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WILD SPORTS OF THĘ EAST. The above engraving is from a work recently published in London, entitled “Pen and Pencil Sketches of India," by Captain Mundy. The anecdote connected with the sketch furnishes an extraordinary instance of the sagacity of the elephant:
“By crack sportsmen the lion is reputed to afford better sport than the tiger: his attack is more open and certain; a peculiarity arising either from the noble nature of the Jungle King, or from the country he haunts being less favorable for a retreat than the thick swampy morasses frequented by the tiger.
“A gentleman of our party bad, perhaps, as perilous an adventure with one of these animals as any one; he having enjoyed the singular distinction of lying for some moments in the very clutches of the royal quadruped. Though I have heard him recount the incident more than once, and have myself sketched the scene, yet I am not sure that I relate it correctly. The main feature, of the anecdote, affording so striking an illustration of the sagacity of the elephant, may be strictly depended upon.
“A lion charged my hero's elephant, and he, having wounded him, was in the act of leaning forward in order to fire another shot, when the front of the howdah suddenly gave way, and he was precipitated over the head of the elephant into the very jaws of the furious beast. The lion though severely hurt, immediately seized him, and would doubtless shortly have put a fatal termination to the conflict, had not the elephant, urged by his mahout, or driver, stepped forward, though greatly alarmed, and grasping in her trunk the top of a young tree, bent it down across the loins of the lion, and thus forced the tortured animal to quit his hold! My friend's life was thus saved, but his arm was broken in two places, and he was severely clawed on the breast and shoulders."
From amongst the numerous descriptions of tiger hunts, we select the following: “At four, P. M. (so late an hour that few of us expected any sport)
Lord Combermere and nine others of our party, mounted elephants, and taking twenty pad elephants to beat the covert, and carry the guides and the game, proceeded towards the swamp pointed out as the lurking-place of the buffalo-devouring monsters.
“The jungle was in no places very high, there being but few trees, and a fine thick covert of grass and rushes. Every thing was favorable for the sport. Few of us, however, expecting to find a tiger, another man and myself dismounted from our elephants, to get a shot at a florikan, a bird of the bustard tribe, which we killed. It afterwards proved that there were two tigers within an hundred paces of the spot where we were walking. We beat for half an hour steadily in line, and I was just beginning to yawn in despair, when my elephant suddenly raised his trunk, and trumpeted several times, which my Mahout (elephant driver) informed me was a sure sign that there was a tiger somewhere between the wind and our nobility.' The formidable line of thirty elephants, therefore, brought up their left shoulders, and beat slowly on to windward.
“We had gone about three hundred yards in this direction, and had entered a swampy part of the jungle, when suddenly the long wished for Tallyho!' saluted our ears, and a shot from Capt. M. confirmed the sporting eureka! The tiger answered the shot with a loud roar, and boldly charged the line of elephants. Then occurred the most ridiculous but most provoking scene possible. Every elephant except Lord Combermere's, (which was a known stanch one) turned tail, in spite of all the blows and imprecations heartily bestowed upon them by the mahouts. One, less expeditious in his retreat than the others, was overtaken by the tiger, and severely torn in the hind leg; while another, even more alarmed, we could distinguish flying over the plain, till he quite sunk below the horizon. The tiger, in the meanwhile, advanced to attack his lordship’s elephant, but, being wounded in the loins by Capt. M.'s shot, failed in luis
spring, and shrunk back among the rushes. My elephant was one of the first of the run-aways to return to action; and when I ran up alongside of Lord Combermere, (whose heroic animal had stood like a rock) he was quite hors du combat, having fired all his broadside. I handed him a gun, and we poured a volley of four barrels upon the tiger, who attempting again to charge, fell from weakness. Several shots more were expended upon him before he dropped dead; upon which we gave a good hearty whoo! whoop!” and stowed him upon a pad elephant.
