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which inflicted the most awful suf- were perfectly changed by a refering on man—which infringed ference to the languages in which on the divine glory, by leading to the Scriptures were written. Let idolatry, and which even set God it be remembered, that the Scripat defiance, by pretending to rescue lures were “ done into English” in departed souls from the grasp of the reign of James the First, when his

power and the riches of his (alas for many) witchcraft and grace? She must have shuddered demonology were popular. They at the thought of bringing Samuel had for advocates persons eminent again in mortal form; but she in power, learning, and religion. knew that was impossible. Samuel, Like winter snow, frequently seen or Joseph, or Abraham, all were beneath the hedges after the spring alike to her, and beyond the reach has arrived, those relics of the of her incantations. Had she


ages retained considerable sessed an influence over the un- power over the public mind long seen world, she would have de- after it had formally renounced clined the task of recalling Samuel their sway. To any one who con-she would not expose herself to siders the love of the marvellous, the rebukes of a sainted spirit, and which is natural to the human perhaps to the scathings of the race; the credulity of the age in curse of an incensed Deity. From which the Scriptures were transthe absence of a refusal to em- lated; the innate disposition we ploy her art on Samuel, we infer have to penetrate the secrets of fuher conviction of the inefficiency turity; the hope of protection of her arts.

from dangers and success in earthly Perhaps by this time our readers schemes, which cannot be obtainare wishing to know our opinion ed from ordinary skill; our anxiety concerning the arts which this to appease an enemy, especially woman practised. We say then when that enemy threatens us with at once, they were nothing beyond wrath in another world, together the reach of any one possessing a

with the amazing power which a common share of knowledge. It slight knowledge of drugs would is an unwelcome necessity which give in times of general ignorance; is sometimes laid upon us, when and the tenacity with which the

are compelled to reject and fears will hover around terrific condemn our translation of the scenes, when the judgment has Scriptures. Our memory does not long since repudiated them, cannot supply us with a single subject on wonder at the partial prevalence which such flagrant and dangerous of these errors in the sixteenth and errors have been propagated by seventeenth centuries. The purest our translators, as on the subject water will, in some measure, parof witchcrast. It is, perhaps, impos- take of the soil through which it sible to say what were the precise flows; so the Scriptures have come ideas they attached to the words to us, upon the whole, admirably familiar spirit; but there are no pure, yet, in some points, and words corresponding with them, especially that of witchcraft, either in the Hebrew Bible or in tinged with the views of the transthe Septuagint. We do not pro- lators. There are, we believe, fess proficiency in the original lan- about sixteen places where the exguages, but we are bold to assert, pression familiar spirit is used. ihat our views respecting sorcery, In all these places the Hebrew witchcraft, enchantments,

&c. word is the same as that employed


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in Job xxxii. 19, rendered by our persons we improperly term witches translators « bottles ;" and if in and wizards practised awful cruelthese sixteen places a similar ren- ties in their divinations. Their dering had been given, thousands foreknowledge was obtained, not of people would have been saved by a spirit Aitting about between from mystic perplexities. With the things which are seen and the out something like a paraphrase, it things which are not seen, and is impossible to give a correct idea who, at their bidding, could peneof the expression rendered - Wo- trate the future, but, among other man that hath a familiar spirit.” sources, from the entrails of murThe following is offered. À wo- dered children. Idolatry was also man having power over a thing a capital part of witchcraft. Who inflated with air, such as the an- then can wonder at the rigour of cient leathern bottle, or the blad. the Mosaic laws against such chader, or stomach.

Such women,

racters ? Had there been no cruwhen consulted, gave their answers elty about them, the very pretenlike modern ventriloquists, with sion to preternatural information distended or inflated stomachs. and capacities was a sin of the first The Septuagint expressly calls magnitude against the theocracy of this woman a ventriloquist, or a Judaism. It was a virtual admisspeaker from the stomach. In ad. sion of the existence of other gods dition to the power of ventrilo- which had power in both worlds. quism, we presume she pretended The cruelties requisite to keep up to that of necromancy, raising the system, though a baseless one, from the grave the ghost or shade and the encroachments it made of the dead, which was supposed on the divine prerogative, rendered to retain the shape and appearance the penalty necessarily severe. of the living person. We there- In the course of this essay we fore believe this woman to have have implied our doubtfulness been a professor of ventriloquism whether there were any superna. and necromancy, and nothing tural agency exerted on this occamore. The first, in all probability, sion; or in other words, whether she really could employ; the latter God presented Samuel to the afwas a mere juggle.

