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MONGHYR, HINDOSTAN. The above engraving represents the very beauti almost distinctive of European India. The fort sul situation of Monghyr, a celebrated town and occupies a great deal of ground, but is now disfortress of the province of Bahar, in British India, mantled. Its gates, battlements, &c., are all of about 300 miles northwest of Calcutta. It is situ Asiatic architecture, and precisely similar to those ated on the south side of the river Ganges, which of Khitairgorod of Moscow. Within is an ample is in this part very wide, and in the rainy season plain of fine turf, dotted with a few trees, and two forms an immense expanse of fresh water. The noble tanks of water, the largest covering a space town, as distinct from the fortress, consists of six of a couple of acres. Two high grassy knolls are teen different bazaars or market-places, scattered enclosed within the rampart, occupying two oppoover a space of about a mile and a half long and a site angles of the fort, which is an irregular square, mile wide, and contains a population estimated at with, I think, twelve semicircular bastions, and a about 30,000. This place was visited by the late very wide and deep wet moat, except on the west Bishop Heber in an excursion up the Ganges, from side, where it rises immediately from the rocky whose journal we extract the following descrip banks of the river. On one of the eminences of tion:
which I speak is a collection of prison-like build“ Monghyr, as one approaches it, presents an ings; on the other, a very large and handsome imposing appearance, having one or two extremely house, built originally for the commander-in-chief good European houses, cach perched on its own of the district, at the time that Monghyr was an little eminence. The ghất afforded a scene of important station, and the Mahrattas were in the bustle and activity which I by no means expected. neighborhood; but it was sold some years since by As we approached the shore, we were beset by a the government. The view from the rampart and crowd of beggars and artisans, who brought for the eminences is extremely fine. Monghyr stands sale guns, knives, and other hardware, as also on a rocky promontory, with the broad river on both many articles of upholstery and toys. They looked sides, beyond one of which the Rajmahal hills are extremely neat, but, as I meant to buy none, I would visible, and the other is bounded by the nearer not raise expectation by examining them. There range of Curruckpoor. The town is larger than I were also barbers in abundance, conspicuous by expected, and in better conditiou than most native their red turbans, one of whom was soon retained towns. Though all the houses are small, there are by some of my dandees, who sat down one aster many of them with an upper story, and the roofs, another on the green bank, to have their hair clip instead of the flat terrace or thatch, which are the ped as close as possible, as became aquatic animals. only alternations in Bengal, are generally sloping, A juggler, too, made his appearance, leading a tall with red tiles of the same shape and appearance as brown goat, almost as high as a Welsh poney, with those which we see in Italian pictures. They have two little brown monkeys on its back. In short, it also little earthenware ornaments on their gables, was the liveliest scene which I had encountered such as I have not seen on the other side of Rajduring the voyage.
mahal. The shops are numerous, and I was sur“I arrived early, and was therefore for some prised at the neatness of the kettles, tea-trays, time a prisoner in my boat, exposed to the teasing guns, pistols, toasting-forks, cutlery, and other of various applicants for custom. As it grew cool, things of the sort which may be procured in this I walked into the fort, passing by a small but neat tiny Birmingham. I found afterwards that this English burying-ground, fenced in with a wall, and place had been, from very early antiquity, celebratcrammed full of those obelisk tombs which seem ed for its smiths, who derived their art from the
Hindoo Vulcan, who had been solemnly worshipped, and was supposed to have had a workshop here. The only thing which appears to be wanting to make their steel excellent, is a better manner of smelting, and a more liberal use of charcoal and the hammer. As it is, their guns are very apt to burst, and their knives to break,--precisely the faults which, for want of capital, beset the works of inferior artists in England. The extent, however, to which these people carry on their manufactures, and the closeness with which they imitate English patterns, show plainly how popular those patterns are become amongst the natives.”
ICEBERGS. Icebergs are large bodies of ice filling the valleys between the high mountains in northern latitudes. Among the most remarkable are those of the East Coast of Spitsbergen. The frost sports wonderfully with these bodies, and gives them the most fantastic, and sometimes the most majestic forms.
Masses have been seen assuming the shape of a Gothic Church, with arched windows and doors, and all the rich drapery that an Arabian tale would scarcely dare to describe. Crystal of the richest blue, tables with one or more feet, and often im mense flat-roofed temples, supported by round transparent columns, Aoat by the astonished spectators. The icebergs are the creation of ages, and annually increase by the falling of snows, and of rain, which instantly freezes, and more than repairs the loss occasioned by the heat of the sun.
formity, it is not accompanied with equally decisive evidence.