THE AIR WE BREATHE. Nothing is more interesting than those general laws by which God preserves the order of the world. If we had a complete knowledge of all the wonderful contrivances that surround us, we should be filled with admiration and awe: to contemplate those with which we are acquainted, is the highest of intellectual pleasures.
One of these contrivances may be made intelligible even to those who have no acquaintance with Natural Philosophy.
The Air is made up of two different gases, or airs, mixed together in a particular proportion. Of these, one (oxygen), which we will call life-air, is necessary for the support of men and all other animals, which would die without it; neither could any thing burn without the help of this life-air. Since, then, a vast quantity of it is consumed every hour, how is the supply kept up? How is it that the stock of life-air is still sufficient for us, and our fires and candles?
Now, besides these two gases, there is also present in the atmosphere another gas, called carbonic acid, which is made up of carbon and life-air. The name will be unknown to many, but all are well acquainted with the thing: it is what gives spirit to ale, wine, &c., and even to water, which is insipid after boiling, from the loss of its carbonic acid.
This carbonic acid is produced by the breathing of animals, and the putrefaction of animal and vegetable substances. Now, this constant supply must be got rid of, or it would kill us; and it is got rid of thus: all vegetables-grass, herbs, trees, &c.—suck in this carbonic acid during the day; nourish themselves with the carbon, and give back the life-air that was combined with it. In the night, they do the reverse; but still, taking a whole day, they lessen the quantity of carbonic aciil gas, and furnish the atmosphere with that supply of life-air, which is necessary for the existence of the animal creation.
West front of Antwerp Cathedral. The city of Antwerp stands on the east or right bank of the Schelde, in north lat. 51° 14', and about twenty-five miles in a straight line nearly due north of Brussels, the present capital of Belgium. The Flemish name for this place is Antwerpen; the Spaniards, who once possessed it, call it Amberes, and the French, Anvers. Few places are more favorably situated for foreign commerce than Antwerp. The river opposite the town is from 1500 to 2000 feet wide, and admits the largest ships to come up to Antwerp, and to enter the docks and canals. From Antwerp to the mouth of the river is about fifteen miles, and this space is lined with forts.
Antwerp is strongly fortified on the land side like most of the old Belgian towns, and has also on the south a remarkably strong citadel, in the form of a pentagon, which was erected by the Duke of Alya in 1563. During the occupation of Antwerp by the French, in the reign of Napoleon, the works of the citadel were strengthened, and several additions made by which its outward form has been altered; and it is now considered able to make a formidable resistance. The principal houses of Antwerp are built of a kind of sandstone, brought about ten miles from the town; the streets are generally wide, and on the whole it may be called a well-built city. It is said to contain twenty-six public places, or squares, (of which the Meer, the finest of all, contains a palace built by Napoleon) seventy public buildings, and one hundred and sixty-two streets. The chief public buildings are the Bourse or Exchange, said to be the pattern after which those of London and Amsterdam were built, though it is superior to either of them. pillars that support its galleries are of marble. The Town-house is also reckonei a fine structure. · But the glory of Antwerp is its Cathedra), which,
SIMPLE EXPEDIENT. In the granite quarries near Seringapatam, the most enormous blocks are separated from the solid rock by the following neat and simple process. The workman having found a portion of the rock sufficiently extensive, and situated near the edge of the part already quarried, lays bare the upper surface, and marks on it a line in the direction of the intended separation, along which a groove is cut. Above this groove a narrow line of fire is then kindled, and maintained till the rock below is thoroughly heated, immediately on which a line of men and women, each provided with a pot full of cold water, suddenly sweep off the ashes, and pour the water into the heated groove, when the rock at once splits with a clean fracture.
THE CURASSOW Is a bird which bears much resemblance to the pheasant, though naturalists have agreed in consider ing it as a distinct genus. It comprehends four or five species, with some varieties, but they are all of them foreign birds, and belong only to the warm climates of America. They are mostly about the size of a small turkey, and are generally distinguish ed by a crest of feathers, which curl at the ends.
in spite of some paltry shops that stick to its walls, strikes every stranger with admiration when he views the noble elevation of its steeple, and the costly decorations of its interior. The steeple is of stone, and 400 feet high, according to those accounts which make it least; but others make it as much as 450 feet. When the spectator has ascended to the highest point that is accessible, he sees all the city spread out like a map before him, while by the aid of a small glass his eye travels over the flat plains of Belgium and Holland for forty miles in every direction.
