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transaction may have become unpleasant ; numbers who voted on that occasion, the mention of it may now be “injurious furnished by an ex-member, * “ the preto the reputation of those to whom it re vious question” was lost by a majority fers ;' but neither privilege nor vote can of 41 to 28. The point, then, to be alter the fact or disprove the inference. proved is, how many Unitarians voted ? Nor can there be a doubt that orthodoxy We have not access to the journals of the did more, in proportion, for Catholic body, and therefore cannot assert the emancipation, in the general body of Dis number with entire confidence, but we senting Ministers, than anywhere else. very much question whether it can be So much the more honour is due to those shown that there were fourteen Unitarians who consistently advocated religious li present at the debate, and it will be still berty. They were placed in trying cir more difficult to prove that fourteen voted cumstances, and acquitted themselves against the previous question. like men and Christians. But so much When the whole strength of this chivalthe stronger, also, is the argument of our rous corps was mustered on the petition reviewer. We cannot allow their merit roll, invalids and all, there were but sixteen! to become a mantle to cover the deficien If we, however, for a moment concede cies of others. There is a limit beyond that all these gentlemen were present, and which we will not tolerate undue assump voted against the “ previous question,” tion, por submit to unjust reproach, even it will appear that the petition was though we should “impair the union and saved by the extraordinary majority of harmony of the three denominations.' three! for had not the Unitarians voted, We rejoice to find that union and har there would have been 28 against the mony so jealously guarded from even an previous question, and 25 for it; and the intentional invasion or damage. It is one friends of Catholic emancipation would of the last strongholds of charity in this have been left in the minority of three. sectarian country, and a fierce siege is But it is strange that it did not occur laid to it. Deeply should we regret hav to the sagacious editor that the orthodox ing caused the abstraction of one atom of members might make the same boast, its strength, or having, in the slightest for had sixteen of them failed to oppose degree, misrepresented any class or in the previous question, precisely the same dividual connected with it; but for the result would have followed. assertion, when the cause of truth seems What the unity of the Unitarians on this to us to require it, of facts which we question has to do with it, appears difficult know, and of opinions which we bold, we to comprehend. The chance of unity is alhave no apology to offer, whatever be ways increased in proportion to the smallthe consequences.”

ness of the party to unite. The Trinitarians On this article we have only a few ob. can better afford to be divided upon a parservations to offer.

ticular question, in that room, on account There is nothing mentioned about privi- of their great numerical strength ; but if lege in the resolution adopted by the division were to befall theUnitarian corps, meeting, though we conceive that there utter insignificancy must be the result. might have been, in perfect consistency They know this, and act accordingly. with the usages of that body-it being To indulge then in this petty boast, one of its standing regulations that no that the Unitarians saved the Catholic pemember is at liberty to publish any ac titions from being smothered,” was little count of its proceedings, and there have enough, if it could be proved, but in the aforetime been occasions when no reluc doubtful position of the case, is certainly tance was expressed to enforce that regu “calculated,” as the resolution expresses lation.

it,“ to produce an incorrect impression.” The discussion of its proceedings,“ in

For who that reads the Review various periodicals and pamphlets,” to question would imagine that there could which allusion is made, was occasioned be any doubt about the matter. Every by an irregular publication from the pen reader would understand that the mighty of a member of the body, the statements influence of the Unitarians, on the ocof which it was necessary to correct, and casion referred to, was so displayed, that which cannot, therefore, be fairly pleaded all were impressed with the conviction, as a precedent for those who may choose that their votes had saved the petitions, to begin such discussions.

But we have reason to know, that when Any one reading the offensive passage, the offensive passage was read to the especially in its connection, would be led body, many of the Presbyterian Board to think, that the Unitarians, on the oc had the candonr to acknowledge that it casion referred to, came down in such force that they achieved a mighty rescue! * Vide Ivimey's Dr. Williams's Library, Now, if we are to credit the report of the

page 47.

