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the pathetic, while altogether present a character, only serves to show strange climax of wretchedness. In the

the importance of possessing a morning, comes a Marchesa to your well-informed and right-minded lodgings, recounts the fortunes of her noble house, its rank, its loyalty, its companion when attempting to disasters, its fall; and then relieves explore it. Such a companion, 'your most illustrious excellency' from

we may venture to say, will be embarrassment, by begging one or two found in the author of the vopauls. An old Abate steals on your evening walk, and twitching you with lumes before us. Mr. Conder's affected secrecy, whispers that he is imaginary tour

commences with starving. On the dirty pavement, you the passes of the Alps, and termi. see Poveri Vergognosi kneeling silently nates with Naples. His object in masks. In the coffee-houses, stand a more unfortunate class, who watch the has been, as in his Modern I'rawaiter's motions to dart on your change. veller, to select and condense In the courts of palaces, you meet the information furnished by perwretches gnawing the raw roots gleaned from the dung-hill; and at night you

sons, who have visited the country will sometimes find at your gateway, a

which he proposes to describe. poor boy sleeping close to his dog for In doing this, however, he is far mutual warmth. Such is the metropolis from being satisfied with the work of Christ's church visible on earth !” *

of mere compilation. The mateAnother writer observes,

rials before him are made subject

to the rigid scrutiny of his own " The whole nation seems tired of acute and intelligent mind.

He its existence, and waiting for the sleep also writes with an evident corof death. Walking, seeing, hearing, every act, in short, seems to be a paintui sciousness of being upon enchanted exertion of exhausted mind and body. ground; where his informants have I never knew one of them smile. I am

nearly all been led into excess, now speaking of the native Romans of according to the peculiar colourinhabitants of Rome -- the trades people ing which their are, in general, honest and civil, far passions may have thrown over from cheerful, but yet, not sullen. The the scenes before them. It would, higher ranks are, in all countries, so very perhaps, have been well, if this caunearly alike, that pectation of finding them marked with tion had not been quite so strictly any distinguishing features in Rome. observed. The work would proBut I was mistaken. They are re- bably have received a stronger markable for the same dull and dissatis- impression from the imagination fied appearance as the lowest; are des. titute of all spirit and of all energy ;

and feeling of the writer, and have are incapable of pleasurable as well as become still more pleasing to that painful exertions, and are more like ghosts than beings of this world. There read for little else than to be

numerous class of readers, who are some few exceptions, but those few are almost exclusively among the de. pleased. At the same time, those scendants of mother, who were not indications of careful accuracy, natives of Rome.” +

which now form a leading feature But revolting as features of this of these volumes, would not perdescription may be, we should pity haps have arrested attention, in the man who could speak lightly the same degree, had they been of the pleasure, or of the improve frequently disturbed by an interment, to be derived from a tour of ference of impassioned composimodern Italy. And the strangely

tion. And the intelligent reader complex nature of its history and will not fail to appreciate the

good taste, which distinguishes Forsyth, vol. ii. p. 194 – 200.

thus between description drawn + Galiffe, vol. ii. p. 2–6.

from books, and those supplied

other, are,

from actual observation. We have racter, was originally occupied by races many works on Italy, written by distinguished less by their physical lineain almost every gradation degree of civilization to which, as the re

ments than by their modes of life, and the persons of culture and judgment; and very sult, they had severally attained. In all widely distinguished from each countries which admit of the breeding of other in their political creed, and domestic animals, the pastoral is the first in their notions of morality and stage of social life ; and by the wants and

circumstances attendant upon that mode religion. The man about to visit of life, the rude institutions of the intancy Italy, or wishing to possess a of nations are created and moulded. The knowledge of its present state mountains, and bigh table lands, in temthrough the medium of books, perate or warmer regions, are the chosen

territory of those tribes whose property must be gratified in seeing what- consists chiefly in their flocks; while the ever is most valuable in such owners of herds must descend with the works, placed within a brief space; rivers to the plains. The shepherd is of and especially when done, as in necessity a wanderer; and the first mi

grations, probably, were tho e of pastoral the present instance, by a writer tribes, who sought room for their multiof superior discernment, correct plied focks Wherever the wild animals taste, and the best moral and relin abound he is also of vecessity a hunter; gious feeling. To such readers and the transition is easy from the habits

and character thus induced, to those of as are anxious to possess the best the bandit and the warrior. Thus the summary of our present knowledge pastoral and the military character, which with regard to Italy, we conti seem at first view so opposite to each dently recommend the

present

in reality, nearly allied; and work.

