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Jesus Christ, in himself; which predestination he hath proved, asserting, that which from the beginning is before declared, Therefore Mall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they both Mall be one flesh, to be the mystery of Christ and the church.”

There is a passage cited from this father, by Vofrus, and from him, by Dr. Whitby ?, as asserting predestination upon the prescience of mens merits; where, explaining the text in Matt. xx, 23. To fit on my right þand, and on my left, is not mine to give, he has this note 8 ; ' “ He does not say, it is not mine to give, but it is not mine to give to you ; not asserting that he wanted power, but the creature's merit. Take it otherwise. It is not mine to give you ; that is, it is not mine, who came to teach humility; it is not mine, who came not to be minister'd unto, but to minister ; it is not mine, who keeps righteousness, not grace. Moreover, referring to the facher, he adds, to whom it is prepared, that he might shew, that the father also does not use to pay regard to petitions, but to merits, for God is no accepter of persons; hence the Apostle said, whom be hath foreknown and predestinated ; for he did not predestinate before be fore.

· Hist. Pelag. 1. 6. Thef. 8. p. 543.
f Discourse, &c. p. 101. Ed. 2.
& Ambrof. de fide, 1.5.C. 2. p. 190.


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knew, sed quorum merita praescivit, eorum praemia praedeftinavit, but whole merits he bath foreknown, their rewards he hath predestinated.But nothing is more evident than that Ambrose is speaking of predestination to glory, which glory he calls by the name of rewards ; and we grant, that this follows upon prescience of merits, i. e. good works done from a principle of grace; but then the prescience of these arises from God's predestination to grace, to enable men to perform them, and not predeftination to grace, from a prescience of merits for then grace must be given according to merits ; a doctrine never known by the ancients before the times of Pelagius. In short, Ambrose's sense

is this, and to which we agree, That those whose merits or good works, God foreknew, because he bad preordained that they should walk in them, and as arising from that grace he determined to give them ; these he predestipated unto glory, or prepared rewards of grace for them, which he will certainly beftow on chem.


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A. D. 390.

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Obn of Antioch, usually called Chrysostom,

or Golden Mouth, from his uncommon eloquence, was bishop of Conftantinople : He died in exile at Comana, A. D. 407. " Several volumes of his writings still remain. That he held the doctrine of eternal predestination will appear from the sense he gives of several places of scripture relating to this point. That famous paffage in Axts xiii. 48. As many as were ordained unto eternal life believed ; which some, of late, would have understood of the disposition of mens minds unto eternal life, Chryfoftom i interprets of God's appointment, or determination of men unio it; “ As many as were ordained to eternal life, τελεσιν, αφωρισμενοι τω Θεω, that is, fays he, who were separated, or appointed by God," unto it. And where the Apostle Paul says, that he was separated unto the gospel of God, he has this note upon itk; To me here, he seems not only to intimate, th anoxampwoiv, a choice by lot (such,

5 Dallaei Apolog. p. 808. i Chryfoft. in A&t. Serm. 30. Tom. 4. p. 780. k Ib. in Rom. Serm. 1. Tom. 3. p 6.

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I suppose, he means, as was. Matthias's) αλλ' οι παλαι και ανωθεν προς ταο ην τεταγμέvG., but that he was of old, and from above, ordained to this; as Jeremy says, That God faid concerning him, before thou camest out of the womb, I sanctified thee, and ordained thee.a prophet unto the nations ;” and upon that well known text in Eph. i, 4. according as be bath chofen us in him, he has these words'; “What is the meaning of this, be hath chofen us in him? Through faith in him, Christ, he says, has rightly order'd this, πριν η γενεθαι ημας, μαλλον δε πριν η τον κοσμον καταβληθεναι, before we were born, or rather before the world was founded." And on these words ", Come ye blessed of my Father, &c. he makes this observacion ; “ What honour! what blessedness do these words contain ! for he does not say, receive, but inherit, as your property, as your Father's, as yours, as due to you from above, wenn γαρ υμας γενεθαι, ταυλα υμιν ηθοι μαςο και προ Eu?€2750, for before you were born, these things were prepared and made ready for you, says he; for I knew you would be such.” On the account of the last clause, this pasfage, with some others, is cited by Voffius", and, after him, by Dr. Whitby, co thew

Ib. in Eph. Serm. 1. Tom. 3. p. 766. m Ib. in Matt. Homil. 80. Tom. 2. p. 494. n Pelag. Hiit. l. 6. Thes. 8. p. 541, 542.

Discourse, & c. p. 99, 101. Ed. 2. 97, 100.


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that Chrysostom, with other Fathers, held predestination according to prescience ; which is not denied : the other passages are these ; “ This did not happen fimply, says he ", but that the prediction of God might be fulfilled by facts, which says, Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated for as God foreknew things future, aegevepon νησε και τοτε την αρετην, κακείν8 της γνώμης μοχ, Inelar, be also before declared the virtue of 1 the one, and the evil mind of the other.And in another place 9 he observes, That the Apostle “casts the whole matter upon the knowledge of God, which none dare militate against, was he never so mad; for, says he, the children not being yet born, &c. which Thews, that the nobility of the flesh profiteth nothing ; but enquiry must be made into the virtue of the foul, nu i aeg twe Eggbo Bea ad'e, which God knows even before any works are done : for, says he, the children not being yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God, according to election, might fland; it was said unto her, the elder Mall serve the younger. This is of foreknowledge to be chosen from the fame birth; that it might appear, says he, that the election of God is made according to purpose and foreknowledge ; for from the first day he knew

P Chryfoft. in Gen. Serm. 51. Tom. 1. p. 401, 9 Ib. in Rom. Serm. 16. Tom. 3. p. 140.


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