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The above engraving is intended to represent resulting from the greatest of these estimates
woula the appearance of an extraordinary meteor, which exceed a mile. This estimate exceeds by far the was seen in Connecticut, on the 14th of December, weight of the whole mass that fell near Weston, 1807, and exploded with several discharges. From which, by the accounts published does not appear the observations made at the different places where to have been greater than half a ton, and would this meteor was witnessed, an eminent mathema not form a sphere of two feet diameter of the same tician, Dr. Bowditch, formed an estimate of its specific gravity as the stone. A sphere of this height, direction, velocity and magnitude. From diameter, seen at the distance of the meteor from this estimate we learn, that the course of the meteor Wenham, would hardly be visible without the was about S. 7° W. in a direction nearly parallel assistance of a telescope, since its apparent diamto the surface of the earth, and at the height of eter would not exceed two thirds of a second. eighteen miles. It passed over a space of more These facts seem to favor the opinion, that part of than one hundred and seven miles while visible at the mass continued on its course without falling to Rutland and Weston, and this time was by estima the earth near Weston. tion about thirty seconds, therefore the velocity of the As it is but within a few years, that observations meteor probably exceeded three miles per second, of these meteors have been carefully made, we have which is fourteen times as swift as the motion of not yet sufficient data for a well-grounded theory sound, and nearly as great, as the velocity of a of their nature and origin: none that has yet been satellite, revolving about the earth at the same proposed is free from difficulties. The greatness distance.
of the mass of the Weston meteor does not accord, At the time of the first appearance of the meteor either with the supposition of its having been formed at Weston, it was one hundred and thirteen miles in our atmosphere, or projected from a volcano of distant from that place, nearly in a north direction; the earth or moon; and the striking uniformity of it was then but little elevated above the horizon; all the masses that have fallen at different places at the time of explosion, near the zenith of Weston, and times (which indicates a common origin) does it was only twenty miles distant from the observer; not, if we reason from the analogy of the planetary at the same moment it could have been seen at system, altogether agree with the supposition, that Wenham, at the distance of one hundred and sixty such bodies are satellites of the earth. seven miles, and this is the greatest distance at The meteor of 1807 was observed about a quarter which it was seen.
past six on Monday morning. The day had just Some of the observers supposed the meteor to dawned, and there was little light except from the have appeared as large as the moon when full, moon, which was just setting. It seemed to be half others estimated it at one half, or one quarter of the diameter of the full moon; and passed, like a that magnitude. The real diameter of the meteor globe of fire, across the northern margin of the sky.
catastrophe, and these fragments continue to revolve in the solar system, and when they chance to enter the earth's atmosphere, take fire, owing to friction, and give rise to meteors. To this it may be replied, that if every visible meteor were a solid body, the fall of meteoric stones would be an every day occurrence; whereas it rarely happens.
“ The same argument is sufficient to refute the doctrine that they proceed from volcanoes in the moon, or in the earth, or that they are terrestrial comets. In short, this argument disproves any theory which regards them as so many solid bodies.
“It seems to me that the most plausible method of explaining them, is to refer them to electrical agency. By some persons they are supposed to be of two kinds, electrical, and solid. Those which appear so frequently in the upper regions of the atmosphere are alleged to consist of electricity, while the others are said to be cometary bodies, revolving round the earth.”
We shall pursue this interesting subject farther in some future number of the Magazine.
THE HULAN AND HIS CHARGER.
AFTER THEODORE KOERNER. Stand my good charger! steady stand! Iu thy thick mane I wreath my hand, As bounding from the yellow sand, We go to fight for Fatherland!
Hurrah! my steed, hurrah!
It passed behind some clouds, and when it came out it flashed like heat lightning. It had a train of light, and appeared like a burning firebrand carried against the wind. It continued in sight about half
a minute, and, in about an equal space after it faded, three loud and distinct reports, like those of a four pounder near at hand, were heard. Then followed a quick succession of smaller reports, seeming like what soldiers call a running fire. The appearance of the meteor was as if it took three successive throes, or leaps, and at eash explosion a rushing of stones was heard through the air, some of which struck the ground with a heavy fall.
