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and Forster had letters from Marr, not at all of a consolatory tendency.* Duplicates of these letters fell into the hands of government, whence it would be learned, that there was nothing

* The following are the letters alluded to, the first is to Kenmure.

My Lord,

I long extremely to hear from you, you may be sure, since I have not had the least account almost of your motions, since I sent the detachment over. I hope all is pretty right again, but it was an unlucky mistake in brigadier MʻIntosh, in marching from Haddington to Leith. I cannot but say though, that it was odd your lordship sent no orders or intelligence to him, when you had reason to expect that party's coming over every day. His retreat he made from Leith, and now from Seaton, with the help of the movement I made from this, makes some amends for that mistake; and I hope that party of men with him, will be of great use to you and the cause. I wish you may find a way of sending the inclosed to Mr. Forster, which I leave open

for your lordship to read; and I have little further to say to you than what you will find in it. I know so little of the situation of your affairs, that I must leave to yourself what is fit for you to do, as will most conduce to the service, and I know you will take good advice.

My humble service to all friends with you, particularly brigadier MʻIntosh, lord Nairn, lord Charles Murray, and MʻIntosh, who, I hope, are joined you long ere now; and, indeed, they all deserve praise for their gallant behaviour. I must not forget Kinackin, who, I hear, spoke so resolutely to the duke of Argyle from the citadel; and I hope Inercall, and all my men with him are well; and their countrymen long to be at them, which, I hope, they and we all shall soon. I have sent another copy of the inclosed to Mr. Forster by sea, so it will be hard if none of them come to his hands.

I know your lordship will let me hear from you as soon as possible, which I long impatiently for, and I hope you will find a way of sending it safe. In one of my former, either to your lordship, or to somebody to show you, I told that a part of the army would be about Dumbarton; but now I beg that you will not rely upon that, for till I hear from general Gordon, I am uncertain if they hold that way. I have sent your lordship a copy of my new commission, which, perhaps you have not seen before. I have named the general officers, and your lordship has the rank of brigadier of the horse.

I am told that earl Winton has been very useful to our men we sent over. I suppose he is now with your lordship, and I beg you would make my compliments to his lordship, and I hope the king will soon thank him himself. I will trouble your lordship no further now, but all success attend you,

and may we soon have a merry meeting. I am, with all respect,

My lord,
Your most of edient and most humble Servant,

From the Camp at Perth,

October 21st, 1715.

dangerous in the composition of the leaders of this ill planned and worse conducted insurrection. From this day forward too, the Highlanders had to be spirited on, by receiving each sixpence per day of regular pay.*

From the Camp at Perth, October 21st, 1715. Sir,

I wrote to you of the 17th, from Auchterarder, which I hope you got. I marched the same night, the horse to Dumblain, within four miles of Stirling, and the foot some miles short of that place. Next morning, I had certain intelligence of the duke of Argyle's returning from Edinburgh with most of the troops he had carried there, and was on their march towards Stirling. I also had an account of Evan's regiment landed in the west of Scotland from Ireland, and were on their way to Stirling. I had come away from Perth before our provisions were ready to go with us, and I found all the country about Stirling, where we were to pass the Forth, was entirely exhausted by the enemy, so there was nothing for us to subsist on there. I had no account from general Gordon, as I expected, and the soonest I could expect him at the heads of forth, was two days after that, and I could not think of passing Forth till I was joined by him. Under these difficulties, and having got one of the things I designed by my march, the duke of Argyle's withdrawing from our friends in Lothian, I thought fit to march back to Auchterarder, which was a better quarter, though not a good one neither. Next morning I got intelligence of the duke of Argyle's being come to Stirling the night before, and that he had sent express upon express, to Evan's dragoons to hasten up. I had a letter also that morning, from general Gordon, telling me that some things had kept him up longer than he expected; that it would be that day, ere he could be at Inverary, and that he could not possibly join me this week. Upon this, I thought it better to return here, which is a good quarter, and wait his coming up, and the lord Seaforth's, than continue at Auchterarder, since it would not a bit retard my passing the Forth, when I should be in a condition to do it, and, in the mean time, I could be getting provisions ready to carry along with me in my march, which, as I have told, are absolutely necessary about the heads of Forth; so I came home last night.

I very much regret my being obliged to this, for many reasons, particularly because of its keeping me so much the longer from joining you; but you easily see it was not in my power to help it. However, I hope my stay here shall be very short, and you may depend upon its being no longer than it necessarily must. The passage over the Forth is now so extremely difficult, that it's scarce possible to send any letters that way; and within these two days, there were two boats coming over with letters to me, that were so hard pursued, that they were obliged to throw the letters into the sea, so that I know very little of our friends on that side, and less of you, which is no small loss to me. I heard to-day by word of mouth, that the detachment I

* Rae's History of the Rebellion, p. 279. Campbell's Life of John, Duke of Argyle, p. 216.

On the second of the month, they reached Penrith, where they hoped to have been met by a number of friends. Mr. Dacre of Abbeylanner-coast, a papist, had particularly promised to meet them with forty men. But he was fortunately taken

sent over, are marched, and joined our friends in the south of Scotland, so I hope they may be yet useful, but I hope you know more of them than I do. I have now writ to lord Kenmure, but it is ten to one if it comes to his hands. I know not what he is doing, where he is, or what way he intends to dispose of his people, whether he is to march into England, or towards Stirling, to wait my passing Forth; and in the ignorance I am in of your affairs besouth the river, I scarce know what to advise him. If you be in need of his assistance in England, I doubt not but you have called him there; but if not, certainly his being in the rear of the enemy, when I pass Forth, or now that the duke of Argyle is reinforced, should he march towards me where I am, it would be of great service. I am forced in a great measure to leave it to him. self to do as he finds most expedient.