Antwerp, besides its connexion with the sea, has a ready water communication, either by the Schelde or canals, with Mechlin, Louvain, and Brussels on the south and east, and with Ghent and Bruges on the west. In 1831 its population was 77,199. Before the late revolution in 1830, the trade of Antwerp was considerable; though it must doubtless have suffered very much since that period, in consequence of the unsettled state of the Belgic question. In 1829, near 1000 ships entered its ports. Antwerp has also extensive manufactures of black sewing silk, linen and woollen cloth, silk, sugar refining, &c.
Antwerp has been the scene of many remarkable political events, and has often suffered the evils attendant on war. As late as 1830 it sustained considerable damage from the cannonading directed against it by the Dutch troops in the citadel.
Many of our readers have probably read of the great siege of Antwerp in 1585, by the Prince of Parma, against whom it held out for fourteen months. The Prince, in order to command the navigation of the river, built strong projecting piers on each side, which were mounted with cannon; while the intermediate space, which was thus rendered comparatively narrow, was filled up with boats chained together, and firmly moored. This enormous work, which withstood all the floods of winter, was destroyed by the fireships of Antwerp. One of these horrible machines, in its course down the river, struck against one of the piers, and its explosion burst through the bridge of boats, destroyed the pier, and blew up the men and ammunition with which it was loaded. In spite, however, of the courage and obstinacy of the Antwerpers, they were at last compelled to surrender to the Spanish troops. The history of this once flourishing city exhibits rather a melancholy retrospect. Reduced to a population of less than 80,000, with its trade diminished, and an enemy in its citadel, we cannot help looking back to its flourishing days of the early part of the sixteenth century, when 200,000 inhabitants and strangers are said to have filled its streets, and the commerce of the world was in its harbor. The names of such illustrious painters as Rubens, Van Dyke, and Jordaens, have shed a lustre on it as a school of painting; and among its illustrious citizens we may mention the name e the early geographer, Abraham Ortelius.
This crest can be raised or depressed at will. The plumage of the Crested Curassow is of a deep black, with a slight gloss of green upon the head, crest, neck, back, wings, and upper part of the tail; and dull white beneath, and on the lower tailcoverts.
There is another species which is called the Cashew Curassow, or Cashew BIRD, from a large blue gibbosity, resembling a cashew nut, and as large as a pear, which is situated at the base of the forehead. The whole bird is of a shining bluish color, reflecting purple glosses; except the lower part of the belly, the covert feathers, under the tail, and the tips of the tail feathers, which are white.
In Mexico, Guiana, and Brazil, these birds are very numerous, both in a wild and a tame state. The flesh is excellent. We hope ere long to see this fine bird domesticated in the United States.
Russian Justice. The following story gives a lively idea of the Russian rule of Poland. A Jew met a Cossack in the forest; the latter robbed him of his horse. On returning to the town, he lodged a complaint with the Major in command, who was (with what truth we shall say) reputed. Lo be a most rigorous disciplinarian. The Cossacks were paraded, the robber was pointed out, when, with the utmost effrontery, he declared he had found the horse." How? replied the Jew,“ I was on his back.", " Yes," retorted the Cossack," I found you too; but having no use for a Jew, I did not keep you.” The excuse was deemed sufficient, and the Jew lost his steed.
The ground color of the wings is a coal black, with numerous parallel lines of sparkling indentations round, which are of a green gold color, highly brilliant, from minute reflecting scales, like the scales of a butterfly. There is another rich and elegant species of this insect in India; where, however, it is so very scarce, that the wing cases (and sometimes the whole insect), are set like a gem on rings, and worn by the great. The body is of a silky green with broad golden bands. This insect is the Cure culio regalis.
