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The above engraving presents a view of the large theatre, which the recent excavations of Pompeii have brought to light. This theatre appears to have been entirely covered with marble; the benches were of marble; the orchestra was of marble; the scene with all its ornaments was also of marble; and yet of this profusion of marble only a few fragments remain. It appears, from an inscription found in it to have been erected, or much improved, by one Holconius Rufus. The above view represents this building as seen from one of the entrances leading to the orchestra, having on the right hand the scene. In the wall which supported the front of the stage are seven recesses, supposed to be devoted to the use of the musicians.
ont is the entrance to the orchestra: above may be seen the six rows of steps which encircled it; 'then the cavea, despoiled of its marble, but still showing the lines of benches, and stairs dividing them into cunei, and the vomitoria, or doors of entrance. Still higher is the women's gallery, and above that the external wall, which never was entirely buried, and might have pointed out to any curious observer the exact situation of Pompeii.
We all fade, like a leaf.- Isa. Ixiv. 6. See the leaves around us falling,
Dry and withered to the ground; Thus to thoughtless mortals calling,
In a sad and solemn sound.
Sons of Adam, once in Eden,
, Hear the lecture we are reading,
'T is, alas ! the truth we tell. Virgins, much, too much presuming
On your boasted white and red, View us, late in beauty blooming,
Numbered now among the deal. Griping misers, nightly waking,
See the end of all your care;. Fled on wings of our own making,
We have left our owners bare.
Sons of honor, fed on praises,
Flutt'ring high in fancied worth, Lo! the fickle air, that raises,
Brings us down to parent earth. Learned sophs, in systems jaded,
Who for new ones daily call, Cease, at length, by us persuaded,
Every leaf must have its fall,
Youths, though yet no losses griove you,
Gay in health and manly grace, Let not cloudless skies deceive you,
Summer gives to Autumn place. Venerable sires, grown hoary,
Hither turn th' unwilling eye, Think, amidst your falling glory
Autumn tells a winter nigh. Yearly in our course returning,
Messengers of shortest stay,
The practice of concealing the face with a mask seems to have been very general with the ancient actors. We have not the means, nor would it be to the purpose, to describe the earliest form of the mask, or to trace its progress. Ultiinately, it was
Thus we preach, this truth concerning,
“ Heaven and earth shall pass away."
On the Tree of Life eternal,
Man, let all thy hope be staid, Which alone, forever vernal,
Bears a leaf that shall not fade.
LETTER FROM AN EMIGRANT. A letter from a person who lately emigrated from Bristol to the United States of America, recently appeared in a Leeds newspaper, and from it the following extract is given, in the expectation of its being interesting to many of our readers.
“Though greatly reduced by my long voyage, it has been of great service to my health. I am now perfectly well, and have nothing of that cough I have been subject to. My beloved wife and dear children are all very well, and look more healthy than before we left England. This is the case, likewise, with all our friends and their children (three families from Bristol, who removed about the same time.) We are all very comfortable, and often meet together, and discuss, contrast, and compare things in America with those in England; on some points we agree in our likes and dislikes, and on some points differ very widely. On all material points, however, we fully agree—that this is the best poor man's country; the best to bring up and launch out a family; the best for persons of small incomes (if they can accommodate themselves to circumstances, and depend upon their own resources;) servants (' helps') may be had here, board and wages both considered, at an expense but little more than in England; but then the maid is as good as her mistress, the man as his master.
" Though to parents coming out here, if they have the common feelings of our nature, it must be a sacrifice of the pleasures of friendship, and at first an endurance of many inconveniences, yet their children will bless them for their self-denial; and believe, in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, parents will feel thankful they had sufficient nerve to come to this country. Parents have no difficulty in bringing up their children, and placing them out in business; nor need they fear their future prosperity. Here, also, there is far less temptation to vice of every kind-sobriety and good order prevail in a way unknown in England. The direct and indirect effects of temperance societies are truly astonishing. This true happiness may be found in England; but I believe the sum of happiness in America is infinitely greater than in England. The chief cause of sorrow and distress in England is unknown here! Here there is not the garb of poverty, nor the look of distress.
" It was a fine morning; I walked five miles before breakfast on a very good tow-path, with the canal on my right, and the Mohawk River on my left, with a pretty fertile country and varied scenery. It reminded me strongly of Hay, my native place. We met a very agreeable English gentleman on the aqueduct over the Mohawk. He had travelled extensively through the States, and was then on his return to England, with a view of bringing his family over. He was highly pleased with the country and the people, and said, 'the English will never believe America to be so happy and prosperous a country, unless they see for themselves.' This reminded me of what an English gentleman at New York said to me. He inquired if I intended to send a full account home of what I saw.
