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GALILEO. The 19th of February by some accounts, but according to the best authorities the 15th, is the anniversary of the birth of one of the greatest philosophers of modern times, the celebrated GaliLEO GALILEI. He was born at Pisa, in 1564. His family, which, till the middle of the 14th century, had borne the name of Bonajuti, was ancient and noble, but not wealthy; and his father, Vincenzo Galilei, appears to have been a person of very superior talents and accomplishments. He is the author of several treatises upon music, which show him to have been master both of the practice and theory of that art. Galileo was the eldest of a family of six children, three sons and three daughters. His boyhood, like that of Newton, and of many other distinguished cultivators of mathematical and physical science, evinced the natural bent of his genius by various mechanical contrivances which he produced; and he also showed a strong predilection and decided talent both for music and painting. It was resolved, however, that he should be educated for the medical profession; and with that view he was, in 1581, entered at the university of his native town. He appears to have applied himself, for some time, to the study of medicine. He contrived several little instruments for counting the pulse by the vibrations of a pendulum, which soon came into general use, under the name of Pulsilogies; and it was not till after many years that it was employed as a general measure of time. It was probably after this discovery that Galileo began the study of mathematics. From that instant he seemed to have found his true field. So fascinated was he with the beautiful truths of geometry, that his medical books henceforth remained unopened, or were only spread out over his Euclid to hide it from his father, who was at first so much grieved by his son's absorption in his new study, that he positively probibited him from any longer indulging in it. After some time, however, seeing that his injunctions were insufficient to overcome the
strong bias of nature, he yielded the point, and Galileo was permitted to take his own way. The year 1609 was the most momentous in the career of Galileo as an enlarger of the bounds of natural philosophy.
It was in this year that he made his grand discovery of the telescope--having been induced to turn his attention to the effect of a combination of magnifying glasses, by a report which was brought to him, while on a visit at Venice, of a wonderful instrument constructed on some such principle, which had just been sent to Italy from Holland. In point of fact, it appears that a rude species of telescope had been previously fabricated in that country; but Galileo, who had never seen this contrivance, was undoubtedly the true and sole inventor of the instrument in that form in which alone it could be applied to any scientific use.
The interest excited by this discovery transcended all that has ever been inspired by any of the other wonders of science. After having exhibited his new instrument for a few days, Galileo presented it to the Senate of Venice, who immediately elected him to a professorship for life, and made his salary one thousand florins. He then constructed another telescope for himself, and with that proceeded to examine the heavens. He had not long directed it to this, the field which has ever since been its principal domain, before he was rewarded with a succession of brilliant discoveries. The four satellites, or attendant moons, of Jupiter, revealed themselves for the first time to the human eye. Other stars unseen before met him in every quarter of the heavens to which he turned. Saturn showed his singular encompassing ring. The moon unveiled her seas and her mountains. The sun himself discovered spots of dark lying in the midst of his brightness. All these wonders were announced to the world by Galileo in the successive numbers of a publication which he entitled the “ Nuncius Sidereus, or Intelligence of the Heavens," a newspaper undoubtedly unrivalled for extraordinary tidings by any other that has ever appeared. In 1610 he was induced to resign his professorship at Padua, on the invitation of the Grand Duke of Tuscany to accept of the appointment of his first mathematician and philosopher at Pisa. Soon after his removal thither Galileo appears to have for the first time ventured upon openly teaching the Copernican system of the word, of the truth of which he had been many years before convinced. This bold step drew down upon the great philosopher a cruel and disgraceful persecution which terminated only with his life. An outcry was raised by the ignorant bigotry of the time, on the ground that in maintaining the doctrine of the earth's motion round the sun he was contradicting the language of Scripture, where, it was said, the earth was constantly spoken of as at rest. The day is gone by when it would have been necessary to attempt any formal refutation of this absurd notion, founded as it is upon a total misapprehension of what the object of the Scriptures is, which are intended to teach men morality and religion only, not mathematics or astronomy, and which would not have been even intelligible to those to whom they were first addressed, unless their language in regard to this and various other matters had been accommodated to the then universally prevailing opinions. In Galileo's day, however, the Church of Rome had not learned to admit this very obvious consideration. In 1616 Galileo, having gone to Rome on learning the hostility which was gathering against him, was graciously received by the Pope, but was commanded to abstain in future from teaching the doctrines of Copernicus. For some years the matter was allowed to sleep, till in 1632 the philosopher publish
which he performs with great address. When he is about to exhibit, his attendants surround him with a blanket so as to screen him from the view of the spectators untill he is mounted; a signal is then given, the blanket is removed and he is beheld sitting in the posture represented in the sketch.
