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with a view to some end,—but nothing can be the end neither of God, nor of anything whatever. Not of God, because he is himself the end of himself ; not of anything whatever, because good of some kind is the end of everything. Now nothing is neither good, nor in fact anything. Entity is good, non-entity consequently is not good; wherefore it is neither consistent with the goodness or wisdom of God to make out of entity, which is good, that which is not good, or nothing Again, God is not able to annihilate anything altogether, because by creating nothing he would create and not create at the same time, which involves a contradiction. If it be said that the creative power of God continues to operate, inasmuch as he makes that not to exist which did exist; I answer, that there are two things necessary to constitute a perfect action, motion and the effect of motion : in the present instance the motion is the act of annihilation ; the effect of motion is none, that is, nothing, no effect. Where then there is no effect there is no efficient.

Creation is either of things invisible or visible.

The things invisible, or which are at least such to us, are, the highest heaven, which is the throne and habitation of God, and the heavenly powers, or angels. Such is the division of the apostle, Col. i. 16.

The first place is due to things invisible, if not in respect of origin, at least of dignity. For the highest heaven is as it were the supreme citadel and habitation of God. See Deut. xxvi. 15. 1 Kings viii. 27, 30. “heaven of heavens.” Neh. ix. 6. Isai. lxiii. 15. far above all heavens,” Eph. iv. 10. where God “ dwelleth in the light which no man can approach unto,” 1 Tim. vi. 16. Out of this light it appears that pleasures and glories, and a kind of perpetual heaven, have emanated and subsist. Psal. xvi. 11. “at thy right hand there are pleasures for evermore.” Isai. lvii. 15.'". the high and lofty one that inhabiteth eternity, whose name is Holy; I dwell in the high and holy place.”

It is improbable that God should have formed to himself such an abode for his majesty oniy at so recent a period as at the beginning of the world. For if there be any one habitation

God is light,
And never but in unapproached light
Dwelt froin eternity.

Paradise Lost, III. 3.


of God, where he diffuses in an eminent manner the glory and brightness of his majesty, why should it be thought that its foundations are only coeval with the fabric of this world, and not of much more ancient origin? At the same time it does not follow that heaven should be eternal, nor, if eternal, that it should be God; for it was always in the power of God to produce any effect he pleased at whatever time and in whatever manner seemed good to him. We cannot form any conception of light independent of a luminary; but we do not therefore infer that a luminary is the same as light, or equal in dignity. In the same manner we do not think that what are called the back parts of God, Exod. xxxiii. are, properly speaking, God; though we nevertheless consider them to be eternal. It seems more reasonable to conceive in the same manner of the heaven of heavens, the throne and habitation of God, than to imagine that God should have been without a heaven till the first of the six days of creation. At the same time I give this opinion, not as venturing to determine anything certain on such a subject, but rather with a view of showing that others have been too bold in affirming that the invisible and highest heaven was made on the first day, contemporaneously with that heaven which is within our sight. For since it was of the latter heaven alone, and of the visible world, that Moses undertook to write, it would have been foreign to his purpose to have said anything of what was above the world.

In this highest heaven seems to be situated the heaven of the blessed ; which is sometimes called Paradise, Luke xxiii. 43. 2 Cor. xi. 2, 4. and Abraham's bosom, Luke xvi. 22. compared with Matt. viii. 11. where also God permits himself

? The same opinion has been held by the Fathers, as well as by most of the moderns. ' In libro de Trinitate, sive Novatiani sive Tertulliani sit, tam mundus angelicus quam superfirmamentarius conditus dicitur ante mundum Mosaicum his verbis. Quum etiam superioribus, id est, super ipsum quoque solidamentum partibus, angelos prius instituerit Deus, spi. rituales virtutes digesserit, thronos potestatesque præfecerit, et alia multa cælorum immensa spatia condiderit, &c. ut hic mundus novissimum magis Dei opus esse appareat, quam solum et unicum. Denique Catholicorum communem hanc fuisse sententiam notat Cassianus suo tempore, nempe sæculo quinto ineunte ; ante illud Genesewç temporale principium, omnes illas potestates celestes Deum creasse, non dubium est.' T. Burnet. Archæol. Philos. c. 8.

