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day, and will never be night;' that a little to be spent out of so inuch is not worth inindmg: 'A child and a fool'as poor Richard says, 'imagine twenty shillings and twenty years can never be speint; but always be taking out of the meallub, and never putting ill, soon comes to the bottom;' thell, as poor Dick says, “When the well is alry they know the worth of water.' But this they might have known before, if they had taken his advice: 'If you would know the value of money, go and try to borrow some ; for le that goes a borrowing goes a sorrowing; and, indeed, so does he that lends to such people, when he goes to get it again. Poor Dick farther advises, and says,
Fond pride of dress is sure a very curse
- Ere fancy you consult, consult your purse. And again, 'Pride is as loud a beggar as Want, and a great deal more saucy.' When you have bought one fine things you must buy ten more, that your appearance may be all of a piece; but poor Dick says, 'It is easier to suppress the first desire, than to satisfy all that follow it.' And it is as truly folly for the poor to ape the rich, as the frog to swell, in order to equal the ox.
«Vessels large may venture more,
But little boats should keep near shore.' ?Tis, however, a folly soon punished; for “Pride that dinės ou vanity, sups on contempt, as poor Richard says. And, in another place, “Pride breakfasted with Plenty, dined with Poverty, and supped with Infamy. And, after all, of what use is this pride of appearance, for which so inuch is risked, so inuch is suffered ? It cannot promote health, or ease pain, it makes no jucrease of merit in the person: it creales envy; it hastens misfortune.
"What is a butterfly? at hest,
'The gaudy fop's his picture just," as poor Richard says.
4. But what madness must it be to run ia debt for these site perfluities! We are offered by the terms of this sale six months' credit; and that perhaps has induced some of us to auteud it, because we cannot spare the ready money, and
hope now to be fine without it. But, ah! think what you do when you run in debt. You give to another power over your liberty. If you camot pay at the time, you will be ashamed to see your creditor: you will be in fear when you speak to him; you will make poor, pitiful, sneaking excuses, and hy degrees come to lose your reracity, and sink into base downright lying; for, as poor Richard says, “The second vice is lying; the first is running in debi.' And again, to the same purpose, 'Lying rides upon debu's back ;' whereas a freeborn Englishman Ought not to be ashamerl nor afraid to speak to any man living. But poverty ofen deprives-a man of all spirit and virtue: 'It is hard for an empty bay to stand uprigh,' as poor Richard truly says. What would you think of that prince, or that government, who would issue an edict, forbidding you to dress like a gentleman er gentlewoman, on pain of imprisonment or servitude-? Would you not say, that you were free, have a right to dress as you please, and that such an edict would be a breach of your frivileges, and such a goreniment tyramical? An yet you are about to put yourself under that tyranny when you run in debt for such dress! Your creditor has author. ity, at his pleasure, to deprive you of your liberty, by confining you in goal for life, or by selling you fer a servant, if you should not be able to pay bim. When you have got your baryain, you may, perhaps, think little of payment; but 'Cresimis' poor Richard tells us, have better memories than debtors:' and in another place he says, 'Creditors are a superstitious sect, great observers of sei days and times.' The day comes round before you are aware, and the demand is made before you are prepared to satisfy it. Or if you bear your debt in mind, the term which at first seemed so long, will, as it lessens, appear extremely short. Time will seem to have added wings to his heels as well as at his shoulders. "Those have a short Leni,' saith poor Richard, "who owe inoney to be paid at Easter.' Then since, as he says, "The borrower is a slave to the lender, and the debtor to the cr-ditor;' diselain the chain, preserve your freedom, anıl maintain your independency: he industrious and free; be frugal and free. At present, perhaps, you may think yourselves in thriving circumstances, and that you can beas a liule extravagance without injury; but,
. For age and want save while you may,
No morning sun lasts a whole day,' as poor Richar:/ says. Gain may be temporary and uncertain; bilt ever, while you live, expense is constant and certain: and it is easier to build two chimnies than to keep one in fuel,' as poor Richard says. So 'Rather go to bed Supperless than rise in debt.'
Get what you can, and what you get hold,
"Tis the stone that will turn all your lead into go:d," as poor Richard says. And when you have got the philosopher's stone, sure you will no longer complain of bad times, or the di:fculty of paying taxes.
" This doctrine, my friends, is reaso: and wisdom: but, after all, do not depend too much upon your own industry and frugality, and prudence, though excellent things; for they may be blasted without the blessing of Hea zen: ani therefore ask that blessing humbly, and be not uncharitable to those that at present seem 10 want it, but co:nfort and help thein. Remember Job suffered and was afterwards prosperous.