Certainly,' was my reply. And do you,' he said, expect they will believe you?' 'Surely they will.' * Take my word for it,' he said, 'they will not believe the one-half of what even you say.'
“We arrived at Schenectady' about two o'clock; it is a pretty good town. There is a rail-road from Albany to this place, for steam-coaches, which go 14 miles an hour. Wednesday, at daylight, came in sight of Utica. This is a very handsome town, abounding with well-built churches, of the various denominations, with spires. I do not know in England so regular and good a town—not the semblance of poverty or poor-houses. I will give yon present prices of provisions:-Fowls, 12c. (a cent is a halfpeny) per couple; turkeys and geese, 25c. each; venison, very fine, 1 c. per lb.; beef, veal, and pork, 3c.; potatoes, 25c. per bushel, very good, but not so mealy as the English; butter, always good, 12}c., now considered very dear; apples, 250. per bushel; cider, 14 dollar per barrel of 32 galions; flour, now high, 41 dollars per barrel; corn, 20c. per bushel. The horses are generally good, and the oxen are fine large beasts for labor. Self supporting, or manual labor schools, are already established in many parts of the Union, and promise to be the means of diffusing more good than any other society established in modern times. These schools are promoted by the Baptists, who are a very numerous sect in America. I would just observe that young men desirous of being educated for the ministry, as well as others entering these schools, obtain a good classical and religious education. By their laboring at some trade on the premises four hours a day, they pay for their board, and one hour more for their education. Mechanics in this State get well paid. A working jeweller in the town of Newark gets 9} dollars per week, besides board and lodging; and common carpenters and coopers get 20 dollars a month, besides board and lodging. When at New York, my friend Mr. Jennings told me, if 500 young women were to come over, they would immediately get into situations there: were many thousands to come over, they would find sufficient employment in the States, and get well paid for their services."
CAMPHOR. Camphor, which is so much used for medical purposes, is likewise extensively employed in the composition of varnishes, especially in that of copal. It is the peculiar product of the root of a species of laurel, (laurus camphorata,) a tree growing in China, Japan, and several parts of India. The leaves of this plant stand upon a slender footstalk, and have an entire undulated margin running out into a point. Their upper surface is of a lively and shining green; the under part is of a yellower green, and of a silky appearance; a few lateral nerves curve towards the margin, frequently terminating in small worts or excrescences--a circumstance peculiar to this species of laurel. The footstalks of the flowers do not come forth until the tree has attained considerable age and size. - The flower stalks are slender, and branch at the top, dividing into very short stems, each supporting a single flower. This is white, and succeeded by a shining purple berry of the size of a pea. It is composed of a small kernel enclosed in a soft pulpy substance -having the aroma of cloves and camphor. The bark of the stem of the tree is outwardly somewhat rough; but on the inner surface it is smooth and
mucous, and therefore readily separated from the wood, which is dry and of a white color. Some travellers affirm that old trees contain camphor so abundantly that on splitting the trunk it is found in a form of large tears, so pure as not to require rectification. The usual method, however, of obtaining this substance is from the roots, pieces of which are put into an iron vessel furnished with a capital, or large head; this upper part is internally filled with cords of rice straw; the joinings are then luted, and the distillation proceeded upon. On the application of heat the camphor sublimes and attaches itself to the straw within the head. The Dutch purify the substance thus obtained by mixing an ounce of quick lime with every pound of the camphor, and subjecting it to a second sublimation in large glass vessels.
Camphor is well known as a white friable substance, having a peculiar aromatic odor, and a strong taste. Some chymists consider it as a concrete vegetable oil. It melts at a temperature of 288°, and boils at 400° Fahrenheit. Its specific gravity is less than that of water. It is very inflammable, burning with a white fame and smoke, and leaving no residue. Alcohol, ether, and oils dissolve it. The only indication whereby it appears that water acts upon camphor is that of acquiring its smell; it is said, however, that a Spanish surgeon has affected the solution in water by means of carbonic acid. Camphor may be burned as it floats on the surface of water. It is not altered by
exposure to atmospheric air, but it is so extremely volatile that if in warm weather it is placed in an open vessel it evaporates completely. It dissolves in alcohol, and like the resins, is immediately precipitated again by the addition of water.
Camphor has been found to exist in numerous plants whence it may be obtained by distillation. Neumann and other chemists extracted it from the roots of zedoary, thyme, sage, the inula helenium, the anemone, the pasque flower, and some other vegetables. Experiment has shown that the plants whence it is extracted afford a much larger quantity of camphor when the sap has been suffered to pass to the concrete state by several months' drying.