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to be seen by the angels and saints (as far as they are capable of enduring his glory), and will unfold himself still more fully to their view at the end of the world, 1 Cor. xiii. 12. John xiv. 2, 3. “in my Father's house are many mansions." Heb. xi. 10, 16. “he looked for a city which hath foundations. . . they desire a better country, that is, an heavenly....for he hath prepared for them a city.”

It is generally supposed that the angels were created at the same time with the visible universe, and that they are considered as comprehended under the general name of heavens. That the angels were created at some particular period, we have the testimony of Numb. xvi. 22. and xxvii. 16. “God of the spirits,” Heb. i. 7. Col. i. 16. “ by him were all things created visible and invisible, whether they be thrones," &c.” But that they were created on the first, or on any one of the six days, seems to be asserted (like most received opinions) with more confidence than reason, chiefly on the authority of the repetition in Gen. ii. 1.“thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them,”-unless we are to suppose that more was meant to be implied in the concluding summary than in the previous narration itself, and that the angels are to be considered as the host who in

2 The opinion that angels were not created, but self-existent, according to the Manichæan system, is with great propriety attributed to Satan in Paradise Lost.

That we were form'd hen say'st thou ? and the work
Of secondary hands, by task transferr'd
From Father to his Son ? strange point and new !
Doctrine which we would know whence learn'd? who saw
When this creation was ? remember'st thou
Thy making, while the Maker gave thee being ?
We know no time when we were not as now;
Know none before us, self-begot, self-rais'd
By our own quick’ning power, when fatal course
Had circled bis full orb, the birth mature
Of this our native Heav'n, ethereal sons,

V. 853.
See Jortin's observations on this passage, Remarks on Ec-

clesiastical History, I. 411.
In another place Satan proposes the question as doubtful;

Whether such virtue spent of old now fail'd
More angels to create, if they at least
Are his created

IX. 145.
3 So Jenkins, quoting Job xxxvii. 7. On the Reasonableness of the
Christian Religion, B. II. Ch. 9.

habit the visible heavens. For when it is said Job xxxviii. 7. that they shouted for joy before God at the creation, it proves rather that they were then already in existence, than that they were then first created. Many at least of the Greek, and some of the Latin Fathers, are of opinion that angels, as being spirits, must have existed long before the material world ;* and it seems even probable, that the apostasy which caused the expulsion of so many thousands from heaven, took place before the foundations of this world were laid. Certainly there is no sufficient foundation for the common opinion, that motion and time (which is the measure of motion) could not, according to the ratio of priority and subsequence, have existed before this world was made; since Aristotle, who teaches that no ideas of motion and time can be formed except in reference to this world, nevertheless pronounces the world itself to be eternal."

Angels are spirits, Matt. viii. 16. and xii. 45. inasmuch as a legion of devils is represented as having taken possession of one man, Luke viii. 30. Heb. i. 14. “ministering spirits.” They are of ethereal nature, 1 Kings xxii. 21. Psal. civ. 4.

