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with projecting concentric platbands over and of equal diameter with each column, the intervals being enriched with square sunken moulded panels: this ceiling is thirty-five feet from the floor to the crown of the arch, and is executed with great precision and effect. An Isthmian wreath, caryed in one entire block of Pennsylvania white marble, surrounds the clock face, which occupies the space of the first panel over the entablature in the centre, the design of which is copied from the reverse of an antique gem found at Corinth, and described by Stuart in his work on the Antiquities of Athens. The tellers' counters are composed of marble, forming panelled pedestals across each end of the banking-room, commencing at the first column from each of the end walls.
The stockholders' room is a parallelogram of twenty-eight feet by fifty, being lighted from the portico of the south front, having a groin arched ceiling, with projecting platbands, enriched with guilloches springing near the base of the groin angle, across the semi-circular intrados of the arch. Each end of the room is ornamented with niches eight feet wide, the heads of which form an architrave concentric with the semi-circular panels in the tympanum of the shortest diameter. The committee rooms from the stockholders' open right and left, flanked by two flights of marble stairs, leading to the clock chamber and other apartments in the second story. The private stairway from the banking-room leads to the directors', engravers’, and copperplate printers' rooms, being lighted from the roof. All the internal door-jams, sills, and imposts, are of marble.
The banking-room is amply warmed by two cast iron furnaces, lined with fire brick, being simply erected within an air chamber, through which the external atmosphere passes, and becomes heated by the furnace: it then rises through the arch into a circular cast-iron pedestal, perforated on the sides, out of which it is suffered to escape into the
The whole body of the building is arched in a bomb-proof manner from the cellar to the roof, which is covered with copper. All the groin arches are girdled at the springing line with iron straps, passing round within the body of the division walls.
The foundation stone was laid on the 19th day of April 1819; and the whole building was completed in August 1824.
public buildings. The number of inhabitants a: this season (February) may be estimated at about 3500 or 4000. In the rainy season, San Blas is quite depopulated on account of sickness; no vessels coming there, particularly in the months of June, July and August, as heavy gales and bad weather render it dangerous to shipping. At this place there is a river capable of containing twenty sail: vessels drawing ten feet can enter it in cases of emergency. But it would be an impossiblity to keep their crews on board on account of mosquetoes and sand-flies. At this place there is an arsenal or dockyard established, but the labor of repairing a vessel is so enormously high, that strangers seldom attempt it. The usual place of anchorage is abreast of the entrance of the river, in seven sathoins of water, and is distant one mile and a half from the shore. It is defended by two batteries of fitteen or twenty guns, in most shocking repair and poorly manned.
Vessels coming to San Blas should be provided with good ground tackling, and not want for stores of any description. Particular attention should be paid to the vessel's copper, as the worms here are more destructive than in any other part of the world. Navigators should not place any confidence in English charts issued before the year 1826, as all this part of the coast and the Gulf of California, are laid down very erroneously. San Blas is a receiving place for the interior towns of Mexico, and carries on a considerable trade with upper and lower California. The manners of the people are the same as the Spanish, which, being so well known, need no description.
Having provided myself with a guide, two horses, two mules for baggage, and with every thing proper for the journey, my trunks and bedding being well secured against the dust and rain, and myself being well armed, on the 28th of February 1827, I commenced my journey from San Blas to the city of Mexico. Our road this day lay over a low, muddy tract of land overgrown with a great variety of trees. I frequently had my hat, and was sometimes in danger of having my head, knocked off by the boughs of trees, which were taking their loving embraces across the road. Our horses often sunk to the saddle girths in mire. I noticed game of different descriptions, also a small deserted village called the Port, where the Indians at particular times resort for the purpose of manufacturing salt. Although it is twenty miles in the interior, yet at particular seasons the water of the Pacific overflows the land as far as this place. When the waters retire they leave a considerable layer of salt earth, which is collected by the natives, who by pouring water over it, prepare from the earth a strong brine, which they dispose in large, shallow pans made in the ground, for two or three months, when the sun turns it into salt. I observed the natives making lime from the large beds of shells, which nature had deposited here some centuries since, and which lay but one or two feet below the surface of the. ground. At 8. P. M. we arrived at the Rancho of Silvas, so called from the owner. It is a small collection of huts with thatched roofs and sides formed by stakes driven into the ground, just near enough together to keep out the wild beasts, and situated in the middle of a forest. At this place, we succeeded in getting a supper for ourselves and provender for our horses. After paying for our poor fare very enormously, we retired, liaving travelled this day about thirty-three miley
JOURNAL OF A TOUR FROM THE PACIFIC TO THE ATLAN.