The first fall was in the town of Huntington, near the house of Mr. Merwin Burr. He was standing in the road, in front of his house, when the stone fell, and struck a rock of granite about fifty feet from him, with a loud noise. The rock was stained a dark lead color, and the stone was principally shivered into very small fragments, which were thrown around to a distance of twenty feet. The largest piece was about the size of a goose egg, and was still warm.
The stones of the second explosion fell about five miles distant, near Mr. William Prince's residence, in Weston. He and his family were in bed, when they heard the explosion, and also heard a heavy body fall to the earth. They afterwards found a hole in the earth, about twenty-five feet from the house, like a newly dug post-hole, about one foot in diameter, and two feet deep, in which they found a meteoric stone buried, which weighed thirty-five pounds. Another mass fell half a mile distant, upon a rock, which it split in two, and was itself shivered to pieces. Another piece, weighing thirteen pounds, fell half a mile to the northeast, into a ploughed field.
At the last explosion, a mass of stone fell in a field belonging to Mr. Elijah Seely, about thirty rods from his house. This stone falling on a ledge, was shivered to pieces. It ploughed up a large portion of the ground, and scattered the earth and stones to the distance of fifty or a hundred feet. Some cattle that were near were very much frightened, and jumped into an enclosure. It was concluded that this last stone, before being broken, must have weighed about two hundred weight. These stones were all of a similar nature, and different from any commonly found on this globe. When first found, they were easily reduced to powder by the fingers, but by exposure to the air they gradually hardened.
În relation to the late wonderful display of meteors, a correspondent of the Philadelphia Advocate of Science remarks:
“ The causes of these unusual phenomena, although they have elicited much inquiry, remain to be explained. That these meteors were dependent on the same causes as the common ' shooting stars, does not admit of a doubt. The theories that have hitherto been advanced to account for them are, the inflammation of gas, the former explosion of a planet, terrene volcanoes, lunar volcanoes, terrestrial comets and electricity.
“ That they depend on the combustion of a notion that has become obsolete. No philosopher of the present day, so far as I am aware, pretends to uphold it.
" Some have ascribed them to the explosion of the ancient planets of which the four asteroids were composed. A vast quantity of small fragmnents, say they, were driven into space by this
Let others pant the prize to gain,
Hurrah! my steed, hurrah!
Hurrah! my steed, hurrah! The sabre gleams, the cuirass clanks, Now side by side in charging ranks, Like Danube when he bursts his banks, We dash upon the foeman's ranks!
Hurrah! my steed hurrah!
LITHOGRAPHY. It has already been shown, in a former article on this subject, that, for a series of years, Senefelder's patience and perseverance, under the most disadvantageous circumstances, were truly astonishing; and we shall now proceed briefly to detail such other particulars in further illustration of the preceding remarks, as may be deemed necessary for completing this part of our subject.
Satisfied as to the originality of his new discovery, Senefelder became anxious to turn it to account, by laying it before the world; and in order to raise the necessary funds for at once effecting this object, we find him, when all other means had failed, offering himself as a substitute for a friend who was then a soldier in the service of the elector of Bavaria, but with his usual want of success; for, on presenting himself at Ingolstadt for the purpose of being enrolled, it was discovered that he was not a native of the clectorate, and, consequently, inadmissible to its army. His last hope seemed now to have failed him, and he doscribes his feelings as being at this time in a state
variety of causes over which he had no control, he was again thrown upon the world, destitute of every thing save the resources of his own genius. It was not till about the year 1809 that Sepefelder was extricated from the difficulties of his situation, by being appointed inspector of the royal lithographic establishment at Munich, which at once placed him above the necessity of exercising his profession as a means for gaining his daily subsistence, and enable him to devote a portion of his time to the improvement of such branches of the art, as, in his former circumstances, he had never found it possible to effect.
In conclusion, it may not be out of place to remark, that, in the case of Senefelder, we have another instance to the many recorded facts in the lives of eminent men, of the successful pursuit of knowledge under extraordinary difficulties-presenting an example worthy of our highest admiration and respect.
