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ferocity, its carnivorous disposition, the length of its claws, the breadth and length of its soles, and the shortness of its tail.
The Grisly Bear inhabits the Rocky Mountains, and the plains lying to the eastward of them, as far as latitude 61°, and perhaps still farther north. Its southern range, according to Lieutenant Pike, extends to Mexico. Necklaces of the claws of a Grisly Bear are highly prized by the Indian warriors as proofs of their prowess.
now distinguish no particular object; it was an Egyptian darkness indeed, such as might be felt; owing, no doubt, to the prodigious clouds of dust and lime raised from so violent a concussion, and, as some reported, to sulphureous exhalations, but this I cannot affirm; however it is certain I found myself almost choked for near ten minutes."
During the whole of November the shocks continued to be violent. Lisbon was reduced to a heap of ruins.
The loss of lives was computed at upwards of 30,000. In the lower part of the town not a street could be traced but by the fragments of broken walls, and the accumulation of ashes and rubbish. Palaces, churches, convents and private houses, appeared as if the angel of desolation had just passed by. The following cut gives a faint idea of the ruins of the church of St. Pauls. The falling of this church buried a great part of the congregation, which was very numerous, beneath its walls.
THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE AT LISBON
IN 1775. Many natives of Portugal yet remember the morning of the first of November, 1775. The day dawned clear and beautiful. The sun shone out in its full lustre; the whole ce of the sky was perfectly serene, and no one conceived of the horrible contrast, which was soon after to present itself. The earth had trembled at short intervals for a year. An English merchant, who resided at Lisbon, gives the following account of the approach of the final catastrophe:
“ It was on the morning of this fatal day, between the hours of nine and ten, that I was sat down in my apartment, just finishing a letter, when the papers and table I was writing on, began to tremble with a gentle motion, which rather suprised me, as I could not perceive a breath of wind stirring. Whilst I was reflecting with myself what this could be owing to, but without having the least apprehension of the real cause, the whole house began to shake from the very foundation; which at first I imputed to the rattling of several coaches in the main street, which usually passed that way, at this time, from Belem to the palace; but on hearkening more attentively, I was soon undeceived, as found it was owing to a strange frightful kind of noise under ground, resembling the hollow distant rumbling of thunder. All this passed in less than a minute, and I must confess I now began to be alarmed, as it naturally occurred to me that this noise might possibly be the forerunner of an earthquake; as one I remembered, which had happened about six or seven years ago, in the island of Madeira, commenced in te same manner, though it did little or no damage.
“Upon this I threw down my pen and started upon my feet, remaining a moment in suspense, whether I should stay in the apartment or run into the street, as the danger in both places seemed equal; and still flattering myself that this tremor might produce no other effects than such inconsiderable ones as had been felt at Madeira; but in a moment I was roused from my dream, being instantly stunned with a most horrid crash, as if every edifice in the city had tumbled down at once. The house I was in shook with such violence, that the upper stories immediately fell, and though my apartment (which was the first floor) did not then share the same fate, yet every thing was thrown out of its place in such a manner, that it was with no small difficulty I kept my feet, and expected nothing less than to be soon crushed to death, as the walls continued rocking to and fro in the frightfullest manner, opening in several places; large stones falling down on every side from the cracks, and the ends of most of the rafters starting out from the roof. To add to this terrifying scene, the sky in a moment became so gloomy that I could
At night the city was deserted by the surviving inhabitants, and only infested by robbers who proceeded in gangs to break open and plunder. The heights around Lisbon were so covered with tents, that they seemed a continued encampment. The great aqueduct over the valley of Alcantara remained entirely unshaken, though its height is so great and its line of arches so extensive. It was remarked, that during the month of November, the tides did not observe their proverbial regularity.