TIC OCEAN, THROUGN THE INTERIOR OF MEXICO, IN 1827,* BY WM. R. BOWERS OF PROVIDENCE.
The town of San Blas is situated in latitude 21° 30' North, longitude 104° 50' West from Greenwich. It is built on a high rock one mile and a half from the sea; and is surrounded on all sides by marshes overgrown with trees and underwood, and which in the rainy season are quite overflowed. These marshes produce insects and reptiles of every description, besides all kinds of game, ducks of every species, snipe, pigeons, curlew, wild turkeys, deer &c. affording good amusement to those fond
The town contains two hundred and fifty houses: few however can be called tenantable. A good custom-house, the Commandant's-house and a miserable hospital, with a church in ruins, are the only
The original sketches here presented to our readers will be found to contain much novel information with tract of country but little known.
Considering the situation of our quarters I San Donel, and after considerable trouble were passed a comfortable night. At 4. A. M. we re enabled to get a miserable supper, and as the house sumed our journey over a bad road scarcely pass had only three rooms, and those were all occupied, able in some places for our horses. I suffered the we were constantly disturbed during the night by inconvenience of frequently having to stop for my
the arrival of travellers, who, not having come in hat, as the boughs of the trees were so thick as to time to secure quarters within, were obliged to take make it rather unsafe to ride before daylight. I up with an outside birth. During the evening, we noticed fields of sugar-cane, and corn, and several were much amused by the conversation of a native, small settlements of huts. We also passed over who favored us with an account of his many feats some fine runs of water. At 8. A. M. we arrived in smuggling, which seems to be the usual topic of at the entrance of a romantic and dreary forest the Mexicans residing near the seacoast. The called the Parlos Marias, situated in a low, deep
distance travelled this day was twenty-one miles. ravine, two or three miles in extent, and noted for At daylight the next day, we recommenced our the many robberies and murders which have there journey over a very stony and narrow road, and, been committed. On entering this place, your at twelve, breakfasted at a most miserable village, guide takes care to warn you to reprime your pistols
called San Isabel. We soon resumed our journey and have every thing ready at the shortest notice. and at 2. P. M., passed over a very large tract, Although the day should be fine, you lose sight of several miles in extent, of large masses of black the sun from the time you enter till you come out.
cinder stones thrown out 70 or 30 years ago by the I noticed the beech, birch, live and white oak, volcano Ahuacatlan. Nevertheless, the inhabitants and a number of trees, whose names were unknown of this place have taken the trouble to make a bad to me. We often ascended very steep hills, and horse road over these stones, for their own conthe path, for the greater part of the way, was in venience. In a very conspicuous part of the road, tercepted with large loose stones and gullies washed they have erected a monument with the following by the rains, which caused our journey to be rather modest inscription, “The benevolent people of fatiguing. On our road this day, we passed over Ahuacatlan made this road, 1825.” At 8. M., a tract, several miles in length of entire pumice we arrived at the village of Ahuacatlan, containing stone. We stopped to dine with an Indian, of 300 building some tolerably handsome, several pubwhom Capt. Basil Hall speaks in his book of trav lic edifices, and about 5 or 6000 inhabitants, who els, and found him a very shrewd fellow. At noon, are principally muleteers and farmers. The land in we arrived at the town of Tepick having travelled the vicinity appeared well watered and cultivated. this day thirty miles. The distance of this place This village is supported by agriculture and trade. from San Blas is sixty-three miles.