"bordering on despair." However, it was not long ere his prospects began again to brighten a little; and he at length succeeded in publishing, in conjunction with the composer, a collection of music, the execution of which was greatly admired, and which obtained for him the patronage of the elector, and a promise of an exclusive privilege.
About this time, another candidate for the honor of having discovered the new art came forward in the person of M. Schmidt, professor of the Royal College; and although, for a time, the station which this gentleman filled helped to support his pretensions against his less fortunate rival, public opinion by degrees became less divided, and ultimately there prevailed but one belief on the subject.
It was not till after having labored a considerable time in his new profession, and experiencing innumerable inconveniences from being compelled to execute all his writings on the stone backwards, that he commenced another series of experiments, the object of which was to obviate the necessity of writing on the stone, by previously doing it on paper, and then transferring it from the paper to the stone, reversed. Some thousands of experiments were made before he was enabled to produce a composition for preparing the surface of the paper suited for all the purposes which he had in view, and it was this property of the new art which more particularly attracted public notice, from the incalculable benefits which it was foreseen would be conferred on all kinds of business when fairly brought into general practice. It was about this time also that he invented the lever press, which added greatly to the comfort and certainty of the operations in the printing department of lithography:
Having at length obtained an exclusive privilege for exercising his art in Bavaria, he did not consider it any longer necessary to keep the process a secret, and it soon spread over the greater part of Germany; but his experience enabled him for several years to outstrip all his competitors in so far as the execution of his work was concerned, although, in every other respect, he seemed to be almost the only one in whose hands the art did not give ample returns both for money and labor. In no other way can this uniform want of success be accounted for, than by supposing, that, while others were making the most of what he had already discovered, he was devoting much of his time to the experimental part of the business. This in fact was the case.
About the year 1800, Senefelder went to London for the purpose of establishing himself there as a lithographer, but a few months sufficed to convince him that he had little chance of succeeding in his undertaking; and he returned to his own country, where, on his arrival, he found that many attempts had been made in his absence to deprive him of the benefit of his privilege. Among the most forward in this scheme were two of his brothers, to whom he had communicated all the secrets of the art, and it took some time to counteract the bad effects of their ungenerous conduct. Finding that, in his native place (Munich), others were reaping many of the advantages which by right should have been the reward of his own industry, he was induced to go to Vienna, for the purpose of superintending a calico printing establishment, the operations of which were to be conducted on the principles of the new art; and here, for the space of several years, his talents were entirely devoted to this new undertaking; but, at the end of which time, from a
THE TURKEY VULTURE. The Turkey Vulture, or Turkey Buzzard, is common in the south and west, but is very seldom seen as far north as New York.
There are two species, the Turkey Vulture, and Black Vulture, which are birds of the same tribe that inhabit North America. . The King Vulture of South America, with these two, are the only species known on the western continent.
We find the following in some of the papers. We do not greatly admire the experiment of putting out a bird's eyes, merely for the object mentioned; nor do we attach credit to the statement, though affirmed by Maj. Pillars.
"CURIOUS FACT IN NATURAL HISTORY.-We are by no means unaccommodating in our disposition to believe all we hear. We do not therefore assert our skepticism as to the truth of a communication, in the last number of the American Turf Register, from a correspondent in Illinois touching the power of the Turkey Buzzard, in a few moments to reproduce its eyes, when picked out, by putting its head under its wing! The assertion is made on the authority of the writer, who saw the experiment tried, and on the affidavit of Maj. John Pillars, who has witnessed it on numerous occasions. Mr. Skinner's correspondent says, speaking of a Buzzard, which his host had caught, Having no sharp pointed instrument at hand, other than a common pin, with that he punctured one of his eyes; the aqueous humor flowed out, a whitish-like film came over the eye, and all its lusture instantly disappeared. The head was then placed under the wing of the bird, where it remained a few minutes
only; and when taken out, the eye had resumed its own brilliancy, appearing as sound as the other, with not a speck upon it. In this experiment, it is true, the eyeball was not ripped open.' This is positive testimony to a most curious fact. Maj. Pillars, whose respectability is vouched, says, in his affidavit, that he ripped open the eyes of a Buzzard in the course of three or four months not less than fifty times; and once, at a log-rolling, ten times in one day. The head was, after each mutilation, placed for a few minutes, under the wing, when the bird gradually withdrew it, with two good sound eyes free from speck or blemish, and possessing the power of vision unimpaired. It is mentioned, as a common belief in the west, that the down of the buzzard's wing is a specific for blindness.”-Fredericksburg Arena.
