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6. The bony substance, which remains behind, is ground down, and sold to the farmers for manure.
Besides these various purposes to which the different parts of the horn are applied, the chippings which arise in comb-making are sold to the farmer for manure. In the first year after they are spread over the soil, they have comparatively little effect; but during the next four or five, their efficiency is considerable. The shavings, which form the refuse of the lantern-maker, are of a much thinner texture. A few of them are cut into various figures, and painted and used as toys; for they curl up when placed in the palm of a warm hand.' But the greater part of these shavings are sold also for manure, which, from their extremely thin and divided form, produces its full effect upon the first crop.
ticular class? By no means. In London there is always a large number of individuals, the refuse of every rank, and the natives of every country floating on the surface of society, ready to engage in any desperate undertaking, providing it can bring money into the pocket, and indulgence to the passions. The proprietors of these houses are composed of a heterogeneous mass of worn-out gamblers, black-legs, horse dealers, jockeys, valets, pettifogging lawyers, low tradesmen, men in business, who have failed through their debauchery, and others of a similar stamp. They dress in the first style of fashion, keep country houses, carriages, horses, and fare sumptuously; bedizen themselves out with valuable gold watches, chains, seals, diamond and other rings, costly snuff-boxes, &c.property, with but little exception, originally belonging to unfortunates who had been fleeced of every thing, and who, in the moment of distress, parted with them for a mere trifle. Some have got into large private mansions, and keep first-rate establishments. Persons, with a very superficial knowledge of the world, can easily discern through the thin disguise of gentlemen they assume.
The degree of blackguardism, villany, and wasteful profusion which characterize these infamous establishments, will, doubtless, appal the minds of thousands of our respectable and industrious readers; but there is a use in thus unfolding scenes capable of scaring the unwary man of property, or those in desperate circumstances, from the gaming table, while the virtuous portion of the community, in reading such accounts of what is hourly transacting-night and day, Sunday as well as every other day in the week—in the metropolis, will draw closer together, and learn to be thankful that their simple and honest occupations do not lead them into the way of such unhallowed temptations.
GAMING HOUSES OF LONDON. The gaming-houses of London—at least those on a great scale—are all situate in the modern and elegant quarter of the town, and are among the greatest wonders of this world of houses and human beings. In the slang of the town, such dens of vice and plunder are designated Hells,-a name too applicable to the nature of the business transacted within them. We are credibly informed by the author of Life in the West—a recent production, that these houses are fitted up in a style of extraordinary splendor, and that their expenses are enormous, though nothing in comparison to the profits realized. One house is supported at an expense of a thousands pounds a week. The next in eminence costs a hundred and fifty pounds a week, and the minor ones vary from fifty to eighty pounds. Each house has a regular compliment of officials, who are paid extravagant salaries. The inspectors or overlookers, are paid from six to eight pounds a week each; the “ croupiers,” or dealers, three to six pounds; the waiters and porters, two pounds; and a person who keeps a look out after the police officers, to give warning of their approach, two pounds. The money disbursed for secret information, wines, &c., cannot be easily ascertained, but must be very large.
Every thing in the interior of these mansions is elegant; but certain things betoken the dreadful and hazardous nature of the establishment. The doors and window shutters are fortified with strong iron plates, so that an ingress by violence is a tardy and difficult matter. There is one of these iron doors at the bottom of the stairs, one near the top, and a third at the entrance into the gaming room. These are opened and closed one after the other, as the person ascends or descends. In each of the doors there is a little round glass peep hole, for the porters to take a deliberate view of all persons desirous of admittance, in order to keep out or let in whom they choose.