We travelled this day forty-two miles. Tepick is situated in a beautiful plain surrounded March 5th. Our last night's quarters were toleron all sides by high hills. It contains about 500 ably good. At daylight we resumed our journey private houses, and has several fine public buildings, over a rough and mountainous road. Here I was with a population of 9000. In the rainy season, surprised at the appearance of a large iron cannon the population is increased by 3 or 4000 emigrants lying in the path. My guide informed me that it from San Blas and Mazatlan, who resort here for was carried here a: 1 abandoned by the Spaniards, the purpose of spending that portion of the year. about twenty years since. It was a twenty-four The town is handsomely laid out in squares, and pounder. From some of the high mountains we the streets are well paved, yet little attention seems ascended this day, the prospects were finer than I to be paid to having them-kept clean. From the had ever before witnessed, and the road equally as number of buildings now being erected, I believe dangerous, or more so than I bad before travelled. it is growing rapidly. This, like all other Mexican At 12.we stopped to dine in a low deep baranca, towns, has a garrison of good looking soldiers. or ravine, surrounded on all sides by very higli There appeared considerable life among the inhabit mountains. The inhabitants, with very few excepants: balls, theatrical exhibitions, and bull fights tions, were troubled with large swelled throats, were frequent. The ladies are some of them very called Goitre, which disease is said to be occasioned handsome. The land around Tepick appeared by drinking the water of a small stream running under good cultivation, and the soil rich. This through the village. We continued our journey townis supported by trade and agriculture: although up zig-zag paths, through gullies washed by the there are mines in the vicinity, they are not worked. rain, and over loose stones. Early in the evening, The average height of the thermometer is 68o. being favored with the light of the moon, we arrived About three miles from this place, I noticed at the village of Muchitilte. Here we found a beautiful waterfall 120 or 150 feet perpendicular, company of soldiers stationed, for the protection which is well worth the attention of travellers, who of the road. It is customary wherever a murder may visit Tepick: the scenery around it is very has been committed to put up a wooden cross, and beautiful. As it is customary for every person
we have counted on our road more than a hundred. travelling in Mexico to be provided with a passport, We travelled this day forty-two miles; a very small to obtain one, I was obliged to present myself to portion of the land we passed by was cultivated; the chief Poletico, or governor, who very readily our height above the sea was 8000 feet. supplied me, and seemed desirous to render me all Early the next morning, we commenced our the service in his power.
The inhabitants gener journey for the day. The road led over bill and ally appeared polite and hospitable.
dale, and was rather a poor one. I noticed some On the 3d of March, we started at 12 o'clock very fine patches in the valleys under high cultivaOn our journey, in company with a Spanish super tion, and several settlements of huts. At 12 o'clock, cargo and servant. Our route lay over a fair horse we stopp ud to dine in the town of Magdaline, conroad, and through a beautiful, but poorly cultivated taining several public buildings, 300 private houses, tract of country. We passed several small villages, and about 6000 inhabitants. At 2. P. M. we started which appeared of not much consequence. At again over rather a good road, and in a few hours & P. M., we arrived at a tavern, in the village of
arrived at the town of Teceli situated at the foot
of a high hill, down which the road descends. The profits of this Company for six months, From the zig-zag road, the town and surrounding ending 31st of December 1832, were £40,783 country afford a most beautiful prospect. Teceli 3s. 7d.; ditto, ending 30th of June, 1832, £28,048 contains a number of buildings and 6 or 7000 in 4s. 9d. The passengers carried were, in the forhabitants. Its support is derived from the very mer half-year, 256,321; and in the latter half-year, extensive manufacture of Muscal, a species of 174,122: and besides this, there appears to have rum extracted from the Maguea plant. The in been upwards of 60,000 tons of goods and coals habitants are also engaged in agriculture, and the carried the whole distance, each half year, besides manufacture of rope from the fibres of the Maguea considerable traffic on the Bolton junction. The plant. The country around this place, in every above number of passengers, 174,122, were whirled direction, is under cultivation, and as the Maguea along in 2635 trips of the locomotives plant seems to monopolize a considerable proportion of land in this vicinity, I will attempt to give a description of it. It is first planted from slips at
THE PRINTING-PRESS IN TURKEY. regular distances, and the land on which it grows Mr. Mountstuart Elphinstone, in his very intermust have considerable attention paid to it, in the esting Account of the Kingdom of Caubul (a way of enriching the soil. When it arrives at
