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their Juftinian; and fo down to the Saxon and common laws of England, and the ftatutes. Sundays alfo and every evening may be now understandingly spent in the highest matters of theology, and church-history ancient and modern; and ere this time the Hebrew tongue at a fet hour might have been gained, that the fcriptures may be now read in their own original; whereto it would be no impoffibility to add the "Chaldee, and the Syrian dialect. When all these employments are well conquered, then will the choice hiftories, heroic poems, and attic tragedies of ftatelieft and most regal argument, with all the famous political orations, offer themselves; which if they were not only read, but fome of them got by memory, and folemnly pronounced with right accent and grace, as might be taught, would endue them even with the spirit and vigour of Demofthenes or Cicero, Euripides, or Sophocles. And now laftly will be the time, to read with them those organic arts, which enable men to difcourfe and write perfpicuously, elegantly, and according to the fitted ftyle of lofty, mean, or lowly. Logic, therefore, fo much as is ufeful, is to be referred to this due place with all her well couched heads and topics, until it be time to open her contracted palm into a graceful and ornate rhetoric taught out of the rule of Plato, Ariftotle, Phalereus, Cicero, Hermogenes, Longinus. To which poetry would be made subfequent, or indeed rather precedent, as being less fubtile and fine, but more fimple, fenfuous, and paffionate. I mean not here the profody of a verfe, which they could not but have hit on before among the rudiments of grammar; but that fublime art which in Ariftotle's poetics, in Horace, and the Italian commentaries of Caftlevetro, Taffo, Mazzoni, and others, teaches what the laws are of a true epic poem, what of a dramatic, what of a lyric, what decorum is, which is the grand masterpiece to obferve. This would make them foon perceive what despicable creatures our common rhimers and play writers be; and fhow them what religious, what glorious and magnificent ufe might be made of poetry, both in divine and human things. From hence, and not till now, will be the right feafon of forming them

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to be able writers and compofers in every excellent matter, when they fhall be thus fraught with an universal infight into things. Or whether they be to speak in parliament or council, honour and attention would be waiting on their lips. There would then alfo appear in pulpits other vifages, other geftures, and ftuff otherwise wrought than what we now fit under, ofttimes to as great a trial of our patience as any other that they preach to us. These are the ftudies wherein our noble and our gentle youth ought to beftow their time in a difciplinary way from twelve to one and twenty; unless they rely more upon their ancestors dead than upon themselves living. In which methodical courfe it is fo fupposed they muft proceed by the steady pace of learning onward as at convenient times for memory's fake to retire back into the middle ward, and fometimes into the rear of what they have been taught, until they have confirmed and folidly united the whole body of their perfected knowledge, like the laft embattelling of a Roman legion. Now will be worth the feeing, what exercifes and recreations may beft agree, and become thefe ftudies.

THEIR EXERCISE.

The course of study hitherto briefly defcribed is, what I can guess by reading, likeft to those ancient and famous schools of Pythagoras, Plato, Ifocrates, Ariftotle, and fuch others, out of which were bred fuch a number of renowned philofophers, orators, hiftorians, poets, and princes all over Greece, Italy, and Afia, befides the flourifhing ftudies of Cyrene and Alexandria. But herein it shall exceed them, and supply a defect as great as that which Plato noted in the commonwealth of Sparta; whereas that city trained up their youth moft for war, and these in their academies and Lycæum all for the gown, this inftitution of breeding which I here delineate Thall be equally good both for peace and war. Therefore about an hour and a half ere they eat at noon should be allowed them for exercise, and due reft afterwards; but the time for this may be enlarged at pleasure, according as their rifing in the morning fhall be early. The