An unsophisticated person would naturally enough suppose, from this account, that none but those of great courage would dare to penetrate into the heart of these establishments; but it must be explained that there is nothing like gruffness or jailorism in the keepers of the mansion. The whole is placed on an easy genteel footing. No civility can equal that of the waiters, while the condescension of the proprietors, or bankers, the refreshments and wine, all combined, have an interesting and deceptive influence upon the inexperienced and unreflecting mind. But what kind of people are iney who keep such houses? are they born a par
SNUFFTAKING - SMOKING. Soine time since, during the argument of a heavy cause in the Court of Chancery, a friend having in vain
endeavored to draw the attention of the witty Sir G-R-from his brief, as a last resource presented him with a pinch of snuff. Sir Ghowever, on declining the offer, observed with an air of solemnity, “Had the Creator intended my nose for a dust-hole, he would not have turned it upside down."
As snuff and tubacco form a considerable item in the expenditure of the working classes, it may be proper to mention, that the highest medical authorities are of opinion that the use of them is prejudicial to health. The following is the opinion of the celebrated Dr. Cullen on the subject:“ Tobacco is a well-known drug, of a narcotic quality, which it discovers in all persons, even in a small quantity, when first applied to them. I have known a small quantity of it, snuffed up the nose, produce giddiness, stupor, and vomiting; and, when applied in different ways, in larger quantity, there are many instances of its more violent effects, even of its proving a mortal poison. In all these instances, it operates in the manner of other narcotics, but, along with its narcotic qualities, it possesses also a strong stimulant power, perhaps with respect to the whole system, but especially with respect to the stomach and intestines, so as readily, even in no great doses, to prove emetic and purgative. By this combination of qualities, all the effects of tobacco may be explained; but I shall begin with
narcotic power at the same time applied, the tone of the stomach is often weakened, and every kind of dyspeptic symptoms are produced. The third mode of using tobacco is that of chewing it, when it shows its narcotic qualities as strongly as in any other way of applying it, though the nauseous taste of it commonly prevents its being carried far in the first practice. When the practice, however, is continued, as it is very difficult to avoid some part of it, dissolved in the saliva, from going down into the stomach, so this, with the nausea excited by the taste, makes voimiting more readily occasioned by this than the other modes of applying it. They are the strong, and even disagreeable, impressions repeated, that give the most durable and tenacious habits, and, therefore, the chewing of tobacco is apt to become one of these; and it is, therefore, in this way that it is ready to be carried to the greatest excess, and to show all the effects of the frequent and large use of narcotics. This practice is also the occasion of the greatest loss of saliva; and the effects of this in weakening digestion, and perhaps, from thence especially its noted effect of producing emaciation, may appear.
Several cases of disease are mentioned, in which the use of tobacco is said to be beneficial; but it appears to be the conviction of this great physician, that, in none of its forms, can it be beneficial to the healthy subject.
considering its effects as they appear in the use of it as an article of living. When snuff is first employed, if it be not both in small quantity, and be not thrown out immediately by sneezing, it occasions some giddiness and confusion of the head; but, by repetition, these effects cease to be produced, and no other effect of it appears in the accustomed, when not taken beyond the usual quantity. But, even in the habituated, when it is taken beyond the usual quantity, it produces somewhat of the same giddiness and confusion of head that it did when first employed; and, in several cases, these effects in persons accustomed, depending on a larger dose, are not only more considerable, as they act on the sensorium, but as they appear also in other parts of the system, particularly in the stomach, occasioning a loss of appetite, and other symptoms of a weakened tone in that organ.