The terrors of a conflagration were added to those of the earthquake. On the night of the 1st of November, the whole city appeared in a blaze, which was so bright, that persons could see to read by it. It continued burning for six days, without the least attempt being made to stop it. The people were so dejected and terrified, that they made no exertion even to save their own property. Dead bodies remained unburied in the churches, in the streets, and among the rubbish. The scene inspired melancholy even into dumb animals.
The property of all kinds consumed or engulfed was of immense value. Many years elapsed before Lisbon recovered from the calamity, and the traces of it are still visible in many places.
When we read the lives of distinguished men in any department, we find them almost always celebrated for the amount of labor they could perform. Demosthenes, Julius Cæsar, Henry the Fourth of France, Lord Bacon, Sir Isaac Newton, Franklin, Washington, Napoleon,-different as they were in their intellectual and moral qualities,-were all re nowned as hard-workers. We read how many days they could support the fatigues of a march ; how early they rose; how late they watched; how many hours they spent in the field, in the cabinet, in the court ; how many secretaries they kept employed; in short how hard they worked.- Everett's Discourse.
HARBOR AND TOWN OF MUSCAT.
stranger gets among them, he finds commerce to Muscat, the principal port on the eastern coast engross all their conversation and their thoughts. of Arabia, is under the government of an indepen In the town, horses are seldom used, but camels dent chief. The harbor, which lies in latitude and asses are the animals mounted by all classes 23° 38' north, and longitude 59° 15' east, is formed of those who ride. The tranquillity that reigns by a small cove, or semicircular bay, environed on throughout the place, and the tolerance and civility all sides, except at its entrance, by lofty, steep and shown to strangers of every denomination, are to barren rocks, and extending not more than half a be attributed to the inoffensive disposition of the mile in length from the town, at the head of the people, rather than to the efficiency of a police, cove, to the outer anchorage, in the mouth of it; there being no regular establishment of that kind and not more than a quarter of a mile in breadth here. Whole cargoes of merchandise, and propfrom fort to fort, which guard the entrance on the erty of every description are left to lie open on the east and west. The entrance to this cove is from wharf and in the streets, without fear of plunder. the northward, and the water is deep, shoaling Every thing is favorable to the personal liberty, the quickly from thirty to fifteen fathoms at the cove's safety and the accommodation of strangers; and mouth. Ships entering it from the northward, with the Arabs of Muscat may be considered, as far as a fair wind, should go no farther in than ten fathoms manners go, as the most civilized of their countrybefore anchoring, as the ground does not hold well; men. and within this, there is but little room to drive. Provisions and refreshments for shipping may be
The town of Muscat is seated near the shore, at easily obtained here. Meat, vegetables and fruit the bottom of the hills. It is of an irregular form are all abundant in their season, of excellent qualand meanly built. It is walled around, with some ity; and fish are nowhere more plentiful or more few round towers at the principal angles, after the delicious than here. The water is also pure and Arabian manner; but this is only towards the land wholesome. Deficiencies in ships' crews may also side, the part facing the sea being entirely open. be made up by Arab sailors, who are always to be The population is about ten thousand. Of these, found here, and are unquestionably braver, hardier, about nine-tenths are pure Arabs and Mohamme- and better seamen, than the Lascars of India, dans; the remainder are principally Hindoos. though they are sometimes difficult to be kept in There are only three or four Jews, and no Chris order. tians of any description resident in the place. The duties on commerce are five per cent. ad valorem,
LINES BY BISHOP HORNE. paid by strangers of every denomination on all
Sweet day, so cool, so calm, so bright, goods brought into the port. There is no export
Bridal of earth and sky, duty.