THE GLADNESS OF NATURE.
BY W. C. BRYANT.
FILIAL AFFECTION OF THE MOORS. A Portuguese surgeon was accosted one day by a young Moor from the country, who, addressing him by the usual appellation of foreign doctors in that place, requested him to give him some drogues to kill his father, and, as an inducement, promised to pay him well. The surgeon was a little surprised at first, as might be expected, and was unable to answer inmediately; but quickly recovering himself (for he knew the habits of the people well), replied with sang froid equal to the Moor's, “ Then you don't live comfortably with your father, I suppose?
Oh, nothing can be better," returned ihe Moor; "he has made much money, has married me well, and endowed me with all his possessions; but he cannot work any longer, he is so old, and he seems unwilling to die." The doctor, of course, appreciated the amiable philosophy of the Moor's reasoning, and promised to give him what he desired. He accordingly prepared a cordial potion, more calculated to restore energy to the old man, than to take it away. The Moor paid him well, and departed. About eight days after he came again, to say that his father was not dead. "Not dead!” exclaimed the apothecary, in well-feigned surprise; "he will die.” He composed accordingly another draught, for which he received an equal remuneration, and assured the Moor that it would not fail in its effects. In fifteen days, however, the Moor came again, complaining that his father thrived better than ever. "Don't be discouraged," said the doctor, who doubtless found these periodical visits by no means unprofitable, "give him another potion, and I will exert all my skill in its preparation.” The Moor took it, but returned no more. One day the surgeon met his young acquaintance in the street, and inquired the success of the remedy. “It was of no avail,” he replied mournfully; my father is in excellent health. God has preserved him from all our efforts; there is no doubt that he is a Marabout”-a Saint.)
Is this a time to be cloudy and sad,
When our mother Nature laughs around; When even the deep blue heavens look glad,
And gluiness breathes from the blossoming ground ? There are notes of joy from the hang-bird and wren,
And the gossip of swallows through all the sky; The ground-squirrel gaily chirps by his den,
And the wilding bee hums merrily by. The clouds are at play in the azure space,
And their shadows at play on the bright green vale, And here they stretch to the frolic chase,
And there they roll on the easy gale.
There's a titter of winds in that beechen tree, There's a smile on the fruit, and a smile on the flower,
And a laugh from the brook that runs to the sea. And look at the broad-faced sun how he smiles
On the dewy earth that smiles in his ray, On the leaping waters and gay young isles,
Ay, look, and he'll smile thy gloom away.
RATS IN JAMAICA. In no country is there a creature so destructivo of property as the rat is in Jamaica; their ravages are inconceivable. One year with another, it is supposed that they destroy at least about a twentieth part of the sugar-canes throughout the island, amounting to little short of L.200,000 currency per annum. The sugar-cane is their favorite food; but they also prey upon the Indian corn, on all the fruits that are accessible to them, and on many of the roots. Some idea will be formed of the immense swarms of those destructive animals that infest this island, from the fact, that on a single plantation thirty thousand were destroyed in one year. Traps of various kinds are set to catch them, poison is resorted to, and terriers, and sometimes ferrets, are employed to explore their haunts, and root them out; still, however, their numbers remain undiminished, as far at least as can be judged by the ravages they commit. They are of a much larger size than the European rat, especially that kind of them called by the negroes racoons.
On the experiment being tried of putting one of these and a cat together, the latter declined attacking it.