I am afraid that the duke of Ormond is not as yet come to England, else I should have had the certainty of it one way or other before now. I cannot conceive what detains him nor the king from coming here. However, I am sure it is none of their fault; and I hope they will both surprise us agreeably very soon.

I believe I told you in my last, of the lord Strathmore and 200 of the detachment that were going over Forth, and drove into the Island of May by thiree men of war, who being got safe ashore on this side, are now joined us again. There were but two of all the boats taken; and I hear some of the men that were in them, who were made prisoners in Leith, were relieved by our men when they came there, but that their officers were sent to Edinburgh castle ; so I want some reprisals for them, which I hope to have ere long.

The brigadier MʻIntosh's mistake in going to Leith was like to be unlucky to us and them, yet it has given the duke of Argyle no little trouble, and our march obliging him to let them slip, has, I am apt to believe, vex'd him.

I beg you will find some way to let me hear from you. Ever since my detachments were in Fyfe, all the men of war that cruised on the north coast, betwixt Peterhead and the Firth, have been in the Firth, and, I believe, will continue there, to prevent my sending more over that way; so all that coast is clear, which I wish to God the king knew; and you may easily send a boat here, any where, with letters from England. I hear there is one of the regiments of foot from Ireland come to Stirling.

When you write to me, if by sea, pray send me some newspapers, that I may know what the world is a doing, for we know little of it here these eight days. Success attend you; and I am, with all truth and esteem,


Your most obedient, humble Servant,
Directed thus,

To Mr. Forster, with the king's forces in Northumberland.

with a fever, which prevented his design, and saved him and his family from ruin. The sheriff, the lord Lonsdale, and the bishop of Carlisle, had drawn out the Posse Comitatus of Cumberland, to the number of twelve or fourteen thousand, to withstand them on this day's march, but never was the little dependance that can be placed upon an undisciplined multitude, more strikingly displayed, than on this occasion. The multitude, were indeed assembled upon the spot where the rebels behoved necessarily to pass, if they passed at all, but the report of their coming, was enough for this cowardly rabble; they never waited to take one look of the enemy, but casting the arms, with which they ought to have defended themselves and their country, from them as useless encumbrances, they fled every man to shift for himself in the best manner he could. Lord Lonsdale alone, with twenty of his domestics, waited till they came in sight, when he too of course retired. A party pursued him to Lowther Hall, but did not find him. They took the benefit of his house for the night, making free with his cellar, &c. but in every other respect, conducted themselves with propriety, doing no damage either to house, furniture, or garden, though the contrary was reported of them at the time.* The sudden dispersion of the Posse Comitatus, mightily encouraged the rebels, and put them besides, in possession of a good quantity of arms, which were thrown away in the flight, and a number of horses.

Before entering Penrith, the rebels were arrayed in order of battle, that they might make the best possible appearance for encouraging their friends, and overawing their enemies. Mr. Patten, the historian, having formerly been curate of this place, and well acquainted with the country, was sent out with a party of horse, to intercept the bishop of Carlisle, but was followed by an express from the general, ordering him to proceed through the town of Penrith to Emont bridge, and beset a house, where he was told, he would find his brother-in-law, Mr. Johnston, collector of the salt tax, whom he was to make prisoner and bring to the army, with all his books, papers, and money. Mr. Johnston, however, deciining the friendly visit of his brother-in-law, had gone out of the way, taking all the

Patten’s History of the Rebellion, p. 85.

money along with him; but Mr. Patten, that he might not appear to have been altogether idle upon the road, made a few of the fugitives belonging to the Posse Comitatus prisoners, and delivered them, together with their arms, to the guard.*

Penrith being a plentiful place, they thought it good to enjoy a little English hospitality, and refreshed themselves very freely at the expense of the honest citizens. They found time, however, to proclaim the pretender, and according to custom, uplifted the excise and other public money, and “ looked a little into the country,” as Mr. Patten periphrastically expresses it, “ as well for their friends, as to furnish themselves with arms and horses, for of the latter they were in great want.”+

Having spent the night thus happily at Penrith, they set forward to Appleby. Mr. Ainsley, who had joined them at Jedburgh, with sixteen Teviotdale gentlemen, this day deserted them, anticipating most probably, what would be the result of “ looking after their friends, and helping themselves to horses,” in the manner chey were doing; nor had they as yet any considerable additions to their number, government having been beforehand with them, in apprehending all the leading Roman Catholics, and confining them in Carlisle, by which their reputations were in some degree preserved, as well as their lives and tbeir estates. This day, too, their historian, Mr. Patten, while enjoying that hospitality, of which they seem to have been all very much enamoured, with some of his friends, narrowly escaped falling into the hands of the sheriff, I which, if he had, they would have lost the benefit, on many occasions, of public prayers, and the world had probably wanted one very clear narrative of their transactions.

Appleby, they occupied from the third to the fifth. Here, in addition to lifting the public money as usual, they took possession of the church, where Mr. Patten was ordered to read prayers,

if the curate refused. These gentlemen, the curates, for the most part, modestly declined the honour intended for them by the vicegerents of the chevalier, though they testified to what side their affections leaned, by causing the bells to be

* Patten’s History of the Rebellion, p. 84. + Patten's History of the Rebellion, p. 85. # Ibid. p. 86.

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