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Nārāyan. Probably “The abode of mortals, or else
‘He who dwelt on the waters (before creation)”; now
applied to the sun.
Wāman. The dwarf, one of Vishnu's incarnations.
Janārdan. Said to mean protector of the people.
Narsingh. The man-lion, one of Vishnu's incarnations.
Hari. Yellow or gold-colour or green. Perhaps applied
to the sun.
Parashrām. From Parasurāma or Rāma with the axe,
one of the incarnations of Vishnu.
Gadadhar. Wielder of the club or gada.
Jagannāth. Lord of the world.
Dinkar. The sun, or he who makes the days (din karna).
Bhagwān. The fortunate or illustrious.
Anant. The infinite or eternal.
Madhosudan. Destroyer of the demon Madho (Madho
means honey or wine).
Pändurang. Yellow-coloured.

Mames of Rāma, or Vishnu's Great Incarnation as King Rāma of Ayodhia.

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Krishna and its diminutive Kishen are very common 112.1 neS.

Kanhaiya. A synonym for Krishna.

Dāmodar. Because his mother tied him with a rope to a large tree to keep him quiet and he pulled up the tree, roots and all.

Bālkishen. The boy Krishna.

Ghansiām. The dark-coloured or black one (like dark

clouds) ; probably referring to the belief that Krishna

belonged to the non-Aryan races.
Madan Mohan. The enchanter of love.
Manohar. The heart-stealer.
Yeshwant. The glorious.
Kesho.

Having long, fine hair. A name of Krishna. Also the destroyer of the demon Keshi, who was covered with hair. It would appear that the epithet was first applied to Krishna himself and afterwards to

a demon whom he was supposed to have destroyed. Balwant. Strong. An epithet of Krishna, used in

conjunction with other names. Madhava. Honey-sweet or belonging to the spring,

vernal. Girdhāri. He who held up the mountain. Krishna

held up the mountain Govardhan, balancing the peak on his finger to protect the people from the destruc

tive rains sent by Indra. Shiāmsundar. The dark and beautiful one. Nandkishore, Nandkumār. Child of Nand the cowherd,

Krishna's foster-father.

Names of Siva.

Sadāsheo. Siva the everlasting.
Mahādeo. The great god.
Trimbak. The three-eyed one (?).
Gangādhar. The holder of the Ganges, because it flows

from Siva's hair. Kāshināth. The lord of Benāres. Kedārnāth. The lord of cedars (referring to the pine

forests of the Himalayas). Nilkanth. The blue-jay sacred to Siva. Name of Siva

because his throat is bluish-black either from swallowing poison at the time of the churning of the ocean or

from drinking large quantities of bhāng.
Shankar. He who gives happiness.
Vishwanāth. Lord of the universe.
Sheo Prasad. Gift of Siva.

II

TERMINATIONS OF NAMES

277

Names of Ganpati or Ganesh.
Ganpati is itself a very common name.
Vidhyādhar. The lord of learning.
Vināyak. The remover of difficulties.
Ganesh Prasād. Gift of Ganesh. A child born on the

fourth day of any month will often be given this
name, as Ganesh was born on the 4th Bhādon (August).

Names of Hanumān.

Hanumān itself is a very common name.
Māroti, son of Mārut the god of the wind.
Mahāvīra or Mahābīr. The strong one.

Other common sacred names are: Amrit, the divine nectar, and Moreshwar, lord of the peacock, perhaps an epithet of the god Kartikeya. Men are also often named after jewels, as : Hīra Lāl, diamond ; Panna Lāl, emerald ; Ratan Lāl, a jewel ; Kundan Lāl, fine gold. A child born on the day of full moon may be called Pūran Chand, which means full moon. There are of course many other male names, but those here given are the commonest. Children are also frequently named after the day or month in which they were born.

Common terminations of male names are : Charan, foot- 19. Terprint; Dās, slave; Prasād, food offered to a god; Lāl, of names. dear; Datta, gift, commonly used by Maithil Brāhmans; Dīn or Baksh, which also means gift ; Nāth, lord of; and Dulāre, dear to. These are combined with the names of gods, as: Ķālicharan, footprint of Kāli; Rām Prasād or Kishen Prasād, an offering to Rāma or Krishna; Bishen Lāl, dear to Vishnu ; Ganesh Datta, a gift from Ganesh; Ganga Din, a gift from the Ganges; Sheo Dulāre, dear to Siva; Vishwanāth, lord of the universe. Boys are sometimes given the names of goddesses with such terminations, as Lachmi or Jānki Prasād, an offering to these goddesses. A child born on the 8th of light Chait (April) will be called Durga Prasād, as this day is sacred to the goddess Durga or Devi.