THE PRO

NOTICES.

was erroneous, and the motion of virtual

• PROTESTANT SOCIETY FOR censure was carried in a manner that is

TECTION OF RELIGIOUS LIBERTY. much more likely to be understood than We state with pleasure that though, the rescue of which the Repository boasts. from particular circumstances, the annual

As to that stronghold of charity," meetings of this Society have been postwhich is said to be fiercely besieged, we poned, yet the institution continues vigican only say that in our judgment it is lant and useful ; and that any persons more endangered from within than from who desire its interference or advice, without. When the Presbyterian deno may address their applications to the mination was the most numerous and Hon. Secretary, John Wilks, Esq. M.P. influential portion of that body, they took Finsbury Square, London, who will good care to secure proportionate advan- kindly afford them all the attention they tages. We, however, wish for no superi- nay require. ority but such as the fair use of numbers and intelligence may command, but it On Whit Monday, June 11th, the cannot be expected, that those who have Annual Sermon to young people, at the long possessed great numerical superiority Chapel, Lower Street, Islington, by the will permit themselves to be treated as Rev. John Yockney. Service to comif they were alien from that body to which mence at half-past six. they contribute so large a proportion of The anniversary of the Western Acadeits strength and influence.

my will be held (D.V.) on Wednesday,

27th June, at the Academy House, ExeLADY HEWLEY'S CHARITIES. ter, at nine o'clock, A.M., when the subIn answer to several inquiries respect scribers and friends of the Institution ing the suit in Chancery against the trus are urgently requested to attend. There tees of Lady Hewley's property, we are will be a public meeting in the evening. prepared to state, that the delay is prin The examination of the students, by cipally attributable to the reluctancy of a committee appointed for that purpose, certain Unitarian gentlemen to give direct will take place on the preceding Tuesday, answers to very plain interrogatories. It commencing precisely at eleven o'clock. is not a little amusing, and the public

The examination will of course be open will one day have an opportunity of to all subscribers, and it is hoped that as sharing in the sport, to observe the va many as possible will attend. rious evasions to which the apostles of The Annual Meeting of the Subscribers the Unitarian faith will resort, rather and Friends to Homerton College will be than openly avow what their opinions holden at the College, on Thursday the

28th of June, at ten in the forenoon; We also understand an order has been after which the public examination of made that the receipts of the estates, &c. the students will take place. shall be paid into Court.

are.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND MINOR CORRESPONDENCE.

Communications have been received from the Rev. Dr. J. P. Smith-the Rev. Messrs. Robert Chamberlain-James Parsons – Joseph Sortain-Joseph Gray-A. Tidman-J. Bounsall — E. Jones-Henry Wilkes-Wm. Clayton-Thos. Stratten H. J. Roper --Thos. G. Guyer-J. Yockney.

Also from Messrs. Roger Lee-W. L. Alexander--Joshua Wilson --James Edmeston-Henry Dunn-A Constant Reader-Non. Con.

Our friend, at Homerton must be aware that we have expressed no editorial opinion on the political question to which his letter refers, and we must, therefore, decline opening our pages to its discussion, at this late period of the controversy.

We are compelled to defer several articles of Review till our next.

A correspondent, S., suggests the propriety of our Churches observing a day of general thanksgiving, on account of the removal of the Cholera and other national mercies. Another calamity, that of civil conflict, has also threatened us, and as it is to be hoped that the healing measure, now in progress, will soon become the law of the Empire, we think it would be well to unite in acknowledging these great national blessings on one solemn and joyous occasion.

THE

CONGREGATIONAL MAGAZINE.

JULY, 1832.

AN INQUIRY INTO THE CAUSES

OF

THE INTRODUCTION AND PROGRESS OF UNITARIANISM

IN THE

CONGREGATIONAL CHURCHES OF NEW ENGLAND.

The foundations of Boston, the chusetts alone, of which Boston is metropolis of New England, were the capital, there are 406 Congrelaid by the pilgrim fathers, with gational Churches, 350 of which the fond hope of rearing a social are Orthodox, and the remaining fabric, in which liberty should find 56 Unitarian. The total number a permanent abode, and of or of Unitarian congregations in the ganizing a church polity, by which United States is, at the highest comtruth and holiness should be se- putation, that is, their own,–190.. cured to their newly-formed To witness the defection of onechurches. The plan of ecclesias- fourth of our churches in that State, tical government they adopted for from the truth wbich their fathers the New England churches was defended with affectionate devotthat which takes a middle course edness, is a melancholy sight, and between Brownism and Presby- demands, at the hands of all Conterianism, and which has been gregational Churches, a calm inkuown in England and America quiry into the causes which have for two centuries, by the name of terminated in so afflictive a result. Congregationalism.