Now, to the same time of rotation, there are two widely different forms, each of which is equally consistent with stability. Thus, if the earth were a homogeneous body, the ratio of the polar to the equatorial axis might be either that of 1 to 680, or that of 229 to 130; the latter of these is the one which actually exists; its adoption is a proof of design, by which many inconveniences to the inhabitants are avoided, which, however, cannot now be detailed, without deviating from the immediato purpose of this article.
The earth is constituted partly of solid, partly of liquid matter, known under the general distinctions of land and water. If the solid matter had been formed into a precise sphere, and then the water created, that water, as soon as the earth received its rotation, would, by reason of the centrifugal force, ..ave disposed itself about the equatorial regions, so as to cover them entirely with water. To prevent this, a protuberance has been given to the equatorial regions; and the forms, shapes,depths, contour, &c., of the land and water respectively, have been so mutually adjusted, not only ihere, but in every habitable part of the earth, as to promote, most exquisitely, the well-being of the inhabitants; 80 long as the period of rotation remains what it at first was. There could be but one time of rotation that would thus allow the waters just to fill certain cavities, and yet not to overflow the hills; that is, that would compel the general surface of the liquid parts to harmonize with that of the solid parts: and to produce that time of rotation about a given axis, a given force must act at a given point, and in a given direction. What but intelligence and design, operating for a benevolent purpose, could cause the union of these three independent circumstances?
But farther, a more rapid rotation would cause more of the waters to flow towards the equatorial regions, and thus, is carried beyond a certain limit, to inundate the whole land there, and leave others dry; while a slower rotation would cause the waters to recede froin the equatorial regions, and leave them dry, at the same time inundating the land in the temperate and other regions. So that the uniformity of rotation is essential to the well-being of the inhabitants of the earth; and yet there is a colistant tendency to destroy that uniformity, which is as constantly prevented by the benevolent operation of divine energy.
To understand the reason of this, let the follow ing facts be considered. In consequence of the rotatory motion, night and day are always dividing between them the surface of the earth; and the day as incessantly rousing into activity that half of the inhabitants over whom the light of the sun is passing. Thus many millions of human beings are incessantly performing some mechanical action or other; and many thousand of animals, and many thousand of machines of different kinds, are as incessantly performing mechanical operations under their superintendence; and this with an inconceivable variety of effort, of direction, and of place, over the entire habitable surface of the globe. In all these actions, except those which are so regulated by refined knowledge and skill as to produce a marimum of effect with a given effort (not one in ten thousand probably,) there is a posilive loss of mechanical power. What becomes of it? Since action and reaction are equal and opposite, the amount of these losses of power is expended upon
THE UNIFORM ROTATION OF THE EARTH.
The earth which we inhabit is not precisely a spherical body, but a spheroid flattened at its poles, Limilar in shape to an orange. Its shortest diameter is about 7940 miles, its longest about 7966 miies; their difference being about 26 miles.
This body passes through its orbit, which is nearly a circle of 190 millions of miles in diameter, in a solar year; it also revolves uniformly upon its shorter diameter as an axis, so as to make a complete rotation in 23h. 56m. 4s.; and that wilhout the slightest variation, in all seasons of the year, and in all ages of the world. Laplace, from a comparison of numerous observations, ancient and modern, affirms that this is decidedly and unquestionably the most uniform motion which the universe presents to observation: for, although the planetary rotations probably present the same positive uni
the earth, the necessary fulcrum of all our move RELIGIOUS EDUCATION OF CHILDREN. ments. Now, either all these millions of losses
Do not press your children too much during their of power, incessantly occurring, must be directed
early years on the subject of religion. Show them, towards the centre of the earth, which is infinitely by your example, that it is the object of your own improbable; or they must so occur, as every mo reverence ; but suffer their religious principles
to ment just to counterbalance and annihilate each forın gradually, as their understandings open. Do other, which is also infinitely improbable; or they not make religion appear to them a burden; do not must constantly tend to change the velocity and lay them under unnecessary restraints; do not let duration of the earth's rotation, and thus to produce them see religion clothed in a dress repulsive to the evils which we have shown would result from their youthful minds. To insure its making a good such a change. It is, indeed, quite impossible to impression on them, let it be clothed in its native estimate the accumulation of mischief that would colors of attraction. Soudy to make them regard it thus accrue, in one month, from ignorance in the as an object of veneration, but, at the same time, application of human, animal, and mechanical agen what it truly is, as a source of cheerfulness and joy. cy; but a bare reference to the facts may serve to Do not let them regard the Sabbath as a day of excite a train of devotional meditation upon gloom and restraint. Take them with you to the goodness and mercy” that are constantly engaged House of God, and accustom them to regard the in a wide field of providential operation which is institutions of religion with reverence, but do not thus laid open, and which is not the less real for compel them, during the rest of the day, to remain being shut to the ken of our senses, since it is immured within the walls of your own house. Alopen to the enraptured view of intellect and sci low them the reasonable indulgence of air and exence.