the metamorphosis is explained by which

the shepherd becomes a king. The herdsThe following passage is selected man of the plain is naturally, perhaps, from the remarks with which the less roving in his habits, and more pacific. reader is introduced to the Eternal

He is soon compelled to add to his other

cares the labour of tillage. With agriculCity, and may be taken as

ture originates fixed property, and towns specimen of the ability distin are formed for mutual defence. This is guishing the original portions of the second stage of civilization. Mr. Conder's volumes,

“ The physical features and climates of ference is made to the theories contribute to determine the shape which

the country must, of course, powerfully of antiquaries and historians, as society shall, in their rude stages, assume. to the races which contributed to In a region where the maritime plains people ancient Italy, and at length

are liable, in summer, to intolerable heat, to consolidate its power; and it undrained levels, the first permanent set

or to pestilential exhalations from the is inquired—who were these na tlements will be in the mountains; and on tions, described as Pelasgians, shores subject to the predatory visits of Sicilians, Tyrrhenians, Etrurians, corsairs we shall find the towns placed, by Sabines, and Latins?

way of precaution, at some distance from

the coast. The climate and the soil will “ The vague and conflicting authorities also regulate the nature of the habitations, of ancient writers, the philosophical re- in the construction of which the arts will searches and learned hypotheses of mo- first be developed ; according as a defence dern antiquaries, serve but to show how is required, chiefly against the violence of arbitrary is the meaning attached to such summer rains or winter cold, and as the designations. If, however, turning from forest, the rock, or the skin and hair of the bewildering discussions respecting the the herds, affords the readiest and most nomenclatu filiation, and distribution effectual protection. The dwellings of of these various tribes, we confine our. Nomade hordes will be either the cavern selves to a general view of the state of or the portable but or tent. The hunter society at this early period, we shall find slings his hammock in his pine cabin, or sufficient evidence that Italy, like other piles up a hearth of stones with the wreck countries of a similar geographical cha- of the mountain. The inhabitant of the

a

A re

bare clayey plains becomes a potter and a to us another stage of society, and one builder.

which has always been the most closely “ In the mean time the seas will have connected with the advancement of knowbred up a race of bold adventurers, traders, ledge and the development of useful or pirates; and maritime settlers of a fo- invention.* reign nation are led, by chance, necessity, or a spirit of adventure, to take possession show that " such has been the his

Mr. Conder then proceeds to of the harbours, snd to spread themselves up the line of the rivers. Accustomed, per- tory of Italy:" but our limits will haps, to the suns of more southerly climes, not admit of following him further. they are better able to sustain the summer heat of the low plains; and by means of traffic they contrive to provide themselves

* Vol. III. 148–150. with the necessaries of life. This presents

LITERARY INTELLIGENCE.

JUST PUBLISHED. Three Discourses,' on Practical Subjects, by the late Rev. Richard Cecil, A.M. formerly Minister of St. John's Bedford Row, (never before pub. lished.)