The dew shall weep thy fall to-night, The Custom House, which is opposite to the
For thou, alas! must die! landing place both for passengers and goods, is
Sweet rose, in air whose odours wave merely an open square of twenty feet, with benches
And color charms the eye, around it, one side opening to the sea, and the
Thy root is ever in its grave, roof covered in for shelter from the sun. This
And thou, alas! must die ! landing-place is also the Commercial Exchange,
Sweet spring, of days and roses made, where it is usual, during the cool of the morning,
Whose charms for beauty vie, to see the principal merchants assembled, some
Thy days depart, thy roses fadesitting on old rusty cannons, others on condemned
Thou, too, alas! must die! spars, and others in the midst of coils of ropes,
Be wise, then, Christian, while you may exposed on the wharf, stroking their beards, and
For swiftly time is flying ; seeming to be the greatest of idlers, instead of
The thoughtless man may laugh to-day men of pusiness; notwithstanding which, when a
To-morrow may be dyiug!
served that one Aponius was dozing in his seat, when tyrning to the auctioneer, he desired him “ on no account to neglect the biddings of the gentleman who was nodding to him from the benches !” Finally, thirteen gladiators were knocked down to the unconscious bidder for nearly 73,0001.
The Pacha of Egypt.— The present enterprising Pacha of Egypt, like all men who have succeeded in accomplishing great designs, is remarkably attentive to have his orders exe. cuted rapidly, no matter about what. An amusing instance of this activity occurred a few years ago. Having observed one of the European visiters wearing shoes, such as are usually worn in this country, and tied in a military fashion, he borrowed them as a pattern, and in less than twelve hours, a dozen pairs were ready; these were despatched instantly to Cairo, with a peremplory order, that 40,000 pairs should be ready in a month. All the shoemakers in Cairo were instantly set to work, and the order completed in due time.
Destructive Shell.--An English paper states that a most deadly and destructive weapon, one of such importance that the projector expects it will wholly change the mode European warfare, is in all probability by this time employed against the Miguelites. It is a shell constructed by an Englishman named Warner, a name not unknown to divers high personages during the last war. Mr. Warner has contrived an engine so tremendous that soine distinguished individuals have refused to countenance any thing so fatal to hunan life. It may be employed by sea as well as land, and would seem capable of destroying, in a few hours, the finest fleet that ever ploughed the ocean. Used against shipping it is fired point-blank like a bullet. It adheres to whatever it strikes, and exploding, the substance of which it is formed resolves itself into flame, which like the Greek fire, cannot be checked by water, and which indeed, is believed to be absolutely inextinguishable. The shell has no fuse; and it explodes with a violent concussion, scattering death wherever any portion of it falls; for if the least drop of the molten metal should ful on the human frame, its venon is such that death is certain. Mr. Warner offered to sell the invention to the English government. They, however, were not so sufficiently convinced of its im. portance as to feel justified in offering him what he considered an adequate reward for the many years of toil and study which he has devoted to bring this awful invention to perfection. He has seized the opportunity offered by the present situation of things in Portugal to make his experiments in favor of the Constitutionalists on a grand scale, that Ministers may see he is not a mere pretender. On going out he made known his object to Admiral Sartorius, but was coolly received. The Admiral wished Mr. Warner to fall in with his feet, but it did not accord with the views of the latter to let Sartorius have his services while he was kept in the back ground, and he therefore determined on seeing the Emperor himself, and forth with sought him at Oporto. He was graciously received by Don Pedro, to whom he explained his views through Sir John Milley Doyle, who acted as interpreter. The Emperor entered fully into the subject, approved of the plans of Mr. W., and consented to make trial of the shells which he had brought out. It was arranged that a fort which it had previously been deemed impossible to take, should be attacked-Mr. Warner stipulating that he should be allowed to use his own means in his way, with the assistance of 600 men. The result remains to be seen.
LACONICS. Fortune is painted blind, that she may not blush to behold the fools who belong to her.
Some men get on in the world on the same principle that a sweep passes uninterruptedly through a crowd.
Fanatics think men like bulls—they must be baited to mad. ness ere they are in a fit condition to die.
Some connoisseurs would give a hundred pounds for the painted head of a beggar, who would threaten the living mendicant with the stocks.
If you boast of a contempt for the world, avoid getting into debt. It is giving to gnats the fangs of vipers.