ercise-an indulgence useful to their health, rational in itself, and no way inconsistent with their religious character; while the refusal of that indulgence has just the effect of making them regard the return of the day as a day of penance and mortification, in stead of hailing it as a day of joy.
THEY ARE GONE !
(From Moore's Evenings in Greece.)
They are gone—there are all gone!
He is gone-he is gone!
She is gone-she, too, is gone!
'Tis thus, in future hours, some bard will say THE OCELOT.
Of her who hears, and him who sings this layOne of the most beautiful of cats is the Ocelot.
They are gone—they both are gone! It is smaller than the leopard, being generally about three feet in length and eighteen inches in height. Upon a gray ground, slightly tinged with fawn, are Advertisements. We are sometimes astonished at the impu marked longitudinal bands, of which the margins dent assertions of quacks in their public announcements at are perfectly black, and the central parts of a deep
the present day. Their predecessors, however, went someer fawn than the general ground. These margins
what further, as the two following advertisements taken from
the original edition of the Spectator will show :-"An admira of black, inclosing a deep fawn, become black lines ble confect which assuredly cures stuttering and stammering • and spots, on the neck, and head, and on the outer in children or grown persons, though never so bad, causing sides of the limbs. From the top of the head
them to speak distinct and free without any trouble or difficul.
ty; it remedies all manner of impediments in the speech, or towards the shoulders there pass several diverging disorders of the voice of any kind, proceeding from what cause black bands; and on the top of the back, the line soever, rendering those persons capable of speaking easily and is quite continuous. The tail is spotted upon a
free, and with a clear voice, who before were not able to utter ground like that of the body.
a sentence without hesitation. Its stupendous effects in so
quickly and infallibly curing stuttering and stammering, and The ocelot in the garden of the Zoological So all disorders of the voice and difficulty in delivery of the ciety of London, died during a late severe winter. speech, are really wonderful. Price 2s. 6d. a pot, with direcThe above portrait is from the specimen in the tions. Sold only at Mr. Osborn's Toy-shop, at the Rose and Tower, which is remarkablc for the shortness of
Crown, under Si. Dunstan's church, Fleet-street.” the tail. This animal was presented to the King
“Loss of memory, or forgetfulness, certainly cured, by a
grateful electuary, peculiarly adapted for that end; it strikes of England by Sir Ralph Woodford, late governor at the primary source, which few apprehend, of forgetfulness, of Trinidad. It is tolerable docile; and does not
makes the head clear and easy, the spirits free, active, and zeize its food with the violence which distinguishes
undisturbed ; corroborates and revives all the noble faculties
of the soul, such as thought, judgment, apprehension, reason, nearly every other species of the cat tribe. This
and memory, which last in particular it so strengthens as to ocelot is usually fed upon rabbits and birds, upon render that faculty exceeding quick, and good beyond imagi. which it principally preys in a state of nature. nation ; thereby enabling those whose memory was before The ocelot, in its native state is exceedingly fe
almost totally lost to remember the minutest circumstance of
their affairs, &c. to a wonder. Price 2s.6d. a pot. Sold only rocious, yet cowardly, and perfers blood to flesh, in
at Mr. Payne's, at the Angel and Crown, in St. Paul's Church consequence of which its victims are numerous. | yard, with directions."
heard the roaring of the surf. After entering the clouds a southeaster drove him back, and he continued gradual.y lower. ing himself to the earth, till in about thirty-five mir.ctes from the time when he heard the ocean roar, he landed on tenia firma, about thirty miles, we may presume, in a straight line, from the sea. He was assisted in securing his balloon by two or three black men at work in the fields and returned to town, himself and his ship of the air, unharmcd.