4 • Plures e patribus Christianis angelos extitisse ante terram, vel ante mundum Mosaicum, per ignota nobis sæcula, statuerunt ; aliqui etiain cælos supremos, vel cælum empyreum. Sed de angelis constantior est et a pluribus celebrata sententia. Ut mittam Origenem, hoc Sanctus Basilius in Heramero, Chrysostomus προς τους σκανδαλισθέντας, C. 7. πολλή raúrns rñs KtigeMC 7 PEOBútepoi, &c. Gregorius Nazianzemus Orat. 38. et alibi, Johannes Damascenus 1. ii. Orth. Fid. c. 3. Joh. Philoponus De Creatione Mundi, 1. i. c. 10. Olympiodorus in Job xxxviii. aliique e Græcis docuere. E Latinis etiam non pauci eidem sententiæ adhæserunt. Hilarius, l. xii. De Trinitate ; Hieronymus, Ambrosius in Hexaëmero, 1. i. c. 5. Isidorus Hispalensis, Beda, aliique.' T. Burnet. Archæol. Philos. I. ii. c. 8. It is observable that Milton had indirectly declared himself to have believed in the pre-existence of angels in the Paradise Lost, where he represents Uriel to have been present at the creation of the visible world, and puts into his mouth the beautiful description quoted in a preceding page, —- I saw when at his word the formless mass,' &c.

5 See Aristot. Natural Auscult. lib. viii. cap. 1. In reference to this, Milton says elsewhere ;

. Time, though in eternity, applied To motion, measures all things durable

By present, past, and future. Paradise Lost, V. 580. 6 Your bodies may at last turn all to spirit,

Improv'd by tract of time, and wing'd ascend
Ethereal as we.


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compared with Matt. viii. 31. Heb. i. 7. “as lightning,"
Luke x. 18. whence also they are called Seraphim. Immortal,
Luke xx. 36. “neither can they die any more.” Excellent
in wisdom; 2 Sam. xiv. 20. Most powerful in strength;
Psal. ciii. 20. 2 Pet. i. 11. 2 Kings xix. 35. 2 Thess. i. 7.
Endued with the greatest swiftness, which is figuratively de-
noted by the attribute of wings ;Ezek. i. 6. In number
almost infinite ; Deut. xxxiii. 2. Job xxv. 3. Dan. vii. 10.
Matt. xxvi. 53. Heb. xii. 22. Rev. v. 11, 12. Created in
perfect holiness and righteousness ; Luke ix. 26. John viii.
44. 2 Cor. xi. 14, 15. “angels of light.. ministers of
righteousness.” Matt. vi. 10. “thy will be done in earth as
it is in heaven.” xxv. 31. “holy angels.” Hence they are
also called sons of God, Job i. 6. and xxxviii. 7. Dan. iii. 25.
compared with v. 28. and even Gods, Psal. viii. 5. xcvii. 7.
But they are not to be compared with God; Job iv. 18. “his
angels he charged with folly.” xv. 15. the heavens are not
clean in his sight.” xxv. 5. “ yea, the stars are not pure in
his sight.” Isai. vi. 2. “ with two wings he covered his face.'
They are distinguished one from another by offices and de-
grees ;' Matt. xxv. 41. Rom. viii. 38. Col. i. 16. Eph. i.
21. and iii. 10. 1 Pet. iii. 22. Rev. xii. 7. Cherubim, Gen.
iji. 24. Seraphim, Isai. vi. 2. and by proper names ; Dan.
viii. 16. ix. 21. x. 13. Luke i. 19. Michael, Jude 9. Rev.

1 Thess. iv. 16. “ with the voice of the Archangel.”
Josh. v. 14. See more on this subject in the ninth chapter.
To push our speculations further on this subject, is to incur
And when Satan receives his wound from Michael,

th'ethereal substance clos'd,
Not long divisible.

Paradise Lost, VI. 330.
? Meanwhile the winged heralds, by command
Of sovran pow'r-.

I. 752.
8 I came among the sons of God, when he

Gave up into my hands Uzzean Joh. Paradise Regained, I. 368.
9 Dark with excessive bright thy skirts appear,

Yet dazzle heav'n, that brightest Seraphim
Approach not, but with both wings veil their eyes.

Paradise Lost, III. 380.
1 • Yea the angels themselves, in whom no disorder is feared, as the
apostle that saw them in his rapture describes, are distinguished and qua-
ternioned into their celestial princedoms and satrapies, according as God
himself has writ his imperial decrees through the great provinces of heaven.'
Reason of Church Government, &c. Prose Works, II. 442.

xii. 7.

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