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year, and for adding two companies to the Coldstream regiment of foot guards. All officers of the army, governors of forts, garrisons, &c. &c. were, under pain of his majesty's highest displeasure, ordered to their respective posts, and all officers on half pay were, at the request of the house of commons, placed upon full pay, and at the immediate disposal of his majesty.

On the twenty-ninth of July, all papists were ordered to remove from the cities of London and Westminster, and from every place within ten miles of either, by the eighth day of August. Papists and nonjurors were also ordered everywhere to be disarmed, and their horses above five pounds value taken from them and sold. The papists were also to be compelled to take the declaration against transubstantiation, and the nonjurors the oath of abjuration.

A bill was also passed for the further security of his majesty's person and government, and the succession of the crown in the heirs of the late princess Sophia, being protestants, and for extinguishing the hopes of the pretended prince of Wales, and his open and secret abettors; enabling his majesty to grant a commission to administer the oaths of allegiance, supremacy, and abjuration to all officers, seamen, and soldiers, and providing that the sum of one hundred thousand pounds should be given “ to any person or persons, natives or foreigners, who should seize or secure, alive or dead, the person of the pretender, whenever he shall land or attempt to land in Great Britain or Ireland, or any other his majesty's dominions."

Besides all these precautions and preparations at home, his majesty was careful to secure the friendly co-operation of his allies abroad. On the first alarm of invasion, notice was given to the states general, and a formal demand made of the six thousand troops stipulated in the late treaty for the preservation and security of the protestant succession, together with a squadron of ships of war, should there be occasion for them, all which was cheerfully acceded to on the part of the Dutch government. Count Coningseck, whom the emperor of Germany had sent over to adjust some differences that had arisen

* Rae's History of the Rebellion, p. 171.

regarding the barrier treaty, also made offer, in name of his master, of a detachment of imperial troops to aid in the defence of the kingdom; but the danger was not thought so pressing as to demand such a measure, and the offer was politely declined. Two British regiments, however, which had been left by the duke of Ormond at the conclusion of the peace, and were now in garrison at Newport, were recalled, and their places supplied by an equal number of imperialists. *

We have already noticed the preparations in Scotland on the part of the Jacobites, nor were the friends of liberty and religion there deficient, either in zeal or in promptitude of action for their own safety, and the preservation of the established order of things. No sooner did the information of the intended invasion reach Edinburgh, than the few regular troops there went into camp. The trainbands were ordered to arms, and the city guard re-enforced. It was also resolved to levy four hundred men, to be maintained by the citizens, and commanded by officers appointed by the lord provost and magistrates, by whose orders their operations were to be directed. Two extensive associations were formed at the same time, whose patriotic and spirited procedure roused the energies of the welldisposed every where, and had the happiest effect in directing and sustaining public feeling. The original constitution of both these associations was nearly the same, only the members of the one, subscribed a sum of money over against his name, which the other did not; and both, for the satisfaction of one another, signed the following bond, before being admitted to the places agreed upon for learning the military evolutions :—“ We, the subscribers, do hereby mutually promise and engage ourselves to stand by and assist one another to the utmost of our power, in the support and defence of his majesty king George, our only rightful sovereign, and of the protestant succession, now happily established, against the pretender, and all open and secret enemies; for the preservation and security of our holy religion, civil liberties, and most excellent constitution, both in church and state.” Some time after, when their number was considerably increased, they divided themselves into companies,

* Complete History of the late Rebellion, p. 6.

chose their officers, and were designated the associate volunteers. They amounted to upwards of four hundred, and were, in the sequel, particularly useful,* though their zeal was a little damped by the government declining in part their offers of service, alleging unwillingness to put them to expense; but, in reality, as was generally thought at the time, from a fear of the Scots feeling their own strength, and, on some future occasion, exerting it in a way not at that time contemplated.t The spirited circular which they issued, and which had so much effect in arousing Scotishmen every where, was probably the cause of this doubt on the part of government, and probably brought to their remembrance the days of the covenant, which were still at court remembered and secretly contemplated with terror.f

1

* Their names have been preserved, and may be seen in the Scots' Magazine for 1806.

+ Vide a letter from Edinburgh, August 13th, 1715.

# The following is the circular alluded to :-"Sir, The certainty of a designed invasion in favour of a popish pretender to the crown being no longer doubted of, and the danger thereby threatened, as well to his sacred majesty king George, his person and government, as to all his good subjects in their dearest and most valuable interests, being equally great, it comes to be the immediate duty of all who have any sincere regard to the true protestant religion, and the civil rights and liberties of mankind, to show a zealous concern for the preservation of these invaluable blessings, by exerting themselves to the utmost in defence of his majesty's just right and title to the crown, and vigorously opposing all attempts that shall be made to disturb his government. For these ends, we, his majesty's faithful subjects in and about this city, have, under the countenance of those in authority here, cheerfully and unanimously engaged ourselves in a bond of association, to assist and support one another in manner therein expressed; and being also sensible how proper it is to encourage and stimulate others to so necessary a duty, we have thought fit to send a copy of our foresaid association to you,

and many other parishes in Scotland, who, we hope, from the same motives contained in the preamble of our paper, will stir up themselves in their several stations, to act with such resolution as becomes those who have their all at stake. The prize we contend for is liberty; it is essential to our very happiness: for how can we possibly retain our religious and civil rights, if we tamely submit to the yoke, and part with our liberty? will not life itself be a burthen, if all that is done to us, either as men or christians, shall be thus lost, past all hopes of recovery? This consideration alone should rouse us from a fatal security, and our anxiety for liberty should daily increase in proportion to our danger, which is visibly hastening upon us, by the secret and open attacks