The only part of his body which appears to have any support whatever is the wrist of his right arm, which rests upon a deer skin rolled up and fixed horizontally before him to a perpendicular brass bar. This brass bar is fitted into the top of a small four legged stool, near one end of it. While in this attitude he appears engaged in prayer, holding in his hand a number of beads, and having his eyes halfclosed. As soon as the exhibition, which usually continues only a few minutes, has ended, he is again screened by his attendants till he has dismounted and taken the whole of his apparatus to pieces, when he produces only the stool, the brass bar, and the deer skin for the inspection of the spectators.
In person he is a slender, middle sized man, and has attained a considerable age. He wears a long chintz gown, a yellow dyed turban, and a high waistband. Around his neck is suspended a row of large Pundaram beads.
Sheshal is frequently invited to the gardens of gentlemen residing at Madras, for the purpose of exhibiting his singular skill. By- this means he obtains a considerable sum of money. A friend who has witnessed his performance, writes us the following account of it from Tanjore.
“He exhibited before me in the following man
ner : he first allowed me to examine a stool about 18 inches in height, on the seat of which were two brass stars inlaid, a little larger than a dollar; he then displayed a hollow bamboo two feet in length and 24 inches in diameter. The next article was a roll of antelope skin, perhaps four inches in circumference, and two feet in length. The man then concealed himself in a large shawl, with these three articles and a large bag; after a delay of five minutes, during which he appeared very busy under the shawl, he ordered the covering to be taken off him, and he was discovered actually sitting crosslegged on the air; but leaning his right arm on the end of the antelope skin, which communicated horizontally with the hollow bamboo, which again was connected perpendicularly with the stool immediately over one of the brass stars. He sat for more than half an hour, counting his beads in his right hand, and without once changing the expression of his countenance which was quite calm, and as if this new mode of sitting was no exertion to him.
“I saw him exhibit four times, and each time tried my utmost to discover the secret but without success. A large bribe was offered to induce him to reveal his mode of performance, but he declined the explanation.
“I account for it thus. The brass stars conceal a receptacle for a steel bar passing through the hollow bamboo; the antelope skin conceals another steel rod which is screwed into the one in the bambon; other machinery of the same kind passes through the man's sleeves and down his body, and supports a ring on which he sits."
arched, while the innermost is much elongated and curved.