Fame is represented bearing a trumpet. Would not the picture be truer, were she to hold a handful of dust?
Fishermen, in order to handle eels securely, first cover them with dirt. In like manner does detraction strive to grasp excellence.
VARIETIES. Among the recent deaths in England is that of General Tarleton, so notorious during our revolutionary war, for his partisan feats and ferocious mode of warfare in the Carolinas. He was a favorite officer and intimate friend of Lord Corn. wallis.
A silver mine of great product and extent. has been newly discovered by a woodcutter, in the district of Coquimbo (C.li) heretofore famous for its copper mines. It is said that fifty veins of this mine had been traced, and that in the richness of its product it promises to rival Potosi.
In the month of July last, while the people were celebrating Mass in the church of Sigchos, near Tacunga, in the republic of Equador, South America, on the day of the solemn festival del Corpus, fire was communicated to the building by means of a rocket. In the rush of the audience to the door, it became shut, and, the whole congregation perished in the flames except the Curate, who escaped through a window' The number of lives lost was estimated at more than five hundred, besides children.
The St. Petersburgh Gazette states thst there is living near Polosk on the frontiers of Lithuania, an old man named Demetrius Crabowski, who is now 168 years old. This Russian Methuselah has always led the humble but tranquil life of a Shepherd, assisted by his two sons, the eldest of whom, Paul, is 120, and the younger, Anatole, 97 years old.
By a statement presented at the annual town meeting of New-Bedford, it appears, that the present population of that Nourishing place is 9260; showing an increase of 1708 since the census of 1530, and of 5343 since 1820.
By the news from Constantinople, it appears that an armis tice has been concluded between the Porte and Ibrahim Pacha. It is considered certain that such an arrangement will be made as to put a final stop to hostilities.
The cholera has been making terrible havoc in Havana. On the 18th of March, the number of deaths was 600, and on the 21st, it was supposed to be not less than 400. The population of Havana is estimated at 150,000; so that the mortality is greater than has been witnessed in any of the cities of the United States. Among the deaths, we regret to notice that of Mr. Shaler, formerly our consul at Algiers.
Accounts from Mexico state that Gen. Santa Anna has been elected President; Gen. Farias, Vice President of the Republic, and Lorenzo de Lalena Governor of the city of Mexico.
The Georgia Hurricane.—The Milledgeville Journal of the 14th instant says, in relation to the late hurricane which swept over that portion of the State of Georgia,—“ It is
represented as the most extensive ever known. Its ravages in the western counties have been awful, and the injury to woodlands and plantations in many places irreparable. Its general course was from north west to south east. Beyond Flint River, in places, whole forests of the finest and best timbered lands have been entirely prostrated--and plantations so laid waste as to bring almost complete despair for the pres. ent year's crop. Its attack was various—running in veinsin some places entirely sparing the country, and in others, prostrating it for miles together. Much injury has been done to houses, fences and stock, and in several instances lives have been lost."
Lake of Vitriol.-There is, in the island of Java, a volcano, called Idienne, from which the Dutch East India Company have been often supplied with sulphur for the manufacture of gun-powder. At the foot of this volcano is a vast natural manufactory of that acid commonly called oil of vitriol, al. though it is there largely diluted with water. It is a lake about 1,200 French feet long; the water is warm, and of a greenish white color, and charged with acid. The taste of this liquid is sour, pungent, and caustic; it kills all the fish of a river into which it flows, gives violent colics to those who drink it, and destroys all the vegetation on its banks.
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Caligula.--At an exhibition of gladiators, he caused the survivors to be sold by auction. While so employed, he ob.
ST. HELENA. The island of St. Helena stands entirely detached from any group, and is about 1200 miles from the nearest land, on the eastern coast of Southern Africa. . An imperceptible point in the Atlantic Ocean, this rock is nine leagues in its greatest circumference. Steep shores form for it a natural and nearly impregnable rampart. It is divided into two unequal parts by a chain of mountains intersected by deep valleys. The coast is very barren in appearance, but a rich verdure covers the interior of the island, even to the tops of the mountains, from which springs of pure and wholesome water exude on every side. The cultivation of almost all the fruits and commodities of Europe and Asia succeeds liere., The pasturage seeds a great many oxen, sheep and goats, a resource highly valued by navigators.
