the Causes and Consequences of the dettructive War between Great Britain and the Revolied Colonies are particularly considered, and an immediate Suspension of Hoftilities is carnestly recommended. 8vo. 18 6d. Nicoll.
This Writer improves the many opportunities afforded him of blaming the errors of all parties; of course all parties will be even with him, and despise his cenfure. He makes occasionally a number