GENERAL PUTNAM. Few mon have been more remarkable than General Putnam for the acts of successful rashness to which a bold and intrepid spirit frequently prompted him.
When he was pursued by General Tryon at the head of fifteen hundred men, his only method of escape was precipi. tating his horse down the steep declivity of the rock called Horseneck; and as none of his pursuers dared to imitate his example, he escaped.
Bui an act of still more daring intrepidity was his venturing to clear in a boat, the tremendous waterfalls of Hudson's river. This was in the year 1756, when Putnam fought against the French and their allies, the Indians. He was accidentally with a boat and five men, on the eastern side of the river, contiguous to these falls. His men, who were on the opposite side, informed him by signal, that a considerable body of savages were advancing to surround him, and there was not a moment to lose Three modes of conduct were at his option -to remain, fight, and be sacrificed; to attempt to pass to the other side exposed to the full shot of the eneiny; or to sail down the waterfalls, with almost a certainty of being over. whelmed. These were the only alternatives. Putnam did not hesitate, and jumped into the boat at the fortunate instant, for one of his companions, who was at a little distance, was a victim to the Indians. His enemies soon arrived, and dis. charged their muskets at the boat before he could get out of their reach. No sooner had he escaped this danger through the rapidity of the current, but death presented itself under a more terrific form. Rocks, whose points projected above the surface of the water; large masses of timber that nearly closed the passage ; absorbing gulse, and rapid descents, for the distance of a quarter of a mile, left him no hope of escape but by a miracle. "Putnam however placed himself at the helm, and directed it with the utmost tranquillity. His companions saw him with admiration, terror, and astonishinent, avoid with the utmost address the rocks and threatening gulfs, which they every instant expected to devour him. He disappeared, rose again, and directing his course across the only passage which he could possibly make, he at length gained the even surface of the river that flowed at the bottom of this dread. ful cascade. The Indians were no less surprised. This mira. cle astonished them almost as much as the sight of the first Europeans that approached the banks of this river. They considered Putnam as invulnerable; and they thought that they should offend the Great Spirit, if they attempted the life of a man that was so visibly under his iminediate protection.
Sheridan and Tickell.– Sheridan delighted in practical jokes, and seems to have enjoyed a sheer piece of mischief, with all the gusto of a school-boy. At this kind of sport, Tickell and Sheridan were often play-fellows: and the tricks which they inflicud on each other, were frequently attended with rather unpleasant consequences. One night, he induced Tickell to follow him down a dark passage, on the floor of which he had placed all the plates and dishes he could musler, in such a inanner, that while a clear path was left open for his own escape, it wouid have been a miracle if Tickell did not sinash two-thirds of them. The result was as Sheridan had anticipated : 'Tickell fell among the crockery, which so serereiy cut himn in many places, that Lord John Townshend found him, the next day, in bed, and covered with patches. “Sheri. dan has behaved atrociously towards me," said he," and I am resolved to be revenged on him. But," added he, his adıni. ration at the trick entirely subduing his indignation,“ how amazingly well it was managed !"
Story told by Luther.-A monk who had introduced birselt to the bedside of a dying nobleman, who was at that time in a state of insensibility, continued crying out," My Lord, will you make the grant of such and such a thing to our monas
The sick inan, unable to speak, nodded his head. The monk turned round to the son, “ You see, Sir, that my Lord your father gives his consent to my request.” The son imnuediately exclaimed, “ Father, is it your will that I should kick this monk down stairs?" The usual nod was given. The young man immediately rewarded the assiduities of the monk by sending him with great precipitation out of the house.
Fear.-Charles Gustavus (the successor of Christina of Sweden) was besieging Prague, when a boor of most extraordinary visage desired admittance to his tent, and, being allowed entrance, offered, by way of amusing the king, to devour a whole hog, weighing two hundred weight, in his presence. The old General Konigsmarc, who stood by the king's side, and who, soldier as be was, had not got rid of the prejudices of his childhood, hinted to his royal master that the peasant ought to be burnt as a sorcerer. * Sir," said the fellow, irritated at the remark, " if your majesty will but make that old gentleman take off his sword and his spurs I will eat him beiore your face, before I begin the pig.". Gen. cral Konigsmarc (who at the head of a body of Swedes had performed wonders against the Austrians, and who was looked upon as one of the bravest men of the age) could not stand this proposal, especully as it was accompanied by a most hideous and preternal.iral expansion of the frightful peasant's aws. Without uttering a word the veteran suddenly turned round, ran out of the court, and thought himself not safe un. til he had arrived at his quarters.