This substance was very early known to the Eastern nations; it was introduced into Europe by the Arabians, but was entirely unknown to the ancient Greeks and Romans.
baking, 27 pounds. Weight lost by Beef in baking, 30 pounds in each hundred.
27 Legs of Mutton, weighing 260 pounds, lost in boiling, and by having the shank-bones taken off, 62 pounds 4 ounces. The shank-bones were estimated at 4 ounces each, therefore, the loss in boiling was 55 pounds 8 ounces. The loss of weight in legs of Mutton jo boiling, is 21 pounds and onethird in each hundred.
35 Shoulders of Mutton, weighing 350 pounds, lost in roasting, 109 pounds, 10 ounces. The loss of weight in shoulders of Mutton, by roasting, is about 31 pounds and one-third in each hundred.
16 Loins of Mutton, weighing 141 pounds, lost in roasting, 49 pounds 14 ounces. Hence loins of Mutton lose, by roasting, about 35 pounds and a half in each hundred.
10 Necks of Mutton, weighing 100 pounds, lost in roasting, 32 pounds 6 ounces.
From the foregoing statement, two practical inferences may be drawn. 1st. In respect of economy, that it is more profitable to boil meat, than to roast it. 2dly, Whether we roast or boil meat, it loses, by being cooked, from one-fifth to one-third of its whole weight.-Philosophical Magazine
MUSCULAR STRENGTH OF INSECTS. The following experiment relative to the muscular strength of a caterpillar, was made by Kirby and Spence: "We put the caterpillar of the goatmoth under a bellglass, which weighed nearly half a pound, and of course more than ten times the weight of the insect; yet it raised it up with the utmost
We then placed over the glass the largest book which we had at hand-Loudon's Encyclopedia of Gardening,'consisting of about 1500 pages of strong paper, and weighing four pounds; but this did not succeed in preventing the escape of the animal, which raised the glass, though loaded with the book, nearly a hundred times its own weight,
LOSS OF WEIGHT IN COOKING ANIMAL
FOOD. It is well known that, in whatever way the flesh of animals is prepared for food, a considerable diminution takes place in its weight. As it is a subject both curious and useful in domestic economy, we shall give the result of a set of experiments, which were actually made in a public establishment; they were not undertaken from more curiosity, but v serve a purpose of practical utility.
28 Pieces of Beef, weighing 280 pounds, lost in boiling, 73 pounds 14 ounces. Hence the loss by beef in boiling was about 26 pounds and a half, in 100 pounds.
19 Pieces of Beef, weighing 190 pounds, lost in roasting, 61 pounds 2 ounces. The weight of beef lost in roasting appears to be 32 pounds in each hundred.
9 Pieces of Beef, weighing 90 pounds, lost in
and made good its exit. The multiplicity of its muscles, two hundred and thirty-six of which are situated in the legs alone, will enable us to understand how this extraordinary feat was performed. Even this power of muscle, however, would doubtless have been unavailing in raising the loaded glass, except in connexion with two favorable circumstances under which the experiment was performed, and which are necessary to be borne in mind to render the operation perfectly credible:-1st, that the wedge-like form of the caterpillar's head, in connexion with the peculiar shape of the glass, enabled it to lift it;—and 2d, that, one side of the glass resting on the table, the insect only bore half the weight of the glass and book.
Far o'er the lawn, irregularly spread,
And many a long depending shoot,
Seeking io strike its root,
Some on the lower boughs, which crossed their way,
Of gentle motion swung;
Beneath was smooth and fair to sight,
Came gleams of checkered light.
• Curse of Kehama.
The banian-tree (Ficus Indica) is one of the many species of the fig-tree, and deserves notice, not only as a fruit-tree, but from its being a sacred tree with the Hindoos in the East Indies, from the vast size that it attains, and from the singularity of its growth
The fruit does not exceed that of a hazel-nut in bigness; but the lateral branches send down shoots that take root, till, in course of time, a single tree extends itself to a considerable grove. This remarkable tree was known to the ancients. Strabo mentions, that after the branches have extended about twelve feet horizontally, they shoot down in the direction of the earth, and there root themselves; and when they have attained maturity, they propagate onward in the same manner, till the whole becomes like a tent supported by many col
This tree is also noticed by Pliny with a minute accuracy, which has been confirmed by the observations of modern travellers; and Milton has rendered the description of the ancient naturalist almost literally, in the following beautiful passage:
“ Branching so broad along, that in the ground
At loup-holes cut through thickest shade.” Some specimens of the Indian fig-tree are mentioned as being of immense magnitude.