with which he has clothed and adorned each particular order. Thus, he has contrasted with the ground on which they live, those animals that are capable of making their escape from danger, either by their strength or agility; while he has granted to those whose weakness, or slowness of motion, would expose them to the assaults of their enemies, a color, which by confounding them with the object upon which they rest, affords an easy means of escape. The snail is of the color of the bark of the trees upon which it feeds, or of the wall on which it takes refuge.
Flat fishes, which are indifferent swimmers, such as the turbot, the flounder, the plaice, the sole, and several others, which exist principally at the bottom of the sea, are of the color of the sands where they find their nourishment, being spotted like the beach with gray, yellow, black, red, and brown. But what is more wonderful, is the instinctive sensibility which they possess of the protection afforded them by this resemblance. When inclosed within the parks formed on the strand to entrap them, and the tide is gradually retiring, they bury their fins in the sand, awaiting the return of the tide, leaving only their backs visible; and thus, from their color, become hardly distinguishable from the ground in which they have partly imbedded themselves.
The fishermen make use of a kind of a sickle, with which they trace small furrows in every direction along the sand, to find out by the touch what they cannot discern with the eye. “Of this," says a celebrated French naturalist, "I have been frequently a witness—much more highly amused at the dexterity displayed by the fish than at the skill of the fisherman."
The same wonderful instinct, and correspondence of their plumage to the color of the earth, may be remarked in most of our small birds, whose flight is feeble, and of short duration. The gray lark, when alarmed or terrified, glides away, and takes its station between two little clods of earth, and at this post will remain with such steadfastness, as hardly to quit it when the foot of the fowler is ready to crush it. The same thing is true of the partridge: sportsmen cannot fail to have remarked, that these birds, when “they are as wild as hawks" on the stubble, will frequently on the fallows “lie like
BRIDGES. One of the most curious provincial bridges in Great Britain is that at Taff, in Glamorganshire. It is of one arch, and its space is rather more than one hundred and forty feet.
The architect of this bridge was a poor, uneducated man, and the persevering courage with which he pursued his object till the completion of the edifice, is worthy of record. His first attempts failed in consequence of the enormous pressure of the haunches or sides of the bridge, which forced up the key-stone, and to obviate this, he pierced the stone-work with cylindrical apertures, which remedied the defect. Prior to the erection of this bridge, that of the Rialto had the largest span of any in existence.
· ON THE INSTINCT OF ANIMALS. A wise and merciful Creator has bestowed upon man superiority over all his creatures. " The fear of him, and the dread of him, is upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air; and upon all that moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea. But, while his superior reasoning faculties enable him to overcome all other living things, to destroy those which are obnoxious, to tame and subdue those which may be rendered subservient to his necessities and comforts, -it is curious to observe the modes of defence or escape, which the same all-bountiful Providence, " without whose will not even a sparrow falleth to the ground,” has bestowed upon those inferior classes, which are too frequently subject to the wanton persecution of the human race.
In no manner is His fatherly care of even the lowest of his creatures more curiously and convincingly displayed, than in the selection of the colors
A similar degree of instinct has been remarked even in insects, an instance of which I may be excused for extracting from the account of a distinguished observer of the natural world:
“In the month of March last, I observed by the brink of a rivulet, a butterfly, of the color of brick, reposing, with expanded wings, on a tuft of grass. On my approaching him, he flew off, but alighted at some paces distance on the ground, which, at that place, was of the same color with himself. I approached him a second time: he once more took flight, and perched again on a similar stripe of earth. In a word, I found it was not in my power to oblige him to alight on the grass, though I made frequent attempts to that effect,—and though the spaces of earth which separated the turfy soil, were remarkably narrow and few in number."
