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Of the H E AT HE N S.

O the doctrine of the antients,
concerning the necessity of grace
to the performance of every good

work, che Pelagians objected the virtues and famous actions of the Heathens. These Vofhus, a favourice author of Doctor Whitby's, has largely proved a under various thefes or propofitions, to want all the conditions requisite in good works; such as doing them according to the law of God, in love to him, from faith in him, and with a view to his glory; and that cho' some few of the antients were of opinion, chat the more virtuous among the Heathens, such as Socrates, and others, were saved, yet this notion was condemned of old by the other Fathers, especially in the times of Austin. The collection which Dr.Wbitby b has made out of che Fathers is very little to the purpose, chiefly relating to the endowments of nature, the blessings of providence, and temporal favours bestowed on Heathens in common with others, denied by none. The principal, testimonies in favour of the good works and salvation of the

a Hift. Pelag. 1. 3. Par. 3. p. 358. ad 379.
• Discourse, &c. p. 550, &c. Ed. 2. 527, &c.


Heathens, are taken from Justin Martyr, Clement of Alexandria, Chrysostom, and Ferom; but chese, as Dr. Edwards observes , at least some of them, had been bred in a philofophic way themselves, and so had rem tained a charity for that sort of men, yea, thought better of them than they deserved. Besides, should these testimonies be examined, they'll not be found fo full and exprefs as they are thought to be; and other paffages of these writers may be produced contradicting of them. As to Justin Martyr, when he says, that such as Socrates and Heraclitus were Christians, he does not mean, as a learned man of our own nation has observed “, that they were perfectly, only in part so; that is, as they were partakers of, and lived according to the nozes, or reafon, which Christ, the Word and Son of God, imparts to every man. And as to Clement of Alexandria, Voffius has clearly shewno, that he could not say or think that any could be saved without faith, and without the knowledge of Christ; which he supposed the Heathens had through Christ's descent into hell, and preaching to them there. Nor that he could mean, that the philosophy of the Greeks was sufficient to salvation, only at most, that it was one degree towards,

c Veritas Redux, p. 439. d Bulli Judicium, Eccl. Cathol. de neceff. credendi quod Chrift. fit Deus, append. ad c. 7. p. 201, &c.

6 Hift. Pelag. 1. 3. Par. 3. p. 376, 377.

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or what had a tendency to lead to Chrift: And though Chryfoftom says, that before the coming of Christ they chac did not confess bim might be saved, yet he elsewhere affirms', chat the works of men ignorant of God, are like to the garments of the dead, who are insensible of them; his words are these, “They chat labour in good works, and know not the God of piety, are like, Relevois vexegov, to the remains of the dead, who are cloached with beautiful garments, but have no sense of them.” And though Jerom talks in one place 5, of the knowledge of God being by nature in all, and that no man is born without Christ, and hath not in himself the seeds of wisdom and justice, and other virtues; whence many wichout faith, and the Gospel of Christ, do some things either wisely or holily." Yet in another place he says", "Let us bring forth that sen. cence (the juft mall live by faitb) against those who not believing in Christ think themselves to be strong, wise, temperate, and just; that they may know that no man liveth without Cbrift, fine quo omnis virtus in vicio est, without whom all virtue is to be reckon'd for vice. To which I shall add two or three teftimonies more, shewing, that the virtues of the Heachens were not properly good works, but had only a few


Serm. de fid. et leg. nat. Tom. 6. p. 838. 8 Comment. in Gal.

Í Ib. p. 76. B.

p. 70. M.

of them, and were insufficient to salvation, and conclude: Says Origen., “If a conversation of good manners were sufficient to men for salvation, how is it that the philosophers among the Gentiles, or many among bereticks, concinenter viventes nequaquam salvantur, who live foberly, are not saved? but because the fallicy of their doctrine darkens and defiles their conversacion.” Again, he observes k from Peter in Clement, “ That good works which are done by unbelievers profit them in this world, non et in illo ad confequendam vitam aeternam, but not to obtain eternal life in the other." Cyprian has these words ', “ T'he philosophers also profess to follow this (patience ) but as their wisdom is false fo is their pacience ; for how can he be either wise or patient, qui nec sapientiam nec patientiam Dei novit, who neither knows the wisdom nor patience of God?Ambrose expresses himself in this manner,

« Virtues without faith are leaves, they seem to be green but cannot profit; they are moved with the wind, because they have no foundacion. How many Heathens have mercy, have fobriety? but they have no fruit, quia fidem non habent, because they bave no faith.".

i In Matt. Homil. 27. fol, 53.

k Ib. Homil. 35. fol. 74. vid. etiam Comment. in Rom. 1. 2. fol. 142. De bono patientiae, p. 313. Enarrat. in Pf. 1. p. 665.


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Antient Writers cited in this Treatise,

with the Editions of them made use of
in it.

AMBROSE, p. 82,181,283, CLEMENT of Alexandria;
354,429. Ed.Paris 1661.

p. 40, 415, 227, 316, 381.
ANTHONY, p. 145. in Bibl. Paris 1631.

patr. Ed.Tertia, Paris 1610. Clement of Rome, p. 16, ,
per Marg. de la Bigne.

101, 215, 307, 372, Oxon.
ARNOBIUS, p. 133. 244.

Hanov. 1603. cum notis CYPRIAN, p. 53, 127, 240;

328, 397. Paris 1643.
ATHANASIUS, p. 59, 149, CYRILL, P. .73, 167, 269.
259, 334, 408. Colon.

Oxon. 1703. a Milles.

DIDYMUS, p. 172, 348. in-
ATHENAGORAS, p. 221. ad ter opera Hieronymi.
calcem Juftini.

EPIPHANIUS, p. 1,87, 288.
BARNABAS, P. 22, 103, 217,

Colon. 1682.
308, 373. ad calcem Ignatii. EUSEBIUS, p. 140, 251,
BASIL, p. 70, 158, 270, 343,

332, 404. Hift. Eccl. Md.
417. Paris 1618.

gunt. 1672. Preparat. Evan-
CHROMATIUS, P. 406. in gel. et demonstr. Evang. Co-

Bibl. patr. Paris 1610. lon. 1688. juxta Ed. Paris
CHRYSOSTOM, P. 87, 193,

291, 361, 432. Eton. 1612. FAUSTINUS, p. 166. Oxon.
a Savilio.

CHURCH at Smyrna, p. 22, FIRMICUS, p. 146. Oxor
108. apud Euseb. Hift. Eccl. 1662.



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