With respect to this, it is to be observed, that persons who take a great deal of snuff, though they scem, from the power of habit, to escape its narcotic effects, yet, as they are often liable to go to excess in the quantity taken, so they are still in danger from these effects operating in an insensible manner; and I have observed several instances of their being affected in the same manner as persons are from the long use of other narcotics, such as wine and opium, -that is, by a loss of memory, by a fatuity, and other symptoms of the weakened or senile state of the nervous system, induced before the usual period. Among other effects of excess in snuffing, I have found all the symptoms of dyspepsy produced by it, and particularly pains of the stomach, occurring every day. The dependence of those upon the use of snuff became very evident from hence, that, upon an accidental interruption of snuffing for some days, these pains did not occur, but, upon a return to snuffing, the pains also recurred; and this alternation of pains of the stomach and of snuffing having occurred again, the snuff was entirely laid aside, and the pains did not recur for many months after, nor, so far as I know, for the rest of life. Another effect of snuff to be taken notice of is, that, as a part of the snuff is often carried back into the fauces, so a part of this is often carried down into the stomach, and then more certainly produces the dyspeptic symptoms mentioned. These are the considerations that relate to snuffing; and some of them will readily apply to the other modes of using this drug. Smoking, when first practised, shows very strongly the narcotic, vomiting, and even purging powers of tobacco, and it is very often useful as an anodyne; but, by repetition, these effects disappear, or only show themselves when the quantity smoked is beyond what habit had before admitted of; and, even in persons much accustomed to it, it may be carried so far as to prove a mortal poison. From much smoking, all the same effects may arise which we said might arise from excess of snuffing. With respect to the evacuation of mucus, which is produced by snuffing, there are analogous effects produced by smoking, which coinmonly stimulates the mucous follicles of the mouth and fauces, particularly the excretories of the salivary glands. Sometimes smoking dries the mouth and fauces, and occasions a demand for drink; but as commonly the stimulus it applies to the mucous follicles and salivary glands draws forth their liquids, it occasions, on the other hand, a frequent spitting So far as this is of the proper saliva, it occasions a waste of that liquid, so necessary in the business of digestion; and, both by this waste, and by the
EGYPTIAN EGG-OVEN. It is a well-known fact, that eggs may be hatched by artificial means. The Egyptians, as well as those who have tried the experiment in Europe, have succeeded, by means of artificial heat, in hatching eggs without any aid from the mother birds.
According to the best descriptions of the Egyptian mamal, or hatching oven, it is a brick structure about nine feet high. The middle is formed into a gallery about three feet wide and eight feet high, extending from one end of the building to the other. This gallery forms the entrance to the oven, and commands its whole extent, facilitating the various operations indispensable for keeping the eggs at the proper degree of warmth. On each side of this gallery there is a double row of rooms, every room on the ground-floor having one over it of precisely the same dimensions, namely, three feet in height, four or five in breadth, and twelve or fifteen in length. These have a round hole for an entrance of about a foot and a half in diameter, wide enough for a man to creep through; and into each are put four or five thousand eggs.
When the fires have been continued for eight or twelve days, according to the weather, they are
d'iscontinuod, the heat acquired by the ovens being sufficient to finish the hatching, which requires in all twenty-one days, the same time as when eggs are naturally hatched by a hen.
The number of ovens dispersed in the several districts of Egypt has been estimated at 336; and it has been computed that a million of chickens are annually hatched, in this manner, in Egypt.
masses pin the exploration is belween 4000 and 5000. The ore is generally in veins,-rarely in beds or masses. The vein of Guanaxuato is the most extensive. It is from 120 to 150 fect thick, and is explored in different places for a distance of nine miles. The quantity of silver in the ores averages from 3 to 4 ounces the quintal, or from 1-448 to 1-597th of ihe weight of ore. The annual produce of silver in Mexico during the last years of the 17th century, was 1,134,424 þs.
American Cotton.-By the Liverpool Price Current of 31st May, there had been imported from the U. States, since 1st Jan. last, 343,054 bales Cotton, and 257,000 bales more were expected, making 600,000 bales for ghe year. This Cotton would sell in Liverpool at a fair estimate for $42 per bale, making the sum of $25,200,000. At one cent per lb. freight, $1,800,000 will be paid to the ship owners, and at ten cents per lb. for the cost, $18,000,000 will be paid to the cotton planters of the Southern States. About 350,000 bales more have been shipped to France and other parts of Europe, and to the middle and northern States, worth at 10 cents per lb. $10,700,000.