IN THE PRESS. Will be published, early in this month, a small 12mo. on American Revivals of Religion, by the Rev. Calviu Cotton, of America, the substance of which is indicated by the following topics :I. Definition of American Revivals. II. Peculiar state of Society in the United States fa. vourable to Revivals ; insulated Conversions, as distinguished from Conversions in Revivals. III. The sympathetic Economy of Revivals, consistent with the Operations of the Spirit, and greatly euhancing the Power of the Spirit relatively. IV. Connexion of American Revivals with the Spirit of the Pilgrims, Fathers of New England. V. Historical Progress of American Revivals ; their First Appearance, Decline, long protracted Check, Re-appearance, present State and Prospects. VI. Consideration of the alleged Evils of Revivals, and of scandalous Reports. VII. Means of originating and promoting Re. vivals and Hindrances. VIII. Are American Revivals peculiar to America ? and can they be expected in England and other parts of the

World ? IX. Is Religion in America in advance of Religion in other parts of the World ? X. The Philosophy of Religion, especially in application to Revivals. XI. Prospect of American Re. vivals for the World. XII. Concluding and Practical Remarks, with an Appeal to British Christians on the General Subject.

The Laws of Christ; being a complete Digest of all the Precepts contained in the New Testament, in the very words of Scripture, with Devout Meditations on each topic of Duty: arranged for the Daily Perusal of the Christian in bis Closet, throughout the Year. By Joseph Turnbull, A.B. Minister of the Gospel.

In a short time will be published vol. ii. (which completes the Work) of A Concise View of the Succession of Sacred Literature, in a Chrono. logical arrangement of Authors and their Works, from the Invention of Alphabetical Characters, to the Year of our Lord, 1300. By J. B. B. Clarke, M.A., of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Chaplain to H. R. H. the Duke of Sussex.

Shortly will be published, in one 'vol. 12mo. neatly bound in canvas, price 5s., Ecclesiastical Lectures, or a Series of Discourses, on subjects connected with Nonconformity. By John Sibree.

Messrs. Hamilton, Adams, and Co. are about to Publish, in one volume, 12mo., Sermons preached in Howard Street Chapel, Sheffield, by Thomas Rawson Taylor.

TRANSACTIONS OF THE CONGREGATIONAL DISSENTERS.

ANNUAL MEETING OF THE CONGRE and Scotland, the Committee have

GATIONAL UNION OF IRELAND, been enabled to direct their attention Held in Richhill, on Wednesday, Oc- to each of the important objects which

tober 5, 1831, James Reid, Esq. they were anxious to promote. They Treasurer, in the Chair.

have supplied some destitute districts Statement presented to the Committee. with the preaching of the Gospel.

They have been making arrangements, After mature deliberation, the Com- and have reason to hope they will mittee of the “ Congregational Union succeed in establishing occasional of Ireland,” have unanimously re- preaching in a large and populous solved to recommend to their succes town, where many of its population sors in office, the propriety of holding have long been sitting in the region the next Annual Meeting at an earlier and shadow of death. They have season of the year. As they confi- recently received a memorial, signed dently hope that the present Meet by the representatives of about twenty ing will sanction this change, so de- families, stating that they have been sirable for many reasons, and espe- living almost entirely destitute of the cially as tending to secure a more means of grace, and earnestly entreatregular and numerous attendance of ing the Committee to assist in erecting distant brethren ; and as they have a meeting-house and obtaining a mibeen recently engaged in projecting nister. The Secretary was requested some measures of usefulness, which it to visit this interesting colony; and will require time to mature, they baving met the proprietor of the estate have concluded, that instead of pre on whicb they reside, he received an senting an annual report, with an offer of ground for a meeting-house abstract of the Treasurer's account, and minister's dwelling, rent-free, for they would furnish to their constituents, ever, with a liberal contribution. The and the Christian churches who feel people have subscribed according to interested in their operations, a state- their ability: some promising money, ment of their proceedings and their and some engaging to give work. The prospects.

case appears to the Committee deAs they had reason to conclude that serving of immediate attention, and the circumstances of the churches in they have no doubt that, if it were this country were not aceurately known known, contributions would be given to British Christians, they were in- for the special purpose of enabling duced, during the past year, to publish their successors to accede to this pressan “ Address to the Co regational ing request. Churches of England and Scotland.” One church has received proof of the In this it was stated that they could Committee's regard and anxiety to not announce a bona fide addition to promote its welfare, by their engaging the number of the churches, of more to supply the field of labour of one than five or six during the long period of their number, during the period of of twenty years, and that even now, his ministry to that church, while desthere are about twenty counties in titute of a stated pastor. which there is no church of the Con: Aware of the importance of the grational order!