One near Mangee, twenty miles to the westward of Patna, in Bengal, spread over a diameter of 370 feet. The entire circumference of the shadow at noon was 1116 feet, and it required 920 feet to surround the fifty or sixty stems by which the tree was supported. Another covered an area of 1700 square yards; and many of almost equal dimensions are found in different parts of India and Cochin China, where the tree grows in the greatest perfection. A particular account of the banian-tree (sometimes called the pagod-tree) is given in Cordiner's “ Ceylon.” Mr. Southey has also described it both in the spirit of a poet and a naturalist. The cut given above, which is copied from Mr. Daniell's splendid work on " Oriental Scenery,” well illustrates this description:
“ 'T was a fair scene wherein they stood,
It was a goodly sight to see
Wonders of Philosophy:- The polypus receives new life from the knife which is lifted to destroy it. The fly-spider lays an egg as large as itself. There are 4041 muscles in a caterpillar. Hook discovered 14,000 mirrors in the eyes of a drone ; and to effect the respiration of a carp, 13,300 arte. ries, vessels, veins, and bones, &c., are necessary. The body of every spider contains four little masses pierced with a multitude of imperceptible holes, each hole permitting the passage of a single thread; all the threads, to ihe amount of 1000 to each mass, join together, when they come out, and make the single thread with which the spider spins its web; so that what we call a spider's thread consists of more than 1000 united. Lewenhoek, by means of microscopes, observed spiders no bigger than a grain of sand, who spun threads so fine that it took 4000 of them to equal in magnitude a single hair.
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Abbotsford the seat of the late Sir Walter Scott, is beautifully situated on the south bank of the Tweed, about half a mile from the junction of the Eurick with that river, and a few miles above Melrose Abbey. The surrounding country is celebrated in the annals of romantic lore: in the distance are the Eildon Hills, and the Huntly Burn rushes through a deep ravine in the grounds. The mansion takes its name from a ford formerly used by the monks of Melrose; it is built of a fine gray granite, after designs by Atkinson; the style is not indeed referable to any peculiar age, for in it are concentrated an endless variety of forms and ornaments, borrowed from the most celebrated buildings and ruins of Scotland; thus there is a gateway from Linlithgow, the stone-work and the door of the old Tolbooth of Edinburgh, a chimney-piece from Melrose Abbey, a postern from the Heart of Mid-Lothian, &c. &c." From the exterior, the mansion presents a singularly arranged combination of towers, posterns, zig-zag gables, parapets, and machicolated eaves, with grotesque water-spouts, groups of Elizabethian chimneys, and many other adornments.
From the Gateway, (the fac-simile of that at Linlithgow,) entrance is directly obtained to the Hall, lighted by two lofty gothic windows filled with stained glass and coats of arms. The walls are of richly carved oak, chiefly brought from the old palace of Dumfermline; and the roof is a series of pointed arches of the same material, the ends of the beams of which, with the exception of two or three, present in the centre, according to the fashion
of the middle ages, the arms of the illustrious inhabitants richly blazoned. Around the cornice of the hall runs a continued series of accurately blazoned shields of the heroes of the Border, among which the Scots, the Kerrs, the Douglas', the Herries', and the Rutherfords, are distinguished; two suits of complete steel armor occupy niches: and around are arranged multitudes of swords, spears, helmets, cuirasses, &c., from the enormous two-handed "Schwert,” of the Swiss peasant, to the rapier of Dettingen; and from the goodly lance of the steelclad knight, to that of the Pole who fell at Waterloo. In a room adjoining the hall, are arranged the smaller pieces of offensive and defensive weapons, as spears, darts, arrows, harquebusses, daggers, and pistols, besides various relics of illustrious personages, among which not the least in importance are Rob Roy's gun, the hunting Alask of bonnie King James, and Buonaparte's pistols
The next room of importance is the Library, which is admirably fitted up; the roof and bookcase are of oak, carved to correspond. Two cases opposite the fireplace contain the most valuable of the books and MSS. relative to the rebellions of 1715 and 1745; another case, in the bay window which overlooks the Tweed, those on Magic. The library boasts presentation copies of many distinguished living authors, and a magnificent set of Montfaucon, in ten volumes, folio, a present from George IV. In the same room, on a rich stand of porphyry, is placed a tall silver urn, filled with ashes, and bearing the inscription: '“Given by George Gordon, Lord Byron, to Sir Walter Scoti,