frighted woman; and from this Respecting the laws of Moses, doubt we cannot at present rewhich have been thought to im- lease ourselves. Had a saint been ply the reality of witchcraft, we commissioned by God to meet Sauł wish to make an observation, It' at Endor, surely there would have is, doubtless, true, that laws were been given some excitements to not made by Moses against a mere repentance. The absence of these non-entity, or an evil existing corresponds neither with the gemerely in the imagination. But neral conduct of God, nor with if this woman did, bona fide, the compassion for Saul which possess the powers which many Samuel had cherished. It has allow her, of what avail were the been alleged that it was a real laws of Moses? If a familiar resurrection, because Saul perspirit were always in attendance ceived that it was Samuel, or as it upon her, surely it would fore- is in the Hebrew, Samuel himself. warn her of approaching danger This however was a mental perfrom the civil authority, or extri- ception, arising from the statecate her from their hands. Such ments of the woman.

The stronglaws were enacted, because the est objection with many is, that none but a supernatural person cribe it, not to the supernatural could utter the prophecies which sagacity of the Witch, not to the Samuel is represented as declaring. divine intervention in making a But in our opinion the revelations gloritied saint obedient to her in. made are of so meagre a charac- cantations, but to the divine dister, as to render their celestial pleasure, causing the bolt of deorigin exceedingly doubtful. The struction to alight upon him at the knowledge of politics, which this time specified by the sorceress ; woman must be supposed to pos. thus rendering her prophecy the sess, could enable her to say nearly, rule by which he measured his in. if not entirely, every thing which dignation. Saul had asked the was said.

With the slight excep- Witch of Endor to reveal the map tion of the period of Saul's death, of his future doom; and God in. we can discover nothing stated ficts in measure and in time what more than was declared by Samuel had been thus foretold. He who in his last interview with Saul. often made the faith of his people Compare chapters 15 and 28 of the rule of his gracious conduct, the first Book of Samuel. The might on this occasion do to Saul phrase “ to-morrow," is in the precisely according to the oracle Scriptures very indefinite. Al

Al. he had guiltily consulted. He lowing, however, that his death had commissioned her to utter a was thus fixed for the following prophecy for him, and being one day, we are unable to agree with of doom, God fulfilled it; thus those who think, that this explicit making his impiety the rod which knowledge of bis fate would sa- scourged him, causing his criminal vingly impress his soul, and thus proceeding to re-act upon his own justify the mission of a sainted head. It has been further alleged, spirit. Would it not so harass his that an uninspired person would mind, as to disqualify him for the not dare foretel such appalling exercises of repentance and faith ? events; that if this woman were To that harassed state of mind may performing a juggle, she would we not ascribe his defeat in war. rather have prophesied smooth The very announcement of an oc- things, crying peace when there currence will often produce it; as was no peace.

We reply, to prowhen a run upon a bank is mali. phesy smooth things to Saul when ciously predicted, the report will his kingdom was in so critical a a cause a run; and if the prophecy posture, would have been ridicuwhich had been thus uttered on lous. David had been anointed, him, had reached the ears of the the rending mantle had typified Philistine army, it would inspire his rending kingdom; existing such confidence on their part and events were conspiring with prosuch agitation on his, as to render phecy; the storm was brooding, their conquest absolutely certain. she therefore merely renders vocal Had Saul, like Alexander before occurrences which were evidently the battle of Arbela, spent the at the door. By conforming her night in bed, the events of the fol- oracle to the aspect of impending lowing day might have been of a scenes, she gave a degree of truth very different character. If there to her prophecy, while she be any thing which bespeaks the deepened the distress of Saul's divine agency between the time mind, by adding her testimony to foretold for his death and the that of the divine denunciation, event of his death, we should as- a denunciation which was now all N. S. NO. 92.

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but realized. Her assuring Saul essay, by remarking that had there that on the morrow he should be really been the pretended power with the pseudo Samuel, was pos- in her magic, her crying was persibly intended to work like an fectly uncalled for. Why should opiate, soothing his agitated spirit she cry out on seeing only what with the false hope of enjoying she fully expected to see. Her internal rest after he had fallen in crying out therefore implies, either the approaching battle.

that beyond her anticipation Sa: There is but one more point muel had burst upon her astonished upon which we

are anxious to view, or that she craftily wished to make a remark; it respects the impress Saul's mind with a conloud voice with which the woman viction of her success. Whether cried. We are free to admit that it was the utterance of a real surthis is the most difficult part of prise, or a mere flourish of trumthe narrative. Upon whatever pets, we hesitate to say. In either principle we account for the cry. case her vileness is manifest. We ing, it proves that the woman was have been chiefly anxious to strip an impostor. Whether it also this woman of honours she has too prove that a preternatural figure long worn ; and were not our re. presented itself, is a question upon marks so lengthened, we had purwbich, inter alia, we should re- posed showing that the view this joice to see a paper by some other essay takes is quite as instructive correspondent. We shall keep to as its opponent theories. the more immediate design of this Ellesmere.

