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and proclaimed him that was good, and him that was not." And a little after " Thou knówest, says he, from the end ; but he knows clearly before the end.” And upon those words, The people, whom he foreknew, he thus paraphrases, “781651 Ov ήδι σαφως επιτηδειον ονία και την αισιν δεξαμενον, that is, whom he clearly knew would be fit, and receive the faith.All which may be very well understood in consistence with the doctrine of absolute decrees ; for, as Vofius himself observes, « The fathers who lived before Austin, held, indeed, a decree according to foreknowledge ; but then the foreknowledge is of acts performed by the strength of grace;” that is to say, That God knew that Jacob, and others, would be good, and do that which is good, through the grace he determined to give them, and so appointed them to everlasting happiness ; and he also knew, that Esau, and others, would be evil, and do that which is evil, being left, as he determined to leave them, to their own wickedness, and so for it appointed them to everlasting punishment.

I lb. p. 141.

r Ib. Serm. 18. p. 157. * Hift. Pelag. 1. 6. Thef. 8. p. 546.




A. D. 390.

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Heronymus or Jerome, of Stridon in Dal

matia, was a presbyter of the church, he was born, according to Monsieur Daille , A. D. 340. and died, A. D. 420. He lived much of his time in Palestine, ac Yerusalem, and especially at Bethlebem : He was a man of great learning, and wrote much, though there are many things ascribed to him which are none of his; and in his Commentaries it is sometimes difficult to know when he speaks his own or the sense of others. He's allowed, on all hands, to be an eager opposer of the Pelagian principles. And with respect to the doctrines of election and predestination he held,

1. That election was not of whole nations but of particular persons ; “ for, says he ", the vessels of mercy are not only the people of the Gentiles, but likewise those among the Jews who would believe, and are made one people of believers ; hence it appears, that non gentes eligi fed hominum voluntates, not nations are chosen but the wills of

a Apolog. par. 4. p. 821.
Hieron. Ep. ad Hedib. Qu. 10. Tom. 3. p. 49. B.


men.” And in another place he observes, “ That for this cause all nations are moved, that from their motion might come electa gentium multitudo, the elect multitude of the nations, which are every where famous; for instance, electa de Corintho, the eleet out of Corinth, because there was much people of God there. Electa de Macedonia, The ele&t out of Macedonia, because there was a large church of God in Thessalonica, who had no need to be taught concerning love. Electa de Epheso, The ele&t out of Ephesus, that they might know the secrets of God, and those mysteries which were before revealed to none ; what shall I say more? All nations are moved to whom the Saviour fent the Apostles, saying, Go, teach all nations; and of the many called few being chosen, they built the church of the primitive saints; hence says the Apostle Peter, the church that is at Babylon, elected, and Marcus my son, falute you. And says John, The eider to the ele&t lady; and who also makes mention of the children of the elect lady."

2. He asserted, that those who are chosen of God in Christ were chosen before the world began; or that election is from ecera nity; for in one place he says “, “ It must

« Comment. in Hagg. ii. 6. Tom. 6. p. 123. B.

In Eccl. Tom. 7. p. 38. I.


be affirmed, that according to the prescience and predestination of God those things are already done which are future. Qui enim electi sunt in Christo ante constitucionem mundi, for they that are chosen in Chrift before the foundation of the world, have been already in former ages.”_And interpreting those words in Ifa.xxv. 1. Thy counsels of old are faithfulness and truth, after he has mentioned the sense of the Jewish writers, observes, that “others better and more rightly understand them as spoken in the person of the prophet, giving thanks to the Father for the sufferings of the Lord the Saviour; because he had done wonderful things; & cogitationes antiquas veritate compleverit, and had faithfully fulfilled antient thoughts; when they that stand at his right hand shall hear these words, Come ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. Which also Paul understanding spoke of, saying, As he bath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame.Which last words of the Apostle being elsewhere mentioned by him, he says, “ This we so interpret, that we say, chac election is not, according to Origen, of them who had been before, but we refer

13 G

• In Ifa. XXV. I. Tom. 5. p. 48. F.

f Apolog. adv. Ruffin. 1. Tom. 2. p. 68. M. & Comment. in Eph. i. 4. Tom. 9. p. 9o. C.


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it to the prescience of God; moreover, we
fay, that we are chosen that we may be holy,
and without blame, before bim, that is, God;
ante fabricam mundi, before the world was
made; which testifies, that it belongs to the
prescience of God, to whom all things fu-
ture are already done, and all things are
known before they be; as Paul himself was
predestinated in his mother's womb, and
Jeremy in the belly, was sanctified, chosen,
and in the type of Christ fent a prophec to
the nations.

He also held that election was irrespeEtive of holiness, as a motive or cause of it, but that it arises from the love, grace, and mercy of God; for in one part of his works, he has these words s, “ The Apostle does not fay, he chose us before the foundation of the world, cum effemus fancti & immaculati, when we were holy and without blame; but he chose us, that we might be holy and without blame; that is, qui sancti & immaculati ante non fuimus, ut poftea effemus, that we who before were not boly and without blame might afterwards be fo." And a little after he adds, “ Paul, and they that are like him, are not chofen, quia erant fancti & immaculaci, because they were holy and without blame; but they are chosen and predestinated, that

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Apolog. ad Ruffin. l. 1. Tom. 2. p. 69. B. & Comment. in Ephes. i. 11. T. 9. p. 90. E.


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