VANDALIA. Volumes on the subject of the United States continue to succeed each other in London with a rapidity, which proves that a deep interest has been awakened in the minds of the people of England, with regard to our country. We find the following notice of the quick growth of Vandalia, in Illinois, in a book recently published, called “ Three Years in America,” by James Stuart: “It is an extraordinary fact, that in this town, (Vandalia) the capital of Illinois, a state more extensive, and infinitely more fertile than England, and the first house in which was not begun until the year 1821, three annual meetings of an antiquarian and historical society have already taken place, and the whole of their published proceedings are as regular, as well conducted and as well printed, as if the seat of the society had been at Oxford or at Cambridge. The whole annual disbursements in this state for salaries io the executive do not exceed 10,000 dollars. The people of Illinois have adhered tenaciously to democratic principles, retaining in their hands every power which can be conveniently witheld from the rulers. Elections are frequent, and the right of suffrage general. Imprisonment for debt and laws against usury are abolished.” Speaking of the Bostonians, the author says: “ All are, or seem to be, in the full enjoyment of the necessaries of life, and all busy, active and employed."
BURNING MUMMIES. The Arabs who inhabit the neighborhood of the great cemeteries of Upper Egypt have a strange way of cooking their victuals. Whenever fuel is wanting, they descend into their tombs, and, dislodging a mumıny, and throwing it on their sho. ders, return to their tent. Then taking a harchet, and seizing the mummy by one leg, they hew the body into two at a blow, and, afterwards cutting it into smaller pieces, make use of a leg or an arm, or part of the trunk, as it may happen, to boil their kettle. As the ancient Egyptians always enclosed their dead in resinous substances, the mummies are easily combustible, and make excellent fuel.
Whalc Fishery.--In 1832, the whale Fishery, produced to American industry 78,999 barrels. In 1831 the produce was 107,752 barrels; deficiency for 1832, 28,753 bbls. Of the quantity sent home in 1832, upwards of 36,000 bbls. were imported into New Bedford, 31,000 into Nantucket; into Newport 4120; into Plymouth 2120.
Commodore Tucker. The venerable Sanuel Tucker of Sremen Me., who died on the 10th of March, 1833, in the Foth year of his age, was the last surviving cominodore of the revolution. He was a Marblehead mariner, and continued his seafaring course until the commencement of the difficulties with the mother country. He received the first writen commission as commodore, which was issued during the Revolution, and was selected by Washington to convey John Adams, our first ininister io France. It was on this occasion that he remained at the helm, while chased by a frigate of the enemy, seventy-two hours at one time, until nature absolutely sunk under the weight of fatigue and exhaustion. A kinder heart than the Cominodore's never beat in the boso:n of man. He was as hospitable, as sociable, and as peaccable in private life, as he was restless, vchement and strict in the discharge of his official duties. A pension of 600 dollars a year was recently settled by government on Commodore Tucker. “lt came too late."
tions, such as were found to be so great a means of obstruction in thc experimental trials of Sir Humphrey Davy. The chief points of superiority possessed by Wetterstett’s sheathing over that of copper, are, that it is not subject, like the latter, to oxidation, and consequent destruction, or to the accumulation of sea-weed, barnacles, or other materials, which retard the speed of the vessel; to which may be added, that this combination of metals acquires additional hardness by being kept in contact with the sea; that it is of considerably less price than copper; and that it is far more durable than sheathing made of the last-named metal.
Singular Experiment.--One of the most remarkable and inexplicable experiments relative to the strength of the human frame, says Sir David Brewster, is that in which a heavy man is raised with the greatest facility, when he is lifted up the instant that his own lungs and those of the persons who raise him are inflated with air. This experiinent was. I believe, first shown in England a few years ago by Major H., who saw it performed in a large party at Venice under the direction of an officer of the American Navy. As Major H. performed it more than once in my presence, I shall describe as nearly as possible the method which he prescribed. The heaviest person in the party lies down upon two chairs, his legs being supported by the one and his back by the other. Four persons, one at each leg, and one at each shoulder, then try to raise him, and they find his dead weight to be very great, from the difficulty they experience in supporting him. Then he is replaced in the chair, each of the four persons takes hold of the body as before, and the person to be lifted gives two signals by clapping his hands. At the first signal he himself and the four lifters begin to draw a long and full breath, and when the inhalation is completed, or the lungs filled, the second signal is given, for raising the person from the chair. To his own surprise and that of his bearers, he rises with the greatest facility, as if he were no heavier than a feather.