From the many Christian ministry, the attention of promises of support received from the Committee was directed to the several of the churches addressed, the necessity of encouraging young men Committee hope that their“ Address” of approved piety and talent as candihas tended to draw forth the sympa dates for the ministry. When they thies of their friends in Britain, toward entered into office, there was no acathe work in which they are engaged. demy in Ireland, and none for Ireland, Though disappointed in some cases in where young men could be educated which they had expected visits from for the ministry, in connexion with our some devoted ministers in England churches.

were

The Secretary applied personally to have at least one Minister, and prothe Tutors and Directors of Blackburn bably one Church in each county. Academy, and they rejoice to say, The Secretary suggested this plan that these esteemed Christian friends to several friends in Liverpool, and have consented to receive one or more from the manner in which the proposal students from the Congregational was received, we would cherish the Union of Ireland, and to allow them hope, that the sister Churches in that to return at the close of their academic town will lend their united aid, and career to the land of their fathers. that other Churches through England One young man from the Church in will “ go and do likewise.”. The Moy bas been received, and is now Minister would be the messenger of pursuing his studies in this valuable the Churches contributing to his sup: Institution. To the Tutors and Direc- port, and the Committee of the Union tors of the Academy, the Committee would lend their aid, by superintendwould, on behalf of the Congregational ing his missionary labours. Union, present their grateful acknow While they thus appeal to their ledgments.

sister churches, they would entreat They have also to express their gra- the sanction, and support, and prayers, titude to those Ministers and Churches of “ all who call on the name of Christ in England and Scotland, who have Jesus our Lord.” Their object is to either contributed to the funds of be instrumental in converting sinners, the Union, or promised their sanc and saving souls from death, and tion and support. To their friends most gladly will they co-operate with in Carlisle, Newcastle, Sunderland, all, who are anxious by scriptural Durham, Stockton, Northallerton, means to bring “ glory to God in the Knaresborough, Wakefield, Lancaster, highest, and on earth peace and good Dundee, Perth, &c., they feel espe

will towards men !” cially indebted. Nor can they omit The following Resolutions to mention the congregation of the unanimously passed :Rev. Dr. Raffles, at Liverpool, from I. That this meeting cordially apwhom, (including a donation of £5, prove the suggestion now made, that from A. Keightly Esq.,) they have the Annual Meeting be held at an received this year the sum of £32. earlier season of the yearthat the

Having received ample proof of the publication of the Report, and abstract willingness of British Christians to of the Treasurer's accounts be deferred lend their aid, they feel it necessary until next meeting; and that the statemerely to suggest the plan by which, ment now read be adopted, printed, as it appears to them, that aid may be and circulated, under the direction of rendered most efficient as a means of the Committee. benefitting Ireland.

II. That this meeting, convinced of There are several large Cities and the importance of the objects of the Towns in which there is no adequate CONGREGATIONAL UNION OF IREsupply of the means of grace. There LAND,” and aware of the necessity of are some in which the Gospel is preach- being aided in accomplishing these ed to a very limited extent. If the objects, by the sister churches in EugChurches of the Cities and Towns in land and Scotland, would desire tu England would unite their energies, a express their grateful acknowledgment single collection annually, from the to those Ministers and Churches who Chorches in any large town, would have either given already, or promised afford ample support for a Christian in future, their sanction and support. Missionary in Ireland.

There are

Ill. That this meeting desire anxiabout twenty counties in which we have ously, that the churches in this country no Congregational Church, and nearly should be more closely united to their an equal number in which we have sister churches in Great Britain, to no Congregutional Minister ; if the participate in their sympathies, and Churches united in county associu- occasionally, at least, to communicate tions, would give an annual collec reciprocally of each other's welfare. tion, each Association might send a IV. That feeling the value and imAlinister to one destitute county, and portance of a well educated ministry, thus before another year, we might we would present our grateful acknow

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