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Kunkel, Ger. glass chemist, 359
LABARRE, Fr. golds. 268
L'Aigle, Nicolas de, Ven. glassm. 355
Laroche, ker. paint. at Sèvres, 327
Léonard Limousin, Jean, Fr. enam. paint.
Leonardo, son of Giovanni, Flo. golds. and
Martin, Isaac, Fr. enam. paint. 181
Mengs, Ismaïl, Ger. enam. paint. 187
Meytens, Swe. enam. paint. 187
Michelino, It. eng. of fine stones, 54
Mimbielle, Fr. enam. paint. 181
Miotto or Miotti Domenico, Ven. glassm. 340,
Mauer, Christoph, Ger. paint. on glass, 77
Misseroni, or Misuroni, family. Gasparo,
founder and dam. 423
Monte, Michele, It. golds. 248
Morlière of Orleans, Fr. enam. paint. 185
Mouret, Dominique, Fr. enam. paint. 181
Mutina, Thomas surnamed of, paint. 79 note
MABUINUS, golds. of Gaul, 203
Magdeburger, Hieronymus, Ger. eng. of Nero, Lorenzo del, Flo. golds. 241
Maiano. (See Benedetto, Giuliano.)
Martin, Fr. paint. and inventor of a lacquer,
NASSARO, Matteo dal, It. eng. of fine stones,
Negroli, Filippo, It. arm. and dam. 192, 366
Nicholas of Pisa, Nicolò Pisano, It. sculp.
Nicolò, son of Guglielmo, It. golds. 241
Noualher, Pierre, enam. paint. 183
OBSTAL, Van, Flem. iv. sculp. 34
Meckenem, Israel van, Flem. paint. and eng. PALISSY, Bernard, Fr. ker. mod. and paint. on
82, 100 note. Fig. 46, xxii
LIST OF ARTISTS MENTIONED IN THE WORK.
works, 305, 306, 329. Figs. 111, 112, 113,
Palissy, Nicolas and Mathurin, Fr. ker. 309
Parpette, ker. paint. at Sèvres, 327
Patanazzi, Alfonso, It. ker. paint. 295
Pénicaud, N. Fr. enam. paint. 177
Pénicault, Jean, Fr. enam. paint. 172
Pfeifhofen, Ger. iv. sculp. 34
Prieur, Fr. enam. paint. 186
QUERCIA. (See Jacopo.)
Pietro, son of Antonio of Pisa, It. golds. 241
Pollainolo, Pietro del, Flo. paint. and sculp.
Raffaelle dal Colle, It. ker. paint. 292, 294
Piccolpasso il cavaliere, It. ker. paint. 293
Pietro of Piacenza, founder in bronze, 40,
Pietro, golds. of Arezzo, 153, 165, 238
Pietro, son of Giovanni, golds. of Pistoia,
Reitz, Heinrich, Ger. golds. and eng. 43.
Retour, Robert, Fr. golds. 235
Robbia, Andrea, Giovanni, Luca, Girolamo,
Rosset, ker. paint. at Sèvres, 327
Rouquet, Fr. enam. paint. 187
Ruker, Thomas, Ger. chas. in iron, 45
SADELER, Egidius, Flem. paint and eng. 295
Sarrachi, the brothers, It. lap. 197
Polycletus, Gk. arch. 272
Poncet, H., Fr. enam. paint. 182
Schäuffin, Hans, Ger. paint. 26
Pozzo Giovanni, It. eng of med. and iv. Schlottheim, J., Ger. clockm. 377
Schongauer, or Schön, Martin, Ger. paint. | Trezzo, Jacopo da, It. lap. 197
Schogia, Arabian founder and dam. 422
Stoss Veit, Ger. sculp. 21, 24
Tribolo, Nicolò surnamed the, Flo. sculp. and
Troger, Simon, Ger. iv. sculp. 35
Turini, Giovanni, It. chas. enam. 154
UBERTO da Piacenza, Flo. paint. and founder
VALERIO, Belli, surnamed Valerio Vicentino,
Vianen, Paulus Van, Flem. eng. of med. 44
WALBAUM, Mathäus, Ger. golds. 267
Woeiriot, Pierre, golds. and eng. of Lorraine,
Wohlgemuth, Michel, Ger. paint and sculp.
XANTO, Francesco, It. ker. paint. 290, 296,
ZELLER, Jacob, Dutch iv. sculp. 33
Zing, Swe. enam. paint. 187
DESCRIPTION OF THE WOODCUTS.
Fig. 1. Ivory chair of St. Maximian. At Ravenna. VIth century.
This chair is now placed in a closet in the sacristy of the metropolitan church at Ravenna, of which it formerly decorated the presbytery. It is entirely overlaid with tablets of carved ivory. The monogram in front of the seat, refers this remarkable work to the time of the Archbishop Maximian, whose portrait is in the mosaic of the apsis of the basilica of St. Apollinaria-in-Classe, and in that of San Vitale (See fig. 39), both of which churches he consecrated; the first in 549, the second two years earlier. This same prelate also adorned the church of St. Stephen, now destroyed, with rich mosaics, and with curtains for the altar, upon which were represented the miracles of our Saviour.*
Fig. 2. Abbey of Lorsch, in the Bergstrasse.