" And no:v to conclude, ' Experience keeps a dear school; but fools will learn in no other, and scarce in that; for it is true, we may gi:e advice, but we cannot gi: e co:duct, as poor Richard says. However, remember this, "They th.it will vint be co:mselle:t, cannot be helped,' as poor Richard says; and, further, that If you will not hear Reason, she will surely rap your knuckles."
Thus the old gentleman ended his harangue. The people heart it, and approred the doctrine, and immediately practised the contrary, just as if it had been a common sermon; for the auction opened, and they began to buy extravagantly, notwithstanding all his cautions and their own fear of taxes. I found the good màn hal thoroughly studied my alınanacs, and digested all I had dropped-01 those topics during the course of twenty-five years. The frequent mention he made of me must have tired every - one else; but iny vanity was wonderfully delighted with it, though I was conscious that not a tenth part of the wisden was my own, which he ascribert to ine, but rather the gleanhigs that I had made of the sense of all ages and natious. However I resolved to be the better for the echo of it; and though I had first determined to buy stuff for a new coat, I went away, resolved to wear my old one a little longer. Reader, if thou wilt do the same, thy profit will be as great as mine. I am, as ever, thine to serve thee,
THE INTERNAL STATE OF AMERICA. BEING A TRUE DESCRIPTION OF THE INTEREST AND
POLICY OF THAT VAST CONTINENT. There is a tradition that in the planting of New England the first settlers met with many diificulties and hardships: as is generally the case when a civilized people attempt establishing themselves in a wilderness country. Being piously disposedt, they sought relief from Heaven, by laying their wants and distresses before the Lord, in frequent set days of fasting and prayer.
Constant meditation and discourse on these subjects kept their minds gloomy and disa contented : and, like the children of Israel, there were many disposed to return to that Egypt which persecution had induced them to abandon. At length, when it was proposed in the Assembly to proclaim another fast, a farmer of plain sense rose and remarked, that the incoure niences they suffered, and concerning which they had so often wearied Heaven with their complaints, were not so great as th:y might have expected, and were diminishing every day as the colony strengthened; that the earth began to reward their labor, and to furnish liberally for their subsistence; that the seas and riers were found full of fish; the air sweet, the climate healthy; and, above all, tha they were in the full enjoyment of liberty, civil and re!ig nus: he therefore thought, that reflecting and conversing on these subjects would be more comfortable, as tending more to make them contented with their situation; and that it would be inore becoming the gratitude they owed the Divine Being, if, instead of a fast, they should proclaim a thanksgiving. His advice was taken; and, from that day to this, they have, in every year, observed circunıstances of public se
licity sufficient to furnish employment for a thanksgiving day; which is, therefore, constantly ordered and religiously obser:ed.
I see in the public newspapers of different States, frequent complaints of hard times, deadness of trade, scarcily of money, &c. &c. It is not my intention to assert or maintain that these complaints are entirely without loundation. There can be no country or nation existing, in which there will not be some people so circumstanced as to find it hard to gain a livelihood; people who are not in the way of any profitable trade, with whom money is scarce, because they have nothing to give in exchange for it; and it is always in the power of a small number to make a great clamor. Biit let us take a cool view of the general state of our affairs, and perhaps the prospect will appear less glooiny than has been imagined.
The great business of the continent is agriculture. For one artisan, or merchant, I suppose we have at least one hundreci farmers, by far the greatest part cultivators of their own fertile lands, from whence many of then draw not only found necessary for their subsistence, but the materials of their clothing, so as to need very few foreign supplies; while they have a surplus of productions to dispose of, whereby wealth is gradually accumulated. Such has been the goodness of Divine Providence to these regions, and so favorable the climate, that, since the three or four years of hardship in the first settlement of our fathers here, a fainine or scarcity has never been heard of amongst us; on the contrary, though some years may have been more and others less plentiful, there has always been provision enough for oursel.es and a quantity to spare for exportation. And although the crops of last year were generally good, never was the farmer better paid for the part he can spare commerce, as the published price-currents abundantly testify. The lands he possesses are also continually rising in value with the increase of population; and, on the whole, he is enabled to give such good wages to those who work for hiin, that all who are acquainted with the old world inust agree, that in no part of it are the laboring poor so generally well fed, well clothed, well lodged, and well paid, as in the United States of Ainerica.
If we enter the cities, we find that since the Revolution,