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IN

MES O P O T A MI A.

INCLUDING A

JOURNEY FROM ALEPPO, ACROSS THE EUPHRATES TO ORFAH,

(THE UR OF THE CHALDEES,)

THROUGH THE PLAINS OF THE TURCOMANS, TO DIARBEKR,

IN

ASIA MINOR;

FROM THENCE

TO MARDIN, ON THE BORDERS OF THE GREAT DESERT,

AND

BY THE TIGRIS TO MOUSUL AND BAGDAD:

WITH

RESEARCHES ON THE RUINS OF BABYLON,

NINEVEH, ARBELA, CTESIPHON, AND SELEUCIA.

BY J. S. BUCKINGHAM,

AUTHOR OF TRAVELS IN PALESTINE AND THE COUNTRIES EAST OF THE JORDAN;

TRAVELS AMONG THE ARAB TRIBES; MEMBER OF THE LITERARY SOCIETIES OF BOMBAY AND MADRAS,

AND OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL.

LONDON:

HENRY COLBURN, NEW BURLINGTON STREET.

1827.

LONDON: PRINTED BY D. S. MAURICE, FENCHURCH STREET.

20-61330

THE RIGHT HONOURABLE

LADY HESTER LUCY STANHOPE,

ONE OF THE BRIGHTEST ORNAMENTS OF HER SEX AND STATION,

THIS VOLUME OF TRAVELS IN MESOPOTAMIA,

PERFORMED SOON AFTER QUITTING HER HOSPITABLE RESIDENCE IN SYRIA,

IS GRATEFULLY DEDICATED, AS A MEMENTO OF THE HIGH RESPECT

AND UNAFFECTED ESTEEM

OF HER OBLIGED AND FAITHFUL FRIEND,

THE AUTHOR.

PREFACE.

In laying before the world the present account of a Journey through Mesopotamia, I feel a stronger assurance of its being acceptable to the generality of readers, than I could venture to indulge on either of the two former occasions on which I had to present to the public eye the result of my researches and observations in other countries of the East. The “ TRAVELS IN PALESTINE” appeared under the greatest disadvantages : notwithstanding which, their success, and the almost universal commendation they obtained, was as encouraging to future labours, as flattering in its approbation of the past. The same unfavourable circumstances continued, when the “ TRAVELS AMONG THE ARAB TRIBES” succeeded: but these also met with a reception so favourable, as to make me think more lightly of the obstacles which had hitherto impeded my progress than I had before felt justified in doing.

These disadvantages no longer exist. A severe and patient investigation, extended through nearly four years, into the accumulated and reiterated charges, by which the rivals as well as enemies of my reputation had endeavoured to impress the world

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