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of the seas, and of treasures hid in by Pliny, who states, that it was the sand.”

at the mouth of the river Belus, This passage has given rise to that the art of making glass was various conjectures, as to the pro- first discovered.* A party of ductions referred to, nurtured in the sailors, who had occasion to visit abysses of the ocean.”

the shore in that neighbourhood, “What hid'st thou in thy treasure-caves propped up the kettle in which and cells,

they were about to cook their proThou hollow sounding and mysterious visions with sand and pieces of main

nitre; when, to their surprise, they Pale glistening pearls, and rainbow• found produced, by the action of

coloured shells, Bright things which gleam unreck'd of the fire on these ingredients, a new and in vain ?

substance, which has added imKeep, keep thy riches, melancholy sea ! We ask not such from thee. mensely to the comforts of life, and

to the progress of science.t Tbe Yet more, the deeps have more! what “ treasures bid in the sand” may wealth untold,

then be interpreted as referring to Far down, and shining through their the materials for this beautiful pro

stillness lies! Thou hast the starry gems; the burning

duction; and Zebulun and Issachar, gold

in gathering and exporting it from Now from ten thousand royal argosies. their havens, might truly be said I weep not o'er thy spoils, thou wild and to " suck of the abundance of the wrathful main, Earth claims not these again.

seas." These coasts supplied the

manufactories of Sidon for ages Yet more, the depths have more! Thy with their precious sand; and so waves have roll'd

late as the middle of the sevenAbove the cities of a world gone by! Sand hath filled up the palaces of old,

teenth century, vessels from Italy Sea-weed o'ergrown the walls of revelry! were employed in removing it to Dash o’er them, ocean, in thy scornful the glass-houses of Venice and play;

Man yields them to decay."

There is, however, another exJonathan ben Uzziel remarks position, which refers the passages as follows: ". From the sand are produced looking-glasses, and glass

* There is another singular circumin general; the treasures, the

stance, connected with this river, which method of finding and working is equally celebrated in the mythological which, was revealed to these tribes," writings of antiquity. Lucian relates There is considerable probability

that the Belus, at certain seasons of the in this supposition, as several

year, especially about the feast of Adonis,

is of a bloody colour--a fact which the ancient writers inform us that there heathens looked upon as proceeding from were havens in the coasts of the a kind of sympathy for the death of this Zebulunites in which the sand, wild boar in the mountains, whence the

favourite of Venus, who was killed by a proper for the manufacture of glass, stream takes its rise. Something like was found.

Tacitus relates, “ Et this,” says Maundrell, we saw actually Belus amnis Judaico mari illabitur, come to pass ; for the water was stained circa ejus os lectæ arenæ admixto

to a surprising redness, and, as we had nitro in vitrum excoquuntur.”

observed in travelling, had discoloured “ The river Belus falls into the occasioned doubtless by a sort of minium,

the sea a great way into a reddish bue, Jewish sea, about whose mouth or red earth, washed into the river by those sands, mixed with nitre, are

the violence of the rain, and not by any

stain from Adonis' blood." -Journey from collected, out of which glass is

Aleppo to Jerusalem, p. 35. formed.” This fact is also recorded + Pliny, Hist. Nat, lib. 3. c. 25.

to those valuable murices and pur- and bright reddish purple colour. pure, from which the far-famed Each animal contains a considerdyes of antiquity were extracted, able quantity of it in a dorsal vessel ; so famous among the Romans by and, when mixed with alkalies, it the names of Sarranum ostrum, readily assumes a green tint, conTyrii colores. These shell-fishfirmative of what Pliny states.were found in great abundance, on Under the action of acids, the the sea-coast, near the country of colour of the Janthina passes to Zebulun and Issachar; and those red with the oxalate of ammonia tribes doubtless participated with it gives a precipitate of deep blue their heathen neighbours the Ty- and with nitrate of silver a bright rians, in the lucrative traffic of the gray is produced. purple they yielded. Pliny men The purple dye, called on actions two kinds of shells, as furnish- count of its origin,“ the purple of the ing this celebrated colour, with sea, was always in great request which the Roman nobles dyed their in the eastern markets; and its prerobes--the one Buccinam, the other paration by the Tyrians, in which Murex.* There has been much they excelled, was a principal source disagreement respecting the buccin of their ancient wealth and prosnum ; but on comparing Pliny's perity. Ezekiel mentions it as an description with the species of mol- article in the “ fairs” of Tyre,f and lusca which inhabit the Mediter- Zebulun and Issachar might“ suck ranean, M. Lesson identifies it of the abundance of the seas," in with the Janthina fragilis of mo- furnishing the dyers of the city with dern naturalists.t This shell is the murices with which their coasts pelagic, and floats on the sea in abounded. Lydia, who entertainprodigious quantities. It is sup- ed Paul in Philippi, was a “ seller ported on the surface by air vesicles, of purple” Topoupotwlis; and inwhich Pliny calls a glutinous wax; scriptions have been found among and the moment it retires under the the ruins of Thyatira, her native water, allows to escape a very pure city, which mention others engaged

in the same occupation. T, M, * Pliny, His. Nat. lib. 4.