TAILORS. There are some things in this world which astonished me when I first opened my eyes upon it, and which I have never since been able to understand. One of these is the popular ridicule about the business of a tailor. The arts and crafts of all alike refer to one grand object, the convenience and pleas. ure of the human race; and though there may be some shades of comparative dignity among them, I must profess I never yet could see any grounds, either in reason or jest, for the peculiar contempt thrown out upon one, which, to say the least of it, eminently conduces to the comfort of man. A joke is a joke, to be sure; but then it should be a real joke. It should háve some bottom in the principles of ridiculous contrast, or else it cannot be what it pretends to be, and must consequently fall to the ground. Now, it strikes me that all the sniggering which there has been about tailors since the beginning of the world (the first attempt at the art, by the bye, was no laughing matter) has been quite in vainperfect humbug—a mirth without the least foundation in nature ; for, if we divest ourselves of all recollection of the traditionary ridicule, and think of a tailor as he really is, why, there is positively nothing in the least ridiculous about him. The whole world has been upon the grin for six thousand years about one particular branch of general employment; and if the world were seriously questioned as to the source of its amusement, I verily believe, that not a single individual could give the least explanation. The truth is, the laughter at tailors is an entire delusion. While the world laughs, the artists themselves make riches, and then laugh in their turn, -with this difference, that they laugh with a cause. I am almost tempted to suspect that the tailors themselves are at the bottom of this plot of ridicule, in order that they may have the less competition and the higher wages; for again I positively say, I cannot see what there is about the business to be laughed at. Nobody ever thinks of laughing at a shoemaker, though he applies himself to clothe the very meanest part of the human body. Nay, the saddler, who furnishes clothes to a race of quadrupeds, is never laughed at; while few trades awaken the human sympathies so strongly as that of the blacksmith, who is relatively as much meaner in his employment than the saddler, as the shoemaker is than the tailor. What, then, is the meaning-what is the cause of all this six thousand years' laughing? If any man will give me a feasible answer, I will laugh too; for I like a joke as well as any body; but, upon my honor, I cannot laugh without a cause. I must see where the fun lies, or it is no fun for me
If the mirth be, as I suspect, entirely groundless, what a curious subject for consideration! A large and respectable class of the community has been subjected, from apparently the beginning of the social world, to a system of general ridicule; and, when the matter is inquired into, it turns out that nothing can be shown in the circumstances of that class to make the ridicule merited. Men talk of the oppression of go7ernments; but was there ever such oppression, such wanton persecution and cruelty, as this? Does any superior, in almost any instance, inflict such wrong upon those under him, as is here inflicted, by ordinary men, upon a part of their own set ? How much discomfort there must have been in the course of time from this cause; and yet the jest turns out to want even the excuse of being a jest! Thousands of decent and worthy people have felt unhappy and degraded, that their neighbors might have an empty, unmeaning, witless laugh. The best of the joke is, that the human race must have paid immensely. in the course of time, for this silly sport. The tailors, very properly, would not make clothes and furnish laughing-stocks without payment for their services in both capacities. Their wages, therefore, have always been rather higher than those of other artisans; and few tradesmen are able to lend so much ready cash to good customers, as the London tailors. The fellows pocket the affront amazingly, having become quite reconciled to a contempt which is accompanied with so much of the substantial blessings of life. But the world
should not allow this. It should say, "No, no, Messieurs Tailors, we see through the folly of our jesting, and would rather want it altogether, than pay so much more than is proper for our coals. So, if you please, we'll make a new arrangement. We'll agree never more to reckon up nine of you as necessary to make a man,-never more to speak of either goose or cabbage, -never more to use the words prick the louse," or any thing of that kind,-in short, we'll give up the whole of this system of obloquy, and make men of you, if you will only give us a discount of five per cent. off your charges." Let the world do this; and, if the tailors be not by this time quite hardened in endurance, and impervious to all shame, I think we might all save a good deal of our incomes every year, and yet the amount of genuine mirth not be much diminished.-Chambers' Edinburgh Journal.
THE SMALL CAPE EAGLE. This fine little eagle appears to have escaped the not's of Le Vaillant, and of all the other writers on the ornithology of the neighborhood of the Cape of Good Hope. It is, however, as we learn from Dr. Smith, its first, and hitherto sole describer, found throughout the whole of South Africa.
The length of this bird is about two feet four inches. It feeds commonly upon carrion, and is generally found in company with vultures throughout the whole of South Africa. The young are of a uniform tawny chestnut color, and without the brown variations observed on the old. There is one of these birds in the London Zoological Gardens, of which the following mention is made: “the beak is of a deep black; as are also the claws, the two outermost of which are small and but slightly
where I found him. Dr. Gaulter, who, on hearing of the case, hastened to his relief, and has very humanely rendered him all necessary attention ever since, informs me that, on his arrival, the appearance of the wounds was truly alarming, and amputation of the arm seemed absolutely necessary. To this, however, the patient was not willing to consent, having a number of young children whose subsistence depends upo i his labor. As the Almighty had delivered me, said he, ' from that horrid death, I thought surely he is able to save my arm also. And, astonishing to relate, several of his wounds are already healed, and there is now hope of his com plete recovery
SINGULAR PROVIDENTIAL ESCAPE. The journal of Mr. Kay, one of the Wesleyan Missionaries in South Africa, contains the following remarkable account of the deliverance of a poor sic's Hottentot from the jaws of a lion. The account bears date December 2, 1829.