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Silver Mines of Mexico.-From an article in the last number of Silliman's Journal, we learn that there are about 500 towns or principal places in Mexico celebrated for the explorations of silver that surround them. These 500 places comprehend together about 3000 mines. The whole number of veins and
GROUP FROM BURNS'S TAM O'SHANTER. We have the pleasure of presenting to our read inburgh journal, which was written by "a gentleers a wood engraving of the four statues illustra man who has made sculpture and painting his tive of Burns's tale of Tam O'Shanter, which are particular study for many years," and which will, now exhibiting in this city at Harding's Gallery in we believe, prove interesting to the public. School Street. The drawing is by Johnson, and has 'James Thom, the sculptor of these wonderful been pronounced by the proprietor of the figures, figures, is a native of Ayrshire, and of respectable the best representation of them that has yet been parentage near Tarbolton. Although, like those published. The eager, happy air of Tam, who is of his countryman and inspirer, his relatives were breathing" soft whispers" in the ear of the land all engaged in agricultural pursuits, (his brothers, lady, whilst his uplifted tankard is totally disre we understand, possess large farms,) the young garded, and her own mute, delighted attention, are man himself preferred the occupation of a mason, admirably expressed. The position of her arms and was, accordingly, apprenticed to a craftsman in and feet, however, evidently betokens, that she is Kilmarnock. This profession was probably selectmomentarily expecting the call of a customer, and ed as offering the nearest approach to the undefined the very situation of the bar is at once imagined workings and predilections of his own inexperiby the spectator.
enced mind, since he was not, as in the instance The Souter (Cobbler) exhibits in his quiet con of several sculptors of eminence, thrown first into tentment, the calm satisfaction of one, who drinks the trade of a stone mason by the force of circumat another's expense, who has the wit to please, stances. This would appear from his showing and the tact to use it rightly. He is amusing the little attachment to the drudgery of the art: accordlandlord, so that Tam may pursue his object with ingly, his first master is understood to have pro
interruption. His overflowing humor seems to nounced him rather a dull apprentice. From the have completely subdued his companion, whose beginning, he scems to have looked forward to the muscular organs are relaxed, his head thrown back, ornamental part of his calling; and in a country and even his laugh the laugh of exhaustion.
town where there was little or no opportunity of Though Johnson's design conveys much of the employment in that line, to those more immediately apirit of the original, it is necessarily imperfect. concerned, he might appear less useful than a less Our readers should see the statues themselves, to aspiring workman. The evidences of young Thom's form an idea of the skill and genius employed in diligence and talent at this time, however, still their execution. Reminding them that the mer remain in numerous specimens of carving in stone, ry group will not continue in this city long, we which he himself still considers, we are told, as lasten to make the following extract from an Ed- i superior to any thing he has yet done
His term of apprenticeship being expired, Mr. Thom repaired to Glasgow in pursuit of better employment. Here his merits were immediately perceived, and so well rewarded, that his wages were considerably higher than the ordinary rate.
In his present profession, Mr. Thom's career may be dated from the commencement of the winter of 1927. Being employed at this time in the immediate neighborhood, he applied to Mr. Auld, of Ayr, who afterwards proved his steady and judicious friend, for permission to take a sketch from a portrait of Burns, with the intention of executing a bust of the poet. This is a good copy of the original picture by Mr. Nasmyth, and iš suspended in the very elegant and classical monument, from a design by Mr. Hamilton, erected to the memory of the bard, on the banks of the Doon, near “Allowa's auld haunted kirk.” The permission was kindly granted; doubts, however, being at the same tiine expressed, how far the attempt was likely to prove successful, Mr. Thom not being then known in Ayr. These doubts seemed to be confirmed, on the latter returning with a very imperfect sketch, taken by placing transparent paper on the picture. These occurrences happened on the Wednesday, consequently nothing could be done till Thursday, when materials were to be procured, and other arrangements made, before the work was absolutely begun. The surprise then may be conceived, on the artist returning on the Monday following with the finished bust. In this work, though somewhat defective as a likeness, the execution, the mechanical details, and the general effect, were wonderful, especially when viewed in connexion with the shortness of the time, and the disadvantage of being