It has a population of about two thousand persons, of which five hundred are whites, and 1,500 are negroes, the garrison not included. A company has recently been formed for fitting out some whale ships from this place.
Jamestown, on the north-west coast, is the only city and port of St. Helena. The approaches are defended by good fortifications. It being the ordinary place of refreshment for ships returning from India, it often presents the appearance of a noisy market place. At the time of its discovery in 1502, the interior was only one large forest, and the guni-tree even grew on the edges of the rocks suspended over the sea. Fernando Lopez, a Portuguese renegado, who in 1513 obtained the favor of living in exile here, first stocked the island with
goats, hogs, poultry, and other usosul animals. The Portuguese having in time deserted it for their establishments on the southeast coast of Africa, it was taken possession of by the Dutch, and abandoned by them in 1651 for the Cape of Good Hope. The English afterwards established themselves here. It was granted to the East India Company by Charles II., and was the only resting-place in the Atlantic possessed by them for the refreshment of their ships. The island is ten and a half miles long by 63 broad, and about 28 miles in circumference.
The principal plain in the island, called Longwood, situated in the eastern part, has become celebrated by the residence of Napoleon Bonaparte. The illustrious captive arrived at St. Helena in November, 1815, and died there May 5th, 1821. The spot where he lies quietly inurned' is in a deep valley, surrounded by a small iron railing, and covered with a coarse brown stone, lying about eight inches above the level of the ground, without an inscription. His sepulchre is overhung by three weeping willows of a very large size; and a few yards to the south of it is a spring from which he used to take his water. This interesting spot is distant from Jamestown about two miles and a half, and is approached by an excellent road connecting the two places. The body of Napoleon is deposited in a mahogany coffin, which is placed within three other cases: on the external one is the inscription, General of the French. By his side lies the sword which he wore at Austerlitz.
Recent visiters to Bonaparte's tomb describe the fresh planting of a set of young willows around it, cuttings from the parent trees, by the present
governor, as the old ones are fast going to decay. Longwood is now a farm-house, and no part but the former billiard room remains inhabitable; the other apartments being converted into stables, granaries, &c. The new Longwood House, which is an excellent dwelling, has never been occupied, and is apparently fast falling into ruins.
THE SCENERY OF THE OHIO. The heart must indeed be cold that would not glow among scenes like these. Rightly did the French call this stream La Belle Rivière, (the beautiful river). The sprightly Canadian, plying his gar in cadence with the wild notes of the boat-song, could not fail to find his heart enlivened by the beautiful symmetry of the Ohio. Its current is always graceful, and its shores every where romantic. Every thing here is on a large scale. The eye of the traveller is continually regaled with magnificent scenes. Here are no pigmy mounds dignified by the name of mountains; no rivulets swelled into rivers. Nature has worked with a rapid but masterly hand; every touch is bold, and the whole is grand as well as beautiful; while room is left for art to embellish and fertilize that which nature has created with a thousand capabilities. There is much sameness in the character of the scenery; but that sameness is in itself delightful, as it consists in the recurrence of noble traits, which are too pleasing ever to be viewed with indifference; like the regular features which we sometimes find in the face of a beautiful woman, their charm consists in their own intrinsic gracefulness, rather than in the variety of their expressions. The Ohio, has not the sprightly, fanciful wildness of the Niagara, the St. Lawrence, or the Susquehanna, whose impetuous torrents, rushing over beds of rocks, or dashing against the jutting cliffs, arrest the ear by their murmurs, and delight the eye with their eccentric wanderings. Neither is it like the Hudson, margined at one spot by the meadow and the village, and overhung at another by threatening precipices and stupendous mountains. It has a wild, solemn, silent sweetness,. peculiar to itself. - The noble stream, clear, smooth, and unruffled, sweeps onward with regular majestic force. Continually