“About three weeks or a month ago, he (the Hottentot in question) went out on a hunting excursion, accompanied by several other natives. Arriving on an extensive plain, where there was abundance of game, they discovered a number of lions also, which appeared to be disturbed by their approach. A prodigiously large male immediately separated himself from the troop, and began slowly to advance towards the party, the majority of whom were young, and altogether unaccustomed to rencounters of so formidable a nature. When droves of timid antelopes, or springbocks only, came in their way, they made a great boast of their courage, but the very appearance of the forest's king inade them tremble. While the animal was yet at a distance, they all dismounted to prepare for firing, and, according to the custom on such occasions, began tying their horses together, by ineans of the bridles, with the view of keeping the latter between them and the lion, as an object to attract bis attention, until they were able to take deliberate aim. His movements, however, were at length too swift for them. Before the horses were properly fastened to each other, ne monster made a tremendous bound or two, and suddenly pounced upon the hind parts of one of them, which, in its fright, plunged forward, and knocked down the poor man in question, who was holding the reins in his hand. His comrades instantly took flight, and ran off with all speed; and he, of course, rose as quickly as possible, in order to follow them. But, no sooner had he regained his feet, than the majestic beast, with a seeming consciousness of his superior might, stretched forth his paw, and, striking him just behind the neck, immediately brought him to the ground again. He then rolled on his back, when the lion set his foot upon his breast, and laid down upon him. The poor man now became almost breathless, partly from fear, but principally from the intolerable pressure of his terrific load." He endeavored to move a little to one side, in order to breathe; but, feeling this, the creature seized his left arm, close to the elbow; and, after once laying hold with his teeth, he continued to amuse himself with the limb for some time, biting it in sundry different places down to the hand, the thick part of which seemed to have been pierced entirely through. All this time the lion did not appear to be angry, but he merely caught at his prey, like a cat sporting with a mouse that is not quite dead; so that there was not a single bone fractured, as would, in all probability, have been the case had the creature been hungry or irritated. Whilst writhing in agony, gasping for breath, and expecting evory moment to be torn limb from limb, the sufferer cried to his companions for assistance, but cried in vain. On raising his head a little, the beast opened his dreadfal jaws to receive it, but providentially the hat, which I saw in its rent state, slipped off, so that the points of the teeth only just grazed the surface of the skull. The lion now set his foot upon the arm from which the blood was freely flowing; his fearful paw was soon covered therewith, and he again and again licked it clean! The idea verily makes me shudder while I write. But this was not the worst; for the animal then steadily fixed his flaming eyes upon those of the man, smelt on one side, and then on the other of his face, and,'having tasted the blood, he appeared half inclined to devour his helpless victim. At this critical moment,' said the poor man, I recollected having heard that there is a God in the heavens, who is able to deliver at the very last extremity; and I began to pray that he would save me, and not allow the lion to eat my flesh, and drink my blood.' While thus engaged in calling upon God, the beast turned himself completely round. On perceiving this, the Hottentot made an effort to get from under him; but no sooner did the creature observe his movement, than he laid terrible hold of his right thigh. This wound was dreadfully deep, and evidently occasioned the sufferer most excruciating pain. He again sent
cry to God for help; nor were his prayers in vain. The huge animal soon afterwards quietly relinquished his prey, though he had not been in the least interrupted. Having deliberately risen from his seat, he walked majestically off, to the distance of thirty or forty' paces, and then laid down in the grass, as if for the purpose of watching the man. The latter, being happily relieved of his load, ventured to sit up, which circunstance immediately attracted the lion's atten. tion; nevertheless, it did not induce another attack, as the poor fellow naturally expected; but, as if bereft of power,
and unable to do any thing more,
took his departure, and was seen no more. The man, seeing this, took up nis gun, and hasted away to his terrified companions, who had given him up for dead. Being in a state of extreme exhaustion, from loss of blood, he was immediately set upon his borse and brought, as soon as was practicable, to the place
THE DUTCH SHIPMASTER AND THE
RUSSIAN COTTAGER. The following interesting anecdote occurs in a German work, lately published, entitled A Picture of St. Petersburgh.