country near the higher waters of the Indus, beperfection, which is at the end of six or seven years, tween India and Persia), and of the scattered its height is ten or twelve feet, and its circumference Afghan tribes dependant thereon, gives the followabout the size of a barrel. It has the appearance ing anecdote of the Naikpeekhail, who, like the of a large bunch of rushes. When it has arrived rest, profess the Mahometan religion, but are so at maturity, a hole is cut at the top of the trunk, barbarous that even reading is looked down on as where is a space containing several quarts of water. an unmanly aceomplishment among them. After dipping out the water in the morning, they “Some men of the Naikpeekhail found a Mollah, cover the top again, and for several years this or doctor of the Mahometan faith, copying the plant yields to its owner every morning and night, Khorah, or their bible, and not well understanding its quantity of juice. From this juice is distilled the case, they struck his head off, saying, 'You teli the Muscal or rum. They also manufacture a us these books come from God, and here are you species of drink from the juice of the Maguea, making them yourself.'” called by the natives “pulkie,” which with a little The Turks are not quite so ignorant as this, but sugar makes a very pleasant beverage in warm even they, not many years ago, when Sultan Selim weather, and of which the Mexicans all appear introduced the art of printing, were led to believe fond. At 8. P. M. we arrived at a village, called that it was sinful to print the Khoran—that nothing Matilan, having travelled this day forty-five miles. but the pen and hand-writing could, without impiety, Matilan contains about 500 houses and two or three multiply the copies of their Scriptures. Other public buildings, with about 5000 inhabitants. It works might go through the press, but unfortunateis supported by the cultivation of the Maguea plant, ly, at the time, the Turks read no book except the and the manufacture of rum or Muscal.
Khoran, and so the inestimable benefit of printing (To be continued.)
was to be thrown away upon them! This absurd prejudice originated in, or was kept alive by, the Turkish copyists who gained a livelihood by transcribing the Khoran, cach copy of which cost the people a hundred times as much as the copy the press could have afforded, and the printed copy, besides, would have been infinitely the more distinct and legible of the two.
The present Sultan, among his many reforms and improvements, has succeeded to set the press to work in earnest. Many elementary works have been printed, some three or four of a higher character, on History and general Geography, and now a newspaper (that novelty for the Turks!) comes regularly from the Sultan's printing-offices, and is circulated through the vast empire. We are informed by a friend,
who writes from Constantinople, that it is a very interesting sight to see the effects that have already sprung from these salutary measures. Instead of every coffee-house being
crowded as it used to be, by idle, silent, stupified VIEW ON THE LIVERPOOL AND MANCHESTER RAILWAY.
loungers, doing nothing but smoking their pipes, The wood-cut at the top of this article, is a view you find them now, (in less numbers indeed, which of the Liverpool and Manchester Rail-way at is also a good thing,) occupied by men attentively Runcorn-Gap. The train of carriages drawn by a reading the newspaper, or conning over "the 'ast locomotive are seen on the Liverpool and Man new work" neatly printed, and sold at a very cheap chester rail-way, one above the other, on the price. Before this, and almost up to last wear, they viaduct of the Doric order. This rail-way cost in were in the condition that all Europe was iu four its contruction between Liverpool and Manchester hundred years ago, or previously to the savention about one million of pounds; and their last half of printing, when only the comparatively rich could year's expenses appear by the Report of the Di
afford to buy a book or any thing to read. Even on rectors in June last to have been very heavy, viz. the quays of the port, and in the bazaars of Constan£47,770 158.; to which, if we add interest of capital tinople, you now see Turks occupying their leisure and the gross annual outlay, at this rate, appears moments with the productions of the
press, which o be £145,541 10s
is thus becoming day by day more and more aetiin
the second at Midsummer; and the last is accomplished during August and September. The following cut of tea-gathering is from a Chinese drawing. The leaves that are earliest gathered
TEA. Tea was first imported into Europe by the Dutch East-India Company, in the early part of the seventeenth century; but it was not until the year 1666 that a small quantity was brought over from Holland to England by the Lords Arlington and Ossory: and yet, from a period earlier than any to which the memories of any of the existing generation can reach, tea has been one of the principal necessaries of life among all classes of the community. To provide a sufficient supply of this aliment, many thousand tons of shipping are annually employed in trading with a people by whom all dealings with foreigners are merely tolerated; and from this recently-acquired taste, a very large and easilycollected revenue is obtained by the state.