† M. Lesson, Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal.

* 1 Macc. iv. 23. + Ezek. xxyii. 16.


CONGREGATIONAL BISHOPS. MANY are convinced that a scrip- Christianity in this respect ? We tural church is a “congregation have a sufficient reply, The Reof faithful men,” and that a bishop formers could not be expected to is the pastor of such a church, as become at once acquainted with we have proved. But such being the whole system of evangelical the office and station of the primi. truth, in every particular; as they tive bishops, it has been, as it may had all been educated in the superbe rationally inquired, How did it stitions and darkness of Popery: happen that the Reformers were but they were not ignorant of the ignorant of them ? or, Why did unscriptural character of the prethey not restore the purity of lacy; and in the reformed churches

generally, the Romish Episcopacy proved by both houses of Parliawas abolished, and it does not ment, and published with a preface pow exist. Many of those holy in the name of the king. It says, “St. men in England, laboured, but in Paul consecrated and ordered bivain, to restore the gospel ministry shops by imposition of hands; but to the simplicity of the apostolic there is no certain rule prescribed institutions. Those who perse- in Scripture for the nomination, veringly endeavoured to establish election, or presentation of them.” the primitive Episcopacy, were

Of Deacons it says,

“ Their office opposed by the majority, who in the primitive Church was partly were proud of their clerical digni to minister to meat and drink, and ties, and themselves were branded other necessaries, to the poor; with the title of Puritans. Hence and partly to minister to the the origin of Dissenters in Eng- bishops and priests. Of these two land. The various clerical orders only, that is to say, priests and and titles, previously existing as deacons, Scripture maketh express Roman Catholic, were adopted mention, and how they were confrom that antichristian system, and ferred of the Apostles by prayer established by law in the Church and imposition of hands; but the of England. Still they were not primitive Church afterward appretended to be scriptural, or pointed inferior degrees, as subnecessarily Christian, but only deacons, ecolytes, exorcists, &c. but favours granted by the king, as lest peradventure it might be head of the Church of England. thought by some that such auThis is affirmed in the Act of Par- thorities, powers, and jurisdictions, liament passed in 1545, when the as patriarchs, primates, archPope's supremacy, was abolished bishops, and metropolitans, now by Henry VIII: in that Act it is have, or heretofore at any time declared, that “ Archbishops, Bi. have had, justly and lawfully over shops, Archdeacons, and other Eccle- other bishops, were given them by siastical persons, have no manner of God in Holy Scripture, we think jurisdiction ecclesiastical, but by and it expedient and necessary, that under the King's Majesty, the only all men should be advertised and undoubted supreme head of the taught, that all such lawful power Church of England ! !"

and authority of any one bishop Here we are instructed in a

over another, were, and be given remarkable fact, which it must be thern by the consent, ordinances, of consequence for every Christian, and positive laws of men only, and and indeed for every Briton, to not by any ordinance of God in know and consider; that the lordly Holy Scripture; and all such dignities of the Church of England, power and authority which any with all their numerous satellites, bishop has used over another, have no other foundation on which which have not been given him by to rest their claims, than the cor such consent and ordinance of ruptions of Popery, or the Act of men, are in very deed no lawful an English Parliament !

power, but plain usurpation and The same sentiments are incul.

tyranny !"* cated in a remarkable treatise, In a work of Wyckliffe, that entitled, "A Necessary Erudition for a Christian Man.” It was drawn up by a committee of Bi

* Neal's Hist. of the Puritans, Vol. I. shops and Divines, read and ap- pp. 30, 31.


66 It

father of the Reformation, says, were then instituted." In ano. " The holy doctors

of ther work, the Doctor says, opinion, that 'tis superfluous in the is evident that by the immediate sacrament of orders, to allow more impulse of the Spirit of God, than two degrees, viz. Deacons or Bishops were constituted, Deacons Levites, and Presbyters or Bi- only joined with them, in every shops. In Paul's time, two orders church, and so at Corintb, and the of clergymen were thought enough rest of the cities of Achaia. And for the Church, viz. Priests and that by the command of the same Deacons : the other degrees are divine prophecy or revelation, the inventions of imperious successors were assigned to them pride.”