In a little town, five miles from St. Petersburgh, lived a poor German woman. A small cottage was her only possession, and the visits of a few shipmasters, on their way to Petersburgh, her only livelihood. Several utch shipmasters having supped at her house one evening, she found, when they were gone, a sealed bag of money under the table. Some one of the company, had no doubt forgotten it, but they had sailed over to Cronstadt, and the wind being fair, there was no chance of their putting back. The good woman put the bag into her cupboard, to keep it till it should be called for. Full seven years, however, elapsed and no one claimed it; and though often tempted by opportunity, and oftener by want, to make use of the contents, the poor woman's good principles prevailed, and it remained untouched.
One evening, some shipmasters again stopped at her house for refreshment. Three of them were English, the fourth a Dutchman. Conversing on various matters, one of them asked the Dutchman, if he had ever been in that town before “ Indeed, I have," replied he,“ I know the place but too well; my being here, cost me once seven hundred rubles." "How
“Why, in one of these wretched hovels, I once left behind me a bag of rubles." “ Was the bag sealed ?” asked the old woman, who was sitting in a corner of the room, and whose attention was roused by the subject. “Yes, yes, it was sealed, and with this very seal, here at my watch chain." The woman knew the seal instantly. "Well, then," said she, “by that you may recover what you have lost.” cover it, mother! No, no, I am rather too old to expect that: the world is not quite so honest—besides it is full seven years since I lost the money ;-—say no more about it, it always makes me melancholy.'
Meanwhile, the good woman slipped out, and presently returned with the bag. " See here," said she, “honesty is not so rare, perhaps, as you imagine;" and she threw the bag on the table.
The guests were astonished, and the owner of the bag, as may be supposed, highly delighted. He seized the bag, tore open the seal, took out one ruble, (worth 4s. 6d., English money,) and laid it on the table for the hostess, thanking her civilly for the trouble she had taken. The three Englishmen were amazed and indignant at so small a reward being offered, and remonstrated warmly with him. The old woman protest. ed she required no recompense for merely doing her duty, and begged the Dutchman to take back e en his ruble. But the Englishmen insisted on seeing justice done; “ The woman, said they," has acted nobly, and ought to be rewarded.” At length, the Dutchman agreed to part with one hundred rubles ; they were counted out, and given to the old woman, who thus, at length, was handsomely rewarded for her honesty.
Literary Piracy.-Upon the first appearance of" Akenside's Pleasures of Imagination "—the author's name not being prefixed-a Mr. Rolt had the impudence to go over to Dublin, publish an edition, and put his name to it. Upon the fame of this he lived several months, being entertained at the best tablos, as the “ ingenious Mr. Rolt." Akenside at last detected the fraud, and vindicated his right, by publishing the poem with the real author's name.
Dr. Campbell, of St. Andrews, wrote a treatise on the authenticity of the Gospel History, and sent the manuscript to his friend and countryman, a Mr. Innes, a clergyman in England. The latter published it with his own name, and, before the imposition was discovered, obtained considerable promotion as a reward of merit.