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The city of Glasgow had displayed a noble spirit of patriotism so early as the revolution, by sending five hundred men to guard the convention; and, observing the late inglorious treaty of peace, the disbanding of the army, the passing the

of the restless enemies of our peace and happiness; is it not then reasonable and honest thoroughly to consider our circumstances, and to let our enemies know that we are upon our guard? We do, therefore, persuade ourselves it will be the business of every honest man to look up with a spirit, and do his utmost to maintain and defend our excellent constitution both in church and state, the sum of our present happy condition, which, by the blessing of God, nothing can make desperate but our own sloth and cowardice. Has not our good and gracious God bitherto made signal appearances on our behalf? Have not our eyes seen the salvation he hath wrought for us, time after time? Can we, without horror, remember the unparalleled cruelties we met with, when a popish interest and faction had the ascendant? Can we forget the remarkable deliverance God wrought for us in breaking the yoke of their arbitrary and tyrannical government by the great king William in the late glorious revolution? Can we bave forgot the goodness of God in defeating the last attempt of this nature in such a manner as left no ground to doubt but that God did then appear on our side? Or shall we ever cease to remember the seasonable and surprising interposition of heaven in bringing his present majesty king George to the quiet and peaceable possession of the throne of these realms, and this at a time when our fears were so great, that nothing but a solid persuasion of the Lord God, his concerning himself for his own interest, kept up our spirits, and made us hope for relief; why should we then despond? The same hand is not now shortened that it cannot save; the same God we trust in is both able and willing to rescue us from the imminent dangers that now threaten us, by the insurrection of a Jacobite faction, and an invasion of a pretender to the crown, who has been educated in all the maxims of popish bigotry and French tyranny, and now comes against us with an army of Irish cut-throats, assisted (as we have no reason to doubt) by the grand enemy to the reformed in Europe, who hath embrued his hands so much in protestant blood. 'Tis, therefore, earnestly recommended to you, to further so good and necessary a work, as you cannot but be convinced the above mentioned association must be at this time. Court the present opportunity, get all the honest hands to it you can, and then appoint your place of rendezvous, that you may be in a readiness to come together when you hear of a landing. And let us have the satisfaction to know what happy progress you make from time to time in this affair, addressing your letter to the secretary of our society, who, by our orders, subscribes this to you. In the meantime, let us all be much cmployed in fervent prayer to God, that the great Jehovah, Lord of heaven and earth, may prosper and succeed all our endeavours for the preservation of our peace, and the security of our holy religion and civil rights, and that this God may bless and preserve his most sacred majesty king George in his royal person and government, and

toleration, the patronage, and the schism bills, with the yearly pensions bestowed upon the Jacobite clans, had entered into a correspondence with the well-affected in all parts of the kingdom, in concert with whom, about the end of queen Anne's reign, they had made a liberal provision of ammunition and arms, in view of the dismal catastrophe which the gloomy aspect of affairs then threatened. The inhabitants, seconding the views of the magistracy, were also brought to such perfection in the use of arms, that they were little, if at all inferior to the regular troops, and thus were in perfect readiness for any emergency. This city was among the first in Scotland to proclaim the elector of Brunswick Lunenburg king of these realms, and, of course, the citizens were obnoxious to the partisans of James, to many of whom their growing wealth was likely also to be a considerable temptation. They, therefore, prudently resolved, on hearing of the pretender's motions, to put themselves in arms, that they might be in a condition both to defend themselves from the cupidity of the clans, and to assist the government.

This conduct on the part of Glasgow gave the alarm to the whole west of Scotland, which instantly began to copy after her example. In the strife of loyalty and patriotic feeling, which the whole of the west country exhibited, it would be unjust not to mention, that Kilmarnock was remarkably distinguished. Its inhabitants, like the citizens of Glasgow, had early taken the alarm, and, upon the death of the queen, immediately began to exercise themselves to the use of arms. This zeal was greatly excited and advanced by the direction and example of their superior, lord Kilmarnock, who was a firm promoter of the Union, and a zealous supporter of the protestant succession. So actively, indeed, did that whole district exert themselves, that, upon a very short warning, on the twentysecond of August, the bailiary of Cuninghame alone, mustered on Irvine Moor, a force amounting to six thousand men, at the head of five hundred of the best appointed and best trained of

his protestant issue to latest posterity. And to conclude, let us be of good courage and play the men for our people, and the cities of our God, and the Lord do that which seemeth him good.” Rae's History of the Rebellion, pp. 177–179.

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