changing its course, as it rolls from vale to vale, it always winds with dignity, and, avoiding those acute angles which are observable in less powerful streams, sweeps round in graceful bends, as if disdaining the opposition to which Nature forces it to submit. On each side rise the romantic hills, piled on each other to a tremendous height; and between them are deep, abrupt, silent glens, which at a distance seem inaccessible to the human foot; while the whole is covered with timber of a gigantic size, and a luxuriant foliage of the deepest hues. Throughout this scene there is a pleasing solitariness, that speaks peace to the mind, and invites the fancy to soar abroad among the tranquil haunts of meditation. Sometimes the splashing of the oar is heard, and the boatman's song awakens the surrounding echoes; but the most usual music is that of the native songsters, whose melody steals pleasingly on the ear, with every modulation, at all hours. The poet, in sketching these solitudes, might, by throwing his scene a few years back, add the light canoe, and the war-song of the Indians; but the peaceful traveller rejoices in the absence of that which would bring danger, as well as variety within his reach.-Hall's Letters from the West.
STEAM ENGINES IN 1543. It appears from a late valuable publication, Navarrete's Collection of Spanish Voyages und Discoveries, that the first known experiment of propelling a vessel by the agency of steam, was made at Barcelona, more than eighty-five years before the idea of procuring motion by means of it was first started by Brancas in Italy; more than a century before this power was applied to any useful purpose by the marquis of Worcester in England; and near thrce centuries before Fulton, adapting and combining the inventions of a host of contemporary mechanics, successfully solved the same wonderful problem in the United States. Singular, however, as the fact may be, it is fully established by various documents lately found in the archives of Simancas, and is so circumstantially stated as to be incontrovertible.
In the year 1543, a certain sea-officer, called Blasco de Gavay, offered to exhibit before the emperor Charles V. a machine by means of which a vessel should be made to move, without the assistance of either sails or oars. Though the proposal appeared ridiculous, the man was so much in earnest, that the emperor appointed a commission to witness and report upon the experiment. The experiment was made the 17th of June, 1543, on board a vessel called the Trinidad, of two hundred barrels' burden, which had lately arrived with wheat from Colibre. The vessel was seen at a given moment to move forward, and turn about at pleasure, without sail or oar, or human agency, and without any visible mechanism, except a huge boiler of hot water, and a complicated combination of wheels and paddles.
The assembled multitude were filled with astonishment and admiration. The harbor of Barcelona resounded with plaudits; and the commissioners, who shared in the general enthusiasm, all made favorable reports to the emperor, except only the treasurer Ravago. This man, from some unknown cause, was prejudiced against the inventor and his machine. He took great pains to undervalue it, stating, among other things, that it could be of little use, since it only propelled the vessel two leagues in three hours; that it was very expensive and complicated, and that there was great danger of the boiler's bursting frequently. The experiment over, Gavay collected his machinery, and having deposited the wooden part in the royal arsenal, carried the rest to his own house.
Notwithstanding the invidious representations of Ravago, Gavay was applauded for his invention, and taken into favor by the emperor, who promoted him one grade, gave him two hundred thousand mararedises, and ordered the jealous treasurer to pay all the expenses of the experiment. But Charles was then taken up with some military expedition, and the occasion of conferring an inesti mable benefit on mankind was neglected for the business of bloodshed and devastation; while the honor which Barcelona might have received from perfecting this noble discovery was reserved for a city which had not yet started in the career of existence.
The fact that a vessel was propelled by steam as early as the sixteenth century, thus rendered certain, the question next occurs, whether it in any way detracts from the honor due to Fulton, not for having made the first successful application of steam to purposes of navigation, (for he was even anticipated by Fitch, in the United States) but for hav