Dr. Hugh Blair, and Mr. Ballantine, a friend of his, wrote a poem entitled “ Redemption," copies of which in MS. were handed about. They were at length surprised to see a pompous edition of it in folio, dedicated to the Queen Dr. Dangler, as his own.
he again arose:
Remarkable Preservation.-Captain Chester of the whaling ship Ann Maria, of this place, on her late voyage round the East Cape, met with the following adventure-One of his boats having fastened to a whale, as is customary, a second boat, in which was Capt. Chester, approached and drove a second dart into the monster. In his rage and agony, the whale rushed with great rapidity through the water, when the rope attached to the harpoon caught Capt. Chester round his leg, above the ancle, and drew him overboard. At this critical moment he seized a knife, sticking in the gunwale of the boat, and thus armed, was drawn under the water. The rope soon made a turn round his body. In this situation, noving rapidly down, he first cut that part of the rope around his body, then cut the rope fastened to his leg. Being thus relieved, he rose to the top of the water and raised his hand, grasping the knife. Some distance from the boat he was discovered by the crew, who hastened to his rescue, and took him on board, almost exhausted. He was drawn down about thirty fathoms. The Captain is now well, and preparing for another voyage, nothing daunted by his adventure.- Nero London Gaz
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Published every other Saturday, by
COLMAN, HOLDEN, & CO, Portland.
MARSHALL & Brown, Providence.
1 2 3
Travelling in South
9 10 11 11
Hunting the Zebra
CONTENTS OF PART FIRST.
20 The Grisly Bear
21 The Great Earthquake at Lisbon in 1775
22 Harbor and town of Muscat
23 Lines by Bishop Horne The Pacha of Egypt
24 Destructive Shell
24 The Georgia Hurricane
24 Lake of Vitriol
27 The Ant-Eater
28 Curious Typographical Anecdote American Vines A True Joe Miller Razors Catching Turtle on the Coast of Cuba
29 The Stormy Petrei
30 Popular Poison
30 Capture of Elephants
31 Imitation froin the Persian
31 Anecdotes of Blind Persons
32 Average duration of Life
32 Advantages of Diffusion of Know
33 A Turn for Business
34 The Puma
Pago Epigram by Coleridge
35 Sieel plates for Engravings Bridge on the Silwund Longevity 'The Clove The Sugar Cane
30 A Curious River Anecdote of the Stage
40 Deafness of the Aged
40 Cypress of Montezuma
40 Rise of Lake Erie
40 Ettrick Shepherd ·
40 Inexhaustibility of Literature 40 Varieties
40 Bank of the United States at Phila. delphia ·
41 Journal of a Tour from the Pacific
to the Atlantic Ocean through
R. Bowers of Providence 42
45 Bisset the Animal Teacher
46 Song by the Rev. Thomas Dale 46 Ispahan
47 Rocks of Lake Superior
48 Circulation of the Blood
48 Adventure with a Bear
48 The President's House
49 The Bamboo
51 Philosophy and Consistency 51 The Evening Cloud
51 Memoir of Galileo
59 The Air Brahmin The Small Cape Eagle Tailors
54 Singular Providential Escape 55 The Dutch Shipmaster and the Russian Cottager
55 Literary Piracy Remarkable Preservation
11 12 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 17 18
Page | Hunting a Zebra. 3 Driving Wild Cattle in the Marme
na. 4 Wild Bushman. 5 Canal at Little Falls--Mohawk river. 9 Mountain Travelling in South Amer
ica. 11 The Dragon Tree of Orotava. 12 Lion Hunting. 13 West Front Antwerp Cathedral. 14 The Curassow and Diamond Beetle. 17 Male and Female Ostrich. 19 Papyrus. 21 The Grisly Bear.
EMBELLISHMENTS. Page 22 Earthquake at Lisbon 23 Harbor and Town of Muscat. 25 Tomb of Napoleon. 27 Spotted Kangaroo. 28 The Ant Eater. 29 Catching Turtle on the coast of
Cuba. 30 The Stormy Petrel. 31 Capturing Elephants. 33 Pierced Rock in Gulf of St. Law
rence. 35 The Puma. 36 Man and Lion. 37 Bridge across the Silwund.
Page 38 The Clove. 39 The Sugar Cane. 41 Bank of the United States. 44 View on the Liverpool and Man
chester Railway. 45 The Tea Plant. 45 Chinese Gathering, Tea. 47 Street, Mosque and Bazaar in Ispa
han. 49 President's House. 51 The Bamboo. 52 Portrait of Galileo. 53 The Air Brahmin 54 The Small Cape Englo.