after their departure."7 Again, he That Bishops and Presbyters, says, “ Indeed mention is found as Christian ministers, are not dis- only of Bishops with Deacons continct orders in the Church; and, stituted in each city, sometimes that they have no superiority one under the title of Bishop, someover another by Apostolical in- times of Presbyters; there being stitution, but are pastors of single no token or footstep at all appearcongregations, we might produce ing of such as we now call Presa host even of episcopalian wri- byters."| Again, " That observters to confirm: a few only can ing the paucity of believers in be selected. Of all professing many cities in the first plantations, Christians, the highest prelatists which made it unnecessary that are the Papists; and of all the there should by the Apostles be Romish Church, the Jesuits have ordained any more than a Bishop been the most zealous in defence and a Deacon, one, or more, in of that principle; and of all the each city, and that this was done writers of that' sect, Petarius is by them at first, is approved by said to have entertained the loftiest the most undeniable ancient renotions : yet he, in a treatise con- cords."$ Again, cerning episcopal dignity, says, gations and parishes are synonyat the close of his chapter con mous in their style, so I yield that taiping quotations from the chief believers in great cities were not Fathers, “ Hitherto, it is proved at first divided into parishes, while by the authority of the ancients, the number of Christians in a city that in the first time, not only the was so small that they might well names but the orders of Presbyters assemble in the same place, and so and Bishops did concur into the needed no partitions or divisions. same persons, so that both were But what disadvantage is this to the same men.

us, who affirm that one Bishop, · Dr. Hammond says, “ Although not a college of Presbyters, prethis title IIceofurepoi, elders, have sided in that one congregation, and been also extended to a second that the believers in the regions order in the church, and now is and villages about did belong to only in use for them under the the care of that single Bishop or name of Presbyters, yet in Scrip- city church. A Bishop and his ture times it belonged principally, if not alone, to Bishops, there being no evidence that any of the second * Annotations, Acts xi. 3.

+ Hammond's Dissertations, Diss. V.

Chap. VII. sect. 9. * Baxter's Treatise of Episcopacy, # Ibid. Chap. VIIIsee. 9. Part II. p. 13.

§ Dissertations Vindicated, p. 5.

6. As congre:

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Deacon were sufficient at the first Bp. Burnet says " The names to sow these plantations. For of Bishop and Presbyter are used what is a diocese, but a church in for the same thing in Scripture : a city with the suburbs and ter- and are also used promiscuously ritories, or region belonging to by the writers of the two first it ?"*

centuries."* From a sentence in the writings Mr. Milner, in his truly valuable of Jerome, attempts have been Church History, though an intemade to support the claims of three rested advocate for the Episcopal orders of the clergy; that Father Prelacy, is constrained to make says, “that Aaron, and his sons the following, though apparently and the Levites, were in the tem- unwilling, acknowledgment, in reple; the same let Bishops and lation to the primitive Christians. Priests, and Deacons claim to “ At first,” he


or for some themselves in the church." Upon

Upon time, church governors were only this attempt at proof, Bp. Stilling- of two ranks, Presbyters and fleet remarks, * The plain mean

Deacons ; at least this appears ing then of Jerome is no more but to have been the case in particular this: that as Aaron and his sons instances : as at Philippit and at in the order of the priesthood, were Ephesus,f and the term Bishop above the Levites under the law; confounded with that of so the Bishops and Presbyters Presbyter. The church of Corinth in the order of the evangelical continued long in this state, so priesthood, are above the Deacons far as one may judge by Clement's under the gospel. For the com- epistle. parison runs not between Aaron Dr. Haweis, in his “ Impartial and his sons as one part of the History of the Church of Christ," comparison under the law, and reviewing the ecclesiastical gothe Levites under them, as the vernment of the primitive Chrisother. So under the gospel, Bi. tians, says, “ The Epistle to the shops and Presbyters make one Hebrews, though not bearing his part of the comparison answering (Paul's) express subscription, is to Aaron and his sons, in that generally adjudged to be his. A wherein they all agree, viz. the single sentence, (chap. xiii. 7.) order of the Priesthood; and the inculcating obedience and love other part, under the gospel, is towards those who have the rule that of Deacons, answering to the over them, and have spoken unto Levites under the law.”+ As to them the word of God, is all I can the matter itself, I believe, upon find relative to the church governthe strictest inquiry, Medina's ment, and at least affords a negajudgment will prove true, that tive proof of how little importance Jerome, Austin, Ambrose, Sedu- the outward forms and adminislius, Primasius, Chrysostom, tration in the Church are, comTheodoret, Theophylact were all pared with holding the head of Aerius's judgment, as to the Christ, and believing the glory of identity of both name and order his person and sacrifice. If the of Bishops and Presbyters in the primitive Church."

Vindications of the Church of Scot.

land, p. 311, * Dissertations Vindicated, pp.76—79. + Phil. i. 1. + Tranicum, p. 269.

† Acts xx. 17. # Ibid. p. 276.

S Hist. of the Church, Vol. I.

p. 161.

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