VARIETIES. The New York Com. Advertiser, contains a letter from Port Praya, which slates that TuuRTY THREE THOUSAND of the inhabitants of those islands have perished by famine within a year. The wretched sufferers are still dying daily.
Clouds of locusts, have lately made their appearance in Arkansas. In the forests their course is marked by the wilt. ed and yellow leaves of the young and tender branches which have been perforated by thein for the deposit of their eggs.
The latest statement of the Moravian brethren makes the whole number of their sect, dispersed over the globe, to consist of not more than 16,000 members. Notwithstanding thi they maintain 127 missions for the conversion of thc heathen, at an annual expense of 60,000 dollars.
The President of the United states, accompanied by the Vice President and Secretary of the Navy, reached Washing. ton on the Fourth of July, from a tour through the northern states.
The corner stone of the Girard College was laid at Philadel. phia on the 4th July. The ceremony was witnessed by a large and respectable assemblage of citizens, and an eloquent address was delivered on the occasion by Nicholas Biddle Esq.
Balloon Ascension.--Mr. Durant, thic aeronaut, made liis fifth balloon ascension from Castle Garden, in New York, on the 2:3th of May. The balloon, a few seconds after it sprang from the earth, was hidden in the clouds, which were low and dense, and nothing more was seen of the aerial traveller. Mr. Durant landed in Westchester county, eleven miles from the City Hall, at four minutes past five, so that he njust have been an hour and thirty six minutes on his way. His rise, he says, was very rapid, but he soon passed through the stratum of clouds in which the balloon was so immediately lost to the spectators below, and then found himself in a clear region of sunshine, with a boundless oce in of fog beneath him. The balloon continued to rise with great rapidity, till, as Mr. D. slimates, he had attained the height of about 16 or 17,000 feet, (three miles.) His whule attention, however, being required o the means requisite to arrest the upward progress of his rapid bark, he could not sscertain by his barometer the previse height. When in the clear perion, a northerly breeze Hasted him towards the occin, and just ay he descended and tinched the ropes surface oi tim civudo innin, he distinctly
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MONUMENT TO WOLFE AND MONTCALM. The citadel of Quebec is as impregnable as a great, that the soldiers not being able to go two commanding site, massive ramparts, and guns of abreast, were obliged to pull themselves up by the the largest caliber can make it, and is the strongest stumps and boughs of trees that covered the defortress in the western world. With barracks and clivity. The French commenced the battle with casements, there are accommodations for many a brisk fire of musketry. Wolfe ordered his men thousand men, and the magazines are large and to reserve their fire until they were within forty fully supplied with the munitions of war. Below yards of the enemy. _They then attacked with the highest part of the rock, is the spot where the great fury, and the French gave way. In the American general, Montgomery, was shot in an commencement of the battle, General Wolfe was unsuccessful attempt to surprise the town.
wounded in the wrist by a musket ball; he wrapped Outside the citadel is a tall obelisk, erected by his handkerchief round it, and continued to give subscription in the time of Lord Dalhousie, to the his orders with his usual calmness and perspicuity. memory of Wolfe and Montcalm. An engraving Towards the end of the engagement, he received of this obelisk is presented above.
another wound in his breast, which obliged him to Quebec was formerly the capital of the French retire behind the rear rank. Here he laid himself dominions in North America. It was well fortified, on the ground. Soon after, a shout was heard, and situated in the midst of a country hostile to the one of the officers near him exclaimed, " See how English, and defended by an army of 20,000 men, they run!” The dying hero asked with some emoregulars and militia, besides a considerable number tion, " Who run?" “ The enemy,” replied the of Indians. The troops destined for the expedition officer, “they give way every where.” The genagainst Quebec consisted of ten battalions, making eral then said, “Now, God be praised, I shall die altogether about 7000 men.
happily." On the 13th of September, 1759, the grand at It has been asserted, that when Wolfe received lack was commenced. General Wolfe landed his his death wound, his principal care was, that he army on the northern shore of the river St. Law should not be seen to fall. Support me,” said rence. The difficulty of ascending the hill was so he to such as were near him; “let not my brave