finished almost from memory -the very imperfect outline, already mentioned, being the only external guide. It was this general excellence that encouraged the proposal of a full length figure-a proposal to which the artist gave his ready assent, stating that he had wished to undertake something of the kind, but did not consider it prudent, without any prospect of remuneration, to hazard the expense both of the block of stone and the loss of time. On this Mr. Auld offered to procure any stone from the neighboring quarries which the artist might judge fit for his purpose. Several days elapsed in this search; in the meantime, the matter was rather laughed at than encouraged; and some apprehensions of failure, and exposure to consequent comments, being expressed, “ Perhaps,” said the artist, endeavoring to reassure his friends, “I had just better try my hand at a head, as a specimen o' Tam.” This being agreed to, he returned to Crosby churchyard, where he was then employed upon a gravestone. The day following happened to be one of continued rain; and, finding that the water filled up his lines; probably, too, thinking more on
glorious Tam,” than on the memento mori he was attempting to engrave, our artist resolved to take time by the forelock, and to set about the “ specimen head" directly. Accordingly, pulling from the ruins of the church of Crosby a rabat of the doorway, as a proper material for his purpose, he sat himself down among the long rank grass covering the graves, and in that situation actually finished the head before rising. Nay, more, although the day has been described to us as a dounright pour," so total was his absorption in the work—50 complete his insensibility to every thing else, that lie declares himself to have been unconscious of
the “rattling showers," from the moment he commenced. Such is the power of genuine and natural enthusiasm in a favorite pursuit. This head, which contained, perhaps, more expression than that even of the present figure, decided the matter. Next day, the block requisite for a full-length of Tam o'shanter, was brought into Ayr, a load for four stout horses, and placed in a proper workshop, within Cromwell's fort
. It may be interesting to mention a few particulars of the manner in which these figures have been composed and finished, “ Tam” was selected by the artist as a subject for his chisel. The figure is understood to bear a strong traditional resemblance to the well-known Douglass Graham, some forty years ago a renowned specimen of a Carrick farmer, and who, residing at Shanter, furnished to Burns the prototype of his hero.
Souter Jolinnie, His antient, trusty, drouthie cronieis said to be a striking likeness of a living wighta cobbler near. Maybole; not that this individual sat for his portraiture, but that the artist appears to have wrought from the reminiscences of two interviews with which he was favored, after twice travelling some lang Scotch miles," in order to persuade the said “ souter” to transfer his body, by means of his pair of soles, from his own to the artist's studio. The bribe of two guineas a-week, exclusive of “half-mutchkins withouten score, proved, however, unavailing, and the cobbler re mained firm to the last. By this refusal, “the birkie” has only become poorer by the said couple of guineas, and certain half-mutckins drouthier," for so true has the eye of the sculptor proved, that every one is said instantly to recognise the cobbler's phiz and person. A strange perverseness, indeed, or fatality, or what you will, seems to have seized upon all the favored few selected as fitting archetypes for these admirable figures. For, Tam's “ nether man” occasioning some anxiety in the perfecting of its sturdy symmetry, a carter, we believe, was laid hold of, and the gamashins, being pulled on for half-an-hour, Tam's right leg was finished in rivalship of the said gentleman's supporter. It appears to have been agreed upon that he should return at a fitting opportunity, having thus left Tam " hirpling;” but, in the interval, the story of the sitting unfortunately taking air, and the soubriquet of “Tam o'Shanter” threatening to attach to the lawful and Christian appellations of the man of carts, no inducement could again bring him within the unhallowed precincts of our sculptor's workroom. In like manner, though at a somewhat later period, while the artist was engaged upon the figure of the landlady, no persuasion could prevail upon one of the many“ bonny lasses” who have given such celebrity to Ayr, to exhibit even the ** fitting of their pearlings" to Mr. Thom's gaze. One sonsy damsel, on being hard pressed to grant a sitting, replied, “Na, na, I've nae mind to be nicknamed 'landlady;' and, as for gudewife, twa speerings maun gang to that name.”
It will, doubtless, excite the admiration of every one in the slightest degree conversant with the Arts, that these figures, so full of life, ease, and character, were thus actually executed without model, or drawing, or palpable archetype whatso
The artist, indeed, knows nothing of modelling; and so little of drawing, that we question if he would not find difficulty in making even it