W. Ꭱ.


If the prophecy of Jacob, with There they shall offer sacrifices of righreference to his sons, when “ the

teousness, earthy and cold hand of death” They shall suck of the abundance of the

seas, was upon him, the portion of Ze. And treasures hid in the sand.* bulun and Issachar is thus de

1st. It is evident, from these scribed :

announcements, that Zebulun and 66 At the haven of the seas shall Zebulun

Issachar were to occupy maritime dwell,

situations; the former to be a And he shall be a haven for ships, And his border shall extend unto Sidon;

“ haven for ships, and both to Issachar is a strong ass

have at their command the “ treaCouching between two burthens.

sures of the deep." And he saw the resting place, that it was

The language of Jacob respect

ing Zebulun is thus paraphrased in And the land that it was pleasant; And he inclined his shoulders to the load, the Targum of Ben Uzziel: And became a servant unto tribute."'* " Zebulun shall be on the coasts

Moses also prophecied concern- of the sea, and he shall rule ing the inheritance of these two

over the havens; he shall subtribes :

due the provinces of the sea “Rejoice Zebulun in thy going out with his ships; and his border And Issachar in thy tents.

shall extend unto Sidon.". It is They shall call the people unto the

impossible for


statements to mountain,


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* Gen. xlix. 13, 14, 15,

* Dent. xxxiii. 18, 19.

bave been more literally accom- provinces of the people, and drive plished. The territory assigned by out their inhabitants, and those that lot to Zebulun, in the division of are left shall be his servants and the promised land, extended along his tributaries." With this expothe coast of the Mediterranean, sition, Grotius and several of the one end of it bordering on that sea, modern commentators agree; and and the other reaching eastward what is more to our purpose, the to the lake of Gennesareth.* Is. succeeding history of the tribe is sachar's inheritance was to the south strictly analogous to it. Deborah of that of Zebulun, and to the expressly mentions the “ princes" north of the half tribe of Manasseh; of Issacbar, as foremost in the the Mediterranean formed its wes- fight against Sisera, when Reuben, tern boundary, and the Jordan, Dan, and Asher, were cowardly with the southern extremity of the skulking in their sheep-folds.* sea of Tiberias, was at its eastern " All the families of Issachar” are limit.t They both possessed, aca specified as “ valiant men of might cording to their forefather's an- in their generations,” i e. at every nouncement, “ havens for ships," period of their history, patient in and by the facilities afforded them labour and invincible in war.t for commercial intercourse, and The territory allotted to Issachar their contiguity to the neighbouring was exactly as Jacob foretold, a adventurous Sidonians, became “ land that was pleasant," occu. familiar with the “ abundance of pying one of the most favoured sithe seas.'

To foretell the situa- tuations in a country that flowed tion of these tribes, which was de with “ milk and honey." It emtermined upwards of two hundred braced within its limits the whole years afterwards, in such an acci- plain of Esdraelon, spoken of by dental manner, as by the casting of all writers since the time of Joselots, is, indeed, an instance of the phus, as the most fertile part of " sure word of prophecy."

Palestine, and which is still, on 2. The tribe of Issachar was account of its luxuriant pasturage, further to be distinguished for har- a chosen place of Arab encampdihood and strength, and its in- ment. Here, guarded on the south heritance to be a “pleasant”- by the “ high places of Gilboa," “ land.”

so fatal to Saul and Jonathan The tribe of Issachar as beautified on the north with the strong ass," chamor geram, a strong “ excellency of Carmel," and the limbed ass—"couching between mountain-dews of Hermon-on two burdens," and becoming “a the banks of " that ancient river, servant unto tribute,” has, indeed, the river Kishon,” Issachar might been understood by many as indi. " rejoice in his tents," and long cating a weak and pusillanimous amid the distractions of war for character. The Chaldee para- “ rest," to enjoy the goodly“ lot of

“ phrast, bowever, gives to the pas. his inheritance.” sage its proper interpretation : 3. Zebulun and Issachar, on “ He saw his portion that it was account of their maritime situagood, and the laud that it was tion, were to become rich and prosfruitful; and he shall subdue the perous, to “ suck of the abundance


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* Josh. xix. 10, &c.
. Josh. xix. 17, &c.

* Judges v. 15.
+ 1 Chron. vii. 1-5.

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