Women are also frequently named after goddesses, as :

2O. Women's nanneS.

21. Special names and bad names.

Pârvati, the consort of Siva ; Sita, the wife of Râma; Jänki, apparently another name for Sita ; Lakshmi, the consort of Vishnu, and the goddess of wealth; Sāraswati, the goddess of wisdom; Rådha, the beloved of Krishna; Dasoda, the foster - mother of Krishna; Dewäki, who is supposed to have been the real mother of Krishna; Durga, another name for Siva's consort; Devi, the same as Durga and the earth-goddess; Rukhmini, the bright or shining one, a consort of Vishnu; and Tulsi, the basil-plant, sacred to Vishnu. Women are also named after the sacred rivers, as : Ganga, Jamni or Yamuni (Jumna); Gomti, the river on which Lucknow stands; Godha or Gautam, after the Godāvari river; and Bhāgirathi, another name for the Ganges. The river Nerbudda is commonly found as a man's name, especially in places situated on its banks. Other names of women are: Sona, gold; Puna, born at the full moon; Manohra, enchanting; Kamala, the lotus; Indumati, a moonlight night; Sumati, well - minded; Sushila, wellintentioned; Srimati, wealthy; Amrita, nectar; Phulwa, a flower; Imlia, the tamarind; Malta, jasmine; and so on. If a girl is born after four sons she will be called Pancho or fifth, and one born in the unlucky Mul Nakshatra is called Mulia. When a girl is married and goes to her husband's house her name is always changed there. If two girls have been married into the household, they may be called Bari Bohu and Choti Bohu, or the elder and younger daughters-in-law ; or a girl may be called after the place from which she comes, as Jabalpurwāli, Raipurwāli, and so on. The higher castes have two names, one given by the Joshi, which is called rāshi-ka-nām or the ceremonial name, rāshi meaning the Nakshatra or moon's daily mansion under which the child was born. This is kept secret and only used in marriage and other ceremonies, though the practice is now tending to decay. The other is the chaltu or current name, and may either be a second ordinary name, such as those already given, or it may be taken from some peculiarity of the child. Names of the latter class are: Bhura, brown; Putro, a doll, given to a pretty child; Dukāli, born in II JULA HA 279

famine-time; Mahinga, dear or expensive; Chhota, little; Băbu, equivalent to little prince or noble; Pāpa, father; Kakku, born in the cucumber season; Lada, pet; Pattu, a somersault; Judāwan, cooling, and so on. Bad names are also given to avert ill-luck and remove the enmity of the spirits hostile to children, if the mother's previous babies have been lost. Instances of these are Raisa, short in stature; Lüla, having a maimed arm; Ghasita, dragged along on a board; Damru, bought for a farthing; Khairāti, alms; Dukhi, pain; Kubra, hunch-back; Gudri, rag; Kāma, one-eyed; Birla, thin or lean; Bisāhu, bought or purchased; and Bulāki and Chedi, having a pierced nostril; these names are given to a boy whose nostril has been pierced to make him resemble a girl and thus decrease his value." Further instances of such names have been given in other articles.

Julåha, Momin.—A low Muhammadan caste of weavers resident mainly in Saugor and Burhānpur. They numbered about 4ooo persons in 1911. In Nägpur District the Muhammadan weavers generally call themselves Momin, a word meaning “orthodox. In northern India and Bengal Julāhas are very numerous and the bulk of them are probably converted Hindus. Mr. (Sir Denzil) Ibbetson remarks: “We find Koli-Julāhas, Chamār-Julāhas, MorhiJulāhas, Ramdāsi-Julāhas, and so forth; and it is probable that after a few generations these men will drop the prefix which denotes their low origin and become Julāhas pure and simple.”* The Julāhas claim Adam as the founder of their craft, inasmuch as when Satan made him realise his nakedness he taught the art of weaving to his sons. And they say that their ancestors came from Arabia. In Nimär the Julāhas or Momins assert that they do not permit outsiders to be admitted as members of the caste, but the accuracy of this is doubtful, while in Saugor any Muhammadan who wishes to do so may become a Julāha. They follow the Muhammadan laws of marriage and inheritance. Unions between relatives are favoured, but a man may not marry

1 Some of these names and also Names of the Punjabis. some of the women’s names have been taken from Colonel Temple's Proper * Punjab Ethnography, para. 612.

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