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exercise which I commend firft, is the exact ufe of their weapon, to guard, and to ftrike fafely with edge or point; this will keep them healthy, nimble, ftrong and well in breath, is alfo the likelieft means to make them grow large and tall, and to inspire them with a gallant and fearless courage, which being tempered with feasonable lectures and precepts to them of true fortitude and patience, will turn into a native and heroic valour, and make them hate the cowardice of doing wrong. They must be also practised in all the locks and gripes of wrestling, wherein Englishmen were wont to excel, as need may often be in fight to tug, to grapple, and to close. And this perhaps will be enough, wherein to prove and heat their fingle ftrength. The interim of unfweating themfelves regularly, and convenient reft before meat, may both with profit and delight be taken up in recreating and compofing their travailed fpirits with the folemn and divine harmonies of mufic heard or learned; either whilft the skilful organift plies his grave and fancied defcant in lofty fugues, or the whole fymphony with artful and unimaginable touches adorn and grace the well ftudied chords of fome choice compofer; fometimes the lute or foft organ ftop waiting on elegant voices, either to religious, martial, or civil ditties; which, if wife men and prophets be not extremely out, have a great power over difpofitions and manners, to fmooth and make them gentle from ruftic harshness and diftempered paffions. The like alfo would not be unexpedient after meat, to affift and cherish nature in her first concoction, and fend their minds back to ftudy in good tune and fatisfaction. Where having followed it clofe under vigilant eyes, till about two hours before supper, they are by a fudden alarum or watchword, to be called out to their military motions, under sky or covert, according to the season, as was the Roman wont; firft on foot, then as their age permits, on horseback, to all the art of cavalry; that having in fport, but with much exactness and daily mufter, ferved out the rudiments of their foldierfhip, in all the fkill of embattling, marching, encamping, fortifying, befieging, and battering, with all the helps of ancient and modern ftratagems, tactics, and warlike

warlike maxims, they may as it were out of a long war come forth renowned and perfect commanders in the fervice of their country. They would not then, if they were trufted with fair and hopeful armies, fuffer them for want of juft and wife difcipline to fhed away from about them like fick feathers, though they be never fo oft fupplied; they would not fuffer their empty and unrecruitable colonels of twenty men in a company, to quaff out, or convey into fecret hoards, the wages of a delufive lift, and a miferable remnant; yet in the mean while to be overmastered with a fcore or two of drunkards, the. only foldiery left about them, or elfe to comply with all rapines and violences. No certainly, if they knew aught of that knowledge that belongs to good men or good governors, they would not fuffer thefe things. But to return to our own institute; befides these constant exercifes at home, there is another opportunity of gaining experience to be won from pleasure itself abroad; in thofe vernal seasons of the year when the air is calm and pleasant, it were an injury and fullenness against nature, not to go out and fee her riches, and partake in her rejoicing with Heaven and earth. I fhould not therefore be a perfuader to them of studying much then, after two or three years that they have well laid their grounds, but to ride out in companies with prudent and ftaid guides to all the quarters of the land; learning and obferving all places of ftrength, all commodities of building and of foil, for towns and tillage, harbours and ports for trade. Sometimes taking fea as far as to our navy, to learn there alfo what they can in the practical knowledge of failing and of fea-fight. Thefe ways would try all their peculiar gifts of nature, and if there were any fecret excellence among them would fetch it out, and give it fair opportunities to advance itself by, which could not but mightily redound to the good of this nation, and bring into fashion again thofe old admired virtues and excellencies with far more advantage now in this purity of chriftian knowledge. Nor fhall we then need the monfieurs of Paris to take our hopeful youth into their flight and prodigal cuftodies, and fend them over back again transformed into mimics, apes, and kickshows. But if they defire to see other coun

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tries at three or four and twenty years of age, not to learn principles, but to enlarge experience, and make wife obfervation, they will by that time be fuch as fhall deferve the regard and honour of all men where they pass, and the fociety and friendship of thofe in all places who are best and most eminent. And perhaps, then other nations will be glad to vifit us for their breeding, or else to imitate us in their own country.

Now laftly for their diet there cannot be much to say, save only that it would be beft in the fame house; for much time elfe would be loft abroad, and many ill habits got; and that it should be plain, healthful, and moderate, I fuppofe is out of controverfy. Thus Mr. Hartlib, you have a general view in writing, as your defire was, of that, which at feveral times I had difcourfed with you concerning the best and nobleft way of education; not beginning as fome have done from the cradle, which yet might be worth many confiderations, if brevity had not been my scope; many other circumftances alfo I could have mentioned, but this to fuch as have the worth in them to make trial, for light and direction may be enough. Only I believe that this is not a bow for every man to fhoot in, that counts himself a teacher; but will require finews almoft equal to thofe which Homer gave Ulyffes; yet I am withal perfuaded that it may prove much more eafy in the affay, than it now seems at diftance, and much more illuftrious; howbeit, not more difficult than I imagine, and that imagination presents me with nothing but very happy, and very poffible according to best wishes; if God have fo decreed, and this age have spirit and capacity enough to apprehend.

AREOPAGITICA:

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