The portico or gate-house here represented is in the late, debased Roman style, such as we find at that period when the traditions of Roman art were not entirely lost. Fig. 3. Marthe and Mary advancing to the Saviour. Sculpture of Xth or XIth century, from Selsey, now in Chichester Cathedral.
Fig. 4. The raising of Lazarus. Sculpture, IXth or Xth century. (Chichester Cathedral.)
Fig. 5. Oliphant. XIVth century. Coll. Soltykoff. (Described p. 10.) Du Sommerard. Album 4 serie, pl. 26. (No. 154 Debruge-Labarte Collection.)
Of Greek workmanship. VIth
Fig. 6. Ivory diptych of the Consul Clementinus.
century. (Coll. Fejérváry.)
He is represented seated on a curule chair between the figures of Rome and Constantinople, holding the map of the Circus, and giving with it the sign for the beginning of the games. Above him, are his signet, his name and title, surmounted by a cross and portraits of the emperor Anastasius and the empress Ariadne. Under him, two boys emptying bags of presents, viz., coins, diptychs, and palm branches. At the time of the later emperors, the consuls had no other public duty than to give feasts to the people, and a name to the year. Clementinus was consul of the East, A.D. 513. The inside of this diptych contains the old Greek liturgy, engraved into the tables in the first year of Pope Adrian I., A.D. 778. This diptych, which has been published by Gori, D'Agincourt, and all the authors treating upon this class of monument, is known as the "Diptychon Nigelinum," it having remained for two centuries in the possession of the patrician family Nigelien in Nuremberg, whence it passed into the collection of Count Wiczay, and subsequently into that of the late M. Fejérváry.+
* Du Sommerard. Les Arts au Moyen Age. Album, ler sér, pl. ii. +Catalogue of the collection of Monuments of Art formed by the late Gabriel Fejérváry, of Hungary, described by Dr. E. Stenszlmann.
Fig. 7. Ivory Archangel. British Museum.
The leaf of a diptych of the IVth century.
Fig. 8. Statue-painter. From a miniature of the XVth century. (Imp. Lib., Paris.)
A female artist is represented in the act of painting a statue of the Virgin. The subject is interesting, as showing us the implements used at that period in painting. The artist holds a pencil or brush in her right hand, and a palette with a handle in her left, thus affording incontestable evidence that the palette was used in France in the XVth century, and this is perhaps the earliest notice of this implement known. On a bench by her side, are placed the colours, mixed in shells as described by Alcherius and other writers, and also her brushes in a tray, and a second palette with a handle.*
Fig. 9. Birth of St. John. Carving in speckstein, by Albert Dürer. XVIth century. British Museum. (Payne Knight's Collection.)
Ecce Homo. Ivory carving. XVIIth century.
Ivory tankard, after Rubens or Jordaens. XVIIth century. (Marlborough
Fig. 12. Ivory knife and sheath of Diane de Poitiers. XVIth century. In the Collection of Lord Cadogan. Described, p. 36. (No. 176 DebrugeLabarte Collection.)
Fig. 13. Shrine of St. Sebald, by Vischer. XVIth century. Nuremberg. Begun in 1506, and finished in 1519.
For this great work of art, Vischer was miserably paid, receiving only 770 florins for his thirteen years of labour. He has himself recorded in an inscription upon the monument that "he completed it for the praise of God Almighty alone, and the honour of St. Sebald, Prince of Heaven, by the aid of pious persons, paid by their voluntary contributions." There are seventy-two figures in this monument; Syrens hold candelabra at the angles, and it is supported at the base by huge snails. The centre has an air of singular lightness and grace.
Fig. 14. Copper crucifix. XIIth century. Coll. Soltykoff. (No. 332 Debruge
Copper enamelled and gilt.+ The Saviour is not clothed in the long Byzantine robe of the XIth century, but in a tunic descending to the knees, in which he is represented till the XIVth century. His feet are not crossed or nailed, but rest on a tablet (suppeditanum) which a third nail fixes to the cross. The cross is made of trunks of trees, with the branches lopped off, a form more favourable to sculpture than the squared timber of later times. § At the foot of the cross, are the three
* Merrifield's Ancient Practice of Painting, vol. i. p. cvii. Incorrectly stated p. 41, to be of bronze.
Before the XIIIth century Jesus was attached to the cross by four nails-one to each hand and foot. In consequence of some anterior discussions, the feet from this period were placed over each other and attached by a single nail, it having been settled that three nails only were used at the crucifixion. Cimabue is said to have been the first painter who adopted this arrangement. This crucifix (Fig 14) was made at the end of the XIIth century, when the four nails had been rejected, but the feet had not been superposed, so to get rid of the difficulty, the third nail is here attached to the tablet which supports the feet. § The cross of Calvary was a tree, and therefore was painted green. In the painted window in the apsis of St. Denis near Paris, in another in the Sainte Chapelle, in the cathedrals of Bourges, Chartres, Rheims, and in the miniatures of manuscripts, the cross is a tree with the branches lopped, and covered with a greenish bark, and the round tree covered with bark and stripped of its branches is also sculptured in the porch of Notre Dame at Rheims. The green colour was retained even after the cross had been