On a future occasion I may take an opportunity of continuing this subject.
R. H. F. Salutation.—The Laplanders apply their noses strongly against the person they salute.
In New Guinea, they place leaves upon the head of those they salute.
VIEW OF THE AMPHITHEATRE OF POMPEII. Some hundred yards from the theatres, in the which was divided into boxes, and appropriated to southeastern angle of the walls of the town, stands them. The construction consists for the most part the Amphitheatre. The splendor of spectacle was of the rough masonry called opus incertum, with carried to an extreme at Rome which has never quoins of squared stone, and some trifling restorabeen equalled. At an early period, the practice of tions of rubble. This rude mass was probably compelling human beings to fight for the amusement once covered with a more sumptuous facing of hewn of spectators was introduced; and at a later period, stone: but there are now no other traces of it than the capture of several elephants in the first Punic a few of the key-stones, on one of which a chariot war proved the means of introducing the chase, or and two horses is sculptured, on another a head; rather the slaughter of wild beasts, into the Roman besides which there are a few stars on the wedgecircus. The taste for these spectacles increased of stones. course with its indulgence, and their magnificence with the wealth of the city and the increasing facility and inducement to practice bribery, which
REMARKABLE TRAVELS. was offered by the increased extent of provinces The accounts brought home by travellers, regardsubject to Rome.
ing countries rarely visited and little known, have It was not however until the last period of the been always received with much incredulity by republic, or rather until the domination of the Em those who were little acquainted with the world; perors had collected into one channel the tributary and the Persian Proverb that “ he who has seen wealth which previously was divided among a nu, the world has a right to tell lies,” has been used merous aristocracy, that buildings were erected rather too lavishly in judging of the details of travsolely for the accommodation of gladiatorial shows; ellers, that were afterwards found to be worthy of buildings apparently beyond the compass of a sub far different treatment. “ We travellers," says jéct's wealth, in which perhaps the magnificence Lady Wortley Montague, “ are in very bad cirof ancient Rome is most amply displayed. Numer cumstances: If we say nothing but what has been ous examples, scattered throughout her empire in said before us, we are dull, and we have observed a more or less advanced stage of decay, still attest nothing. If we tell any thing new, we are laughed the luxury and solidity of their construction: while at as fabulous and romantic, not allowing either for at Rome the Coliseum asserts the pre-eminent the difference of ranks, which affords difference of splendor of the metropolis; a monument surpassed company, or more curiosity, or the change of cusin magnitude by the pyramids alone, and as supe toms, that happens every twenty years in every rior to them in skill and varied contrivance of
country. But the truth is, people judge of traveldesign, as to other buildings in its gigantic mag lers exactly with the same candor, good-nature, nitude.
and impartiality, they judge of their neighbors upon The form of the amphitheatre of Pompeii is, as all occasions." It is this which has led many men usual, oval: the extreme length, from outside to of high honor, who would not submit to have their outside of the exterior arcade, is four hundred and veracity called in question, to continue entirely thirty feet, its greatest breadth is three hundred silent regarding many remarkable things seen by and thirty-five feet. The spectators gained admise them in strange countries, and the relation of which sion by tickets, which had numbers or marks on would most probably have been received with evithem, corresponding with similar signs on the dent incredulity by the hearers. arches through which they entered. Those who A Hindoo scarcely thinks it possible that any were entitled to occupy the lower ranges of seats, nation can live without rice-a Greenlander thinks passed through the perforated arcades of the lower the same of blubber-a Persian thinks the same of order: those whose place was in the upper portion the date-tree-an African of the palm-tree-a Malof the cavea, ascended by staircases between the divian of the cocoa-nut-and a Tartar of the horse seats and the outer wall of the building. From --while the native of Terra del Fuego would be hence the women again ascended to the upper tier, much astonished if he were told that any nation