The tea-plant is a native of China or Japan, and probably of both. It has been used among the
natives of the former country from time immemorial. It is only in a particular tract of the Chinese empire that the plant is cultivated; and this tract, which is situated on the eastern side, between the 30th and 33d degrees of north latitude, is distinguished by the natives as “the tea country.” The more northern part of China would be too cold; and farther south the heat would be too great. There are, however, a few small plantations to be seen near to Canton.
The Chinese give to the plant the name of tcha or tha. It is propagated by them from seeds, which are deposited in rows four or five feet asunder; and so uncertain is their vegetation, even in their native climate, that it is found necessary to sow as many as seven or eight seeds in every hole. The ground between each row is always kept free from weeds, and the plants are not allowed to attain a higher growth than admits of the leaves being conveniently gathered. The first crop of leaves is not collected until the third year after sowing; and when the trees are six or seven years old, the produce becomes so inferior that they are removed to make room for a fresh succession.
The flowers of the tea-tree are white, and somewhat resemble the wild rose of our hedges: these flowers are succeeded by soft green berries or pods, containing each from one to three white seeds. The plant will grow in either low or elevated situations, but always thrives best and furnishes leaves of the finest quality when produced in light stony ground.
The leaves are gathered from one to four times during the year, according to the age of the trees. Most commonly there are three periods of gathering; the first commences about the middle of April;
are of the most delicate color and most aromatic flavor, with the least portion of either fibre or bitterness. Leaves of the second gathering are of a dull green color, and have less valuable qualities than the former; while those which are last collected are of a dark green, and possess an inferior value. The quality is farther influenced by the age of the wood on which the leaves are borne, and by the degree of exposure to which they have been accustomed; leaves from young wood, and those most exposed, being always the best.
The leaves, as soon as gathered, are put into wide shallow baskets, and placed in the air or wind, or sunshine, during some hours. They are then placed on a flat cast-iron pan, over a stove heated with charcoal, from a half to three quarters of a pound of leaves being operated on at one time. These leaves are stirred quickly about with a kind of brush, and are then as quickly swept off the pan into baskets. The next process is that of rolling, which is effected by carefully rubbing them between men's hands; after which they are again put, in larger quantities, on the pan, and subjected anew to heat, but at this time to a lower degree than at first, and just sufficient to dry them effectually without risk of scorching. This effected, the tea is placed on a table and carefully picked over, every unsightly or imperfectly-dried leaf that is detected being removed from the rest, in order that the sample may present a more even and a better appearance when offered for sale.
The names by which some of the principal sorts of tea are known in China, are taken from the places in which they are produced, while others are distinguished according to the periods of their gathering, the manner employed in curing, or other extrinsic circumstances. It is a commonly received opinion, that the distinctive color of green tea is imparted to it by sheets of copper, upon which it is dried. For this belief there is not, however, the smallest foundation in fact, since copper is never used for the purpose. Repeated experiments have been made to discover, by an unerring test, whether the leaves of green tea contain any impregnation of copper, but in no case has any trace of this metal been detected.
The Chinese do not use their tea until it is about a year old, considering that it is too actively narcotic when new. Tea is yet older when it is brought into consumption in England, as, in addition to the length of time occupied in its collection and transport to that country, the East-India Company are obliged by their charter to have always a supply sufficient for one year's consumption in their Lon
don warehousos; and this regulation, which enhances the price to the consumer, is said to have been made by way of guarding in some measure against the inconveniences that would attend any interruption to a trade entirely dependant upon the caprice of an arbitrary government.