VARIETIES. The second inauguration of Andrew Jackson as President of the United States took place on the fourth of March. The Hall of the House of Representatives, at Washington, was crowded to excess on the occasion. In the area sat the seven Judges in their plain robes of office, and the Foreign Legations in their court dresses, stars, garters and embroidery. After the President had delivered his inaugural speech, the oath of office was administered by Judge Marshal, and the ceremony ended.
The capital of the chartered Banks in the city of Philadel. phia, sixteen in number, amounts to 20,000,000 dollarsamount paid in, 18,935,000. The capital of the Insurance Companies, fourteen in number, is 5,050,000 dollars.
A bill has passed the House of Delegates of Virginia, appropriating $18,000 annually, for five years, for the purpose of colonizing in Africa, the free people of color in that Siate.
The Legislature of New York have incorporated, at various sessions, thirty-three rail road companies, with an aggregate capital of $27,555,000.
The number of European emigrants, who have arrived at Quebec during the last five years, is stated at 156,000.
The St. Louis times of March 2nd, states, that a company of traders, twelve or fourteen in number, under the command of Capt. Kerr, were attacked on the Canadian Fork of the Arkansas, sometime during the latter part of Dec. or the beginning of Jan. last, by about 200 Indians, chiefly Kiawas. They fought for 36 hours; and after having expended their ammunition, and lost two of their number, they escaped in the night, leaving about 10, or $12,000 in specie on the prairie. The privations and hardships of the unfortunate party, after their escape, were very severe. Their horses and inules had been shot by the Indians, and they had great difficulty in procuring food.
The great rail road from Baltimore to the Ohio river is completed to the Potomac, at a place called the Point of Rocks, a distance of 70 miles. The cars are drawn by horses, though steam cars have been used. The progress of the work is interrupted at the Potomac by some dispute with a canal company as to the route. On the part of the rail road now completed are some declivities, at one of which a serious accident has recently happened.
The Rail Road from New Castle on the Delaware to Frenchtown on the Chesapeake, is 16 miles in length. The steam car, draws several other cars after it, containing sometimes 100 or 200 passengers with their baggage. The bag. gage car takes the lead of the passengers. The distance is usually gone over in 55 minutes.
Lead Mines.- The quantity of lead manufactured at the mines during the year ending 30th September last, was 4,231,876 lbs. being a diminution of 2,167,204 lbs. as com. pared with the returns of 1831. This deficiency is explained partly by the fact, that during the past year no lead was drawn from the mincs of Missouri, (no leases having been granted there since the Act of 1829, authorizing the sale of all the Inineral lands in that State,) and partly by the interruption of the miners on the Upper Mississippi in consequence of the Indian War. The annexed schedule shows the quantity manufactured in cach year, ending 30th September, from 1823 to 1832, inclusive.
Fever Ritcr. Missouri. Total. 1323 .335,130
.335,130 1824 .175,220
.661,530 .386,590 1,051,120 1826
.958,842 . 1,374,962. 2,333,804 1827
5,182,180. 910,380 6,092,560 1828
11,105,810 1,205,920 12,311,730 1829
13,340,150 1,198,160 14,541,310 1830. 8,323,998
6,381,900 67,180. 6,449,080 1832, . 4,281,870
4,281,876 Totals .....50,752,636 5,151,252 55,903,888 Of the amount manufactured the past year, there has accrued to the United States for rents, 238,598 pounds.
Sheathing for Ships' Bottoms.--A new metallic sheathing, dhe invention of Baron Welterstelt has recently been introduced into England, for covering ships' bottoms. It is an alloy of lead, antimony, and quicksilver; the combination of which is such as not only to preserve them from oxidating, but also imparts to the composition peculiar qualities of coliesion, tenacity, and elasticity, qualities which are not posresged by copper or its alloys generally, and which render the patent material highly eligible for the purpose to which it is applied. After use, the oneward surface of this marine sheathing remains perfectly clean and bright, like silver, without any adhesion of barnacles, or other marine produc
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