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no rest, and this emperor has added, that they shall have no money. In order to maintain authority in such governments, it is perhaps necessary to let them frequently feel the power that is over them; for they might forget it, and fancy themselves free, if they could sleep a few niglits in quiet. It requires the perpetual exertion of the master to keep the slave awake, and frequent acts of cruelty to maintain respect. What a loss and waste of powers on all sides! And, after all, the active principles of human nature can hardly be kept alive by such means. The greatest ambition and activity in the chief, the hopes of plunder, the regulations and employments he is obliged to contrive and superintend, so as to keep his subjects from the extremes of sleep or of mischief, may sometimes produce temporary exertions, but never a provident and habitual industry. Nothing can supply the place of natural liberty and security. Power may command labour but not genius or abilities. Muley Ishmael used to think it necessary to cut off innocent people's heads, as he rode along, on purpose to strike terror. .

Ib. Let, vi. This poor emperor, fearful and jealous even of his own creatures and sons, timidly cautious of de. · legating the smallest degree of power, has adopted the weak and impracticable system of doing every act of authority himself. As he cannot be every where, he is perpetually sending for his alcaides and other magistrates of towns and districts. Those he seems to wish to be considered only as a kind


of messenger, whom he sends to fleece the people, and bring all to him. • If any man, by chance or artifice, escape these

fleecers, and is suspected of having money, he is sent for by the emperor, and imprisoned and tor. tured till he discovers it,

Those who discover the largest treasures have the best chance of being employed in this honour able magistracy, to serve as his majesty's bloodsuckers, where they may most probably be again tortured and robbed, de part le roy.

His majesty's talents and information in this business of extortion and robbery are truly astonishing, especially in a monarch, and one of a character so indolent, capricious, and etourdi, as he appears to be. His undertaking the business that should be divided among hundreds, and yet to which he does not give one twentieth part of his time, is all according to the blind nature of despotism, which believes itself capable of every thing, and is in fact capable of nothing that is right or systematic,

Ib. Let. vii. To live by one man's will is the cause of all men's misery.

Old English Proverb.

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: THEN all the elders of Israel gathered them. selves together, and came to Sainuel unto Ramah, And said unto him, Behold thou art old, and



thy sons walk not in thy ways: now make unto us a king to judge us like all the nations.

But the thing displeased Samuel, when they said, Give us a king to judge us, and Samuel prayed unto the Lord,

And the Lord said unto Samuel, Hearken unto the voice of the people in all that they say unto thee; for they have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me that I should not reign over them.

Now therefore hearken to their voice : howbeit, yet solemnly protest unto them, and show them the manner of the king that shall reign over them.

And Samuel told all the words of the Lord un. to the people that asked of him a king.

And he said, this shall be the inanner of the king that shall reign over you: he will take your sons, and appoint them for bimself, for his chariots, and to be his horsemen, and some shall run before his chariot.

And he will take your daughters to be confectioners, and to be cooks and to be bakers.

And he will take your fields, and vour vineyards, and your olive yards, even the best of them, and give them to his servants.

And he will take the tenth of your seed, and of your vineyards, and give to his officers and to his servants.

And he will take your men servants and your maid servants, and your goodliest young men, and your asses, and put them to his work.

. He He will take the tenth of your sheep, and ye shall be his servants.

And ye shall cry out in that day, because of your king, and the Lord will not hear you in that day,


Samuel, b.i. chup. viii. .. And all the men of Shechem gathered together, and all the house of Millo, and went and made Abimelech king. *

And when they told it to Jotham he went and stood in the top of Mount Gerizim, and lifted up his voice, and cried, and said unto them, Hearken unto me ye men of Shechem, that God may hearken unto you.

The trees went forth on a time to anoint a king over them; and they said unto the olive-tree, Reign thou over us.

But the olive-tree said unto them, Should I leave my fatness, wherewith by me they honour God and man, and go to be promoted over the trees?

And the trees said unto the fig-tree, Come thou, and reign over us.

But the fig-tree said unto them, Should I forsake my sweetness, and my good fruit, and go to be promoted over the trees?

Then said the trees unto the vine, Come thou, and reign over us. And the vine said unto them, Should I leave my


* The word king here plainly means despot, and such are perpetual objects of invective in holy writ,

wine, which cheereth God and man, and go to be promoted over the trees?

Then said all the trees unto the bramble, Coine thou and reign over us.

And the bramble said unto the trees, If in truth ye anoint me king over you, then come and put your trust in my shadow; and if not, let fire come out of the bramble, and devour the cedars of Lebanon.

And Jotham ran away and fled for fear of Abiinelech his brother.

When Abimelech reigned three years over Israel; · Then God sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the men of Shechem, and the men of Shechem dealt treacherously with Abimelech.

1b. Judges, cb. it.


VILE weed, irascible! whene'er 1 view

Thy horrent leaves in circling points arise,

And know, that underneath each fibre lies
The keen receptacle of venom'd dew;
And when I know, that if, with cautious fear,

I touch thy power it punishes my dread:
But if, with dauntless hand approaching near

I grasp thee full and firm—that power is dead.
Thus as, with 'sdainful thought, I view thy stings

Terrific to the coward wretch alone,
Much do I meditate on grandeur's throne
The awe of subjects, and the might of kings,


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