The people of China partake of tea at all their meals, and frequently at other times of the day. They drink the infusion prepared in the same manner as we employ, but they do not mix with it either sugar or milk. The working classes in that country are obliged to content themselves with a very weak infusion. Mr. Anderson, in his Narrative of Lord Macartney's Embassy, relates that the natives in attendance never failed to beg the tea-leaves remaining after the Europeans had breakfasted, and with these, after submitting them again to boiling water, they made a beverage which they acknowledged was better than any they could ordinarily obtain.
its claws, could direct it to trace out any given name in the company. He trained a dog ind a cat to go through many amazing performances. His confidence even led him to try experiments on a goldfish, which he did not despair of making perfectly tractable: But, some time afterwards, a doubt having started to him, whether the obstinacy of a pig could be conquered, his usual patient fortitude was devoted to the experiment. He bought a black sucking pig, and trained it to lie under the stool at which he sat at work. At various intervals, during six or seven months, he tried in vain to bring the young boar to his purpose; and, despairing of every kind of success, he was on the point of giving it away, when it struck him to adopt a new mode of teaching; in consequence of which, in the course of sixteen months, he made an animal, supposed the most obstinate and perverse in the world, to become the most tractable. In August 1783, he once again turned itinerant, and took his learned pig to Dublin, where it was shown for two or three nights. It was not only under full command, but appeared as pliant and good-natured as a spaniel. When the weather made it necessary that he should move into the city, he obtained the permission of the chief magistrate, and exhibited the pig in Dame Street. * It was seen,
says the author of Anthologia Hibernica, “ for two or three days by many persons of respectability, to spell, without any apparent direction, the names of those in the coinpany; to cast up accounts, and to point out even the words thought of by persons present; to tell exactly the hour, minutes, and seconds; to point out the married, to kneel, and to make his obeisance to the company,
&c. &c. Poor Bisset was thus in a fair way of “bringing his pig to a good market,” when a man, whose insolence disgraced authority, broke into the rooms without any sort of pretext, assaulted the unoffending man, and drew his sword to kill the swine, an animal that, in the practice of good breeding, was superior to his assailant. The injured Bisset pleaded in vain the permission that had been granted him; he was threatened to be dragged to prison. He was now constrained to return home, but the agitation of his mind threw him into a fit of illness, and he died, a few days after, at Chester, on his way to London.
BISSET, THE ANIMAL TEACHER. Few individuals have presented so striking an instance of patience and eccentricity as Bisset, the extraordinary teacher of animals. He was a native of Perth, in Scotland, and an industrious shoemaker, until the notion of teaching animals attracted his attention in the year 1759. Reading an account of a remarkable horse shown at St. Germain's, curiosity led him to experiment on a horse and a dog, which he bought in London, and he succeeded in training these beyond all expectation. Two monkeys were the next pupils he took in hand, one of which he taught to dance and tumble on the rope, whilst the other held a candle in one paw for his companion, and with the other played the bar
These antic animals he also instructed to play several fanciful tricks, such as drinking to the company, riding and tumbling on a horse's back, and going through several regular dances with a dog. Being a man of unwearied patience, three young cats were the next objects of his tuition. He taught those domestic tigers to strike their paws in such directions on the dulcimer, as to produce several regular tunes, having music-books before them, and squalling at the same time in different keys or tones, first, second, and third, by way of concert. He afterwards was induced to make a public exhibition of his animals, and the well known Cats' Opera, in which they performed, was advertised in the Haymarket Theatre. The horse, the dog, the monkeys, and the cats, went through their several parts with uncommon applause to crowded houses; and, in a few days, Bisset found himself possessed of nearly a thousand pounds, to reward nis ingenuity and perseverance.
This success excited Bisset's desire to extend his dominion over other animals, including even the feathered kind. He procured a young leveret, and reared it to beat several marches on the drum, with its bind legs, until it became a good stout hare. He tanght canary birds, linnets, and sparrows, to spell the name of any person in company, to distinguish the hour and minute of time, and perform many other surprising feats: he trained six' turkey cocks to go through a regular country dance; but, in doing this, confessed he adopted the eastern suethod, by which camels are made to dance, by heating the foor. In the course of six months' teaching, he made a turtle fetch and carry like a dog; and having chalked the floor and blackened
BY TIE REV. TIOMAS DALE.
O, breathe no more that simple air,-
Is cold despair!-
And she is--where?
With fairy flowers !-
For she is—where?
Calm and unmoved ?-
And she is where ?