Captain Basil Hall appears to The churches organized upon have thought that “the democracy that model were, for a long period, of religion,” which characterizes distinguished by a stedfast at- the Churches of New England, tachment to what are termed or may account for their adoption of thodox opinions, and by their holy what he calls “ the doctrines of consistency gladdened their bre- this liberal Christianity.” Now it thren in Old England, and diffused is a fact well worthy of remark, the light of Christianity in that that the Congregational Churches wilderness which they called New of Great Britain, which act upon England.

what the Captain would regard To a painful extent “ the gold “ the democratic principle,” have has become dim, and the fine gold been preserved, without a single changed.” By recent returns, it exception, from the Unitarian hereappears that in the state of Massa- sy, while those communities which VOL. XV, N. S. NO. 91.

3 E

some

Un

are less popular in their govern. tarianism in New England will be ment have become more heretical. necessary to connect, in the mind

“ Had not this writer," says of our readers, the subsequent Mr. Josiah Conder,“ been biassed parts of this paper, and we cannot by the determination to make de- supply this better than in the lanmocracy answerable for every guage of Mr. Hodgson, whose thing he disliked in the United letters have been regarded by States, he would not, perhaps, Americans themselves as amongst have overlooked the fact, that the most intelligent and impartial Socinianism is not, never has been, that have been written by English and neve

can be, either in Ame- tourists in their country. rica or in Europe, the religion of

" From all I can learn, it apthe people. Modern Unitarianism pears that Unitarian opinions have has fixed its strongest hold in the been entertained in New England Swiss cantons, under a form of for fifty years at least, and perhaps government the most purely aris- much longer. Generally speaktocratical perhaps in the world; ing, however, they were not very and long before the contagion had openly avowed till much more spread across the Atlantic, it had recently;

of those who infected the Presbyterian churches held them concealing their sentiof Geneva, France, Germany, and ments, because they were England, It has always com- popular-others because they felt menced, not with the people but indifferent about them and others, the pastors; and its natural history more reflecting and philosophimarks it as the hybrid production cal, because they conceived that of Deism and nominal Chris- their extension would be most tianity."* With these acknow. effectually promoted at that par·ledged facts before us, and with ticular time by reserve and caunearly two thousand Congrega- tion. The first Unitarian congretional churches, maintaining all the gation formed in America great doctrines which our fore- established in the King's Chapel fathers proclaimed, it does become soon after the revolution. This an interesting and anxious ques was the chapel in which the gotion, how a fourth part of the vernor worshipped; but, becoming churches of Massachusetts have private property, the majority apostatized from the truth, and having changed their sentiments, have been led to deny the Lord expunged from the church prayers that bought them.

all allusion to Trinitarian docOur American brethren have trines, and openly renounced the provided abundant materials to Trinity: the minority of course illustrate this subject, from which retired. In 1792, a Unitarian we shall liberally extract such congregation was formed at Portstatements as may give our readers land, in the district of Maine, and a correct practical view of the another at Saco, a small town whole question.

twenty miles farther to the south. A short historical sketch of the Both these congregations introduction and progress of Uni- expired, but another has been

since established at Portland. * Vide " United States of America and “ As Unitarian sentiments be. Canada," forming the 23d, 24th, and

came more general, they were gra25th volumes of the Modern Traveller, a work that should have a place in every dually avowed with less reserve; family library.

yet the pulpits of many ministers

was

soon

was

who were supposed to have im- drawn with every succeeding bibed them, gave no evidence of year. the fact, except that of omissions. Thus in the Convention of This at length brought upon them Congregational Ministers in Masthe charge of insincerity from their sachusetts, which meets annually more orthodox brethren. The im to hear a sermon and distribute putation was repelled with warmth, charitable funds, the Unilarians, and the public were left in great with their accustomed modesty, doubt as to the precise sentiments managed for thirty years to have of many of their pastors.

Dr. the standing officers of the ConvenMorse, who had been the most tion of their own party, though their prominent of those who publicly numerical strength, could all the manifested their regret at the de- members have been present, was fection of their brethren from the only as one to three. In 1820, common faith, accused of however, the orthodox body made misrepresentation; and the most a stand, and succeeded in appointcandid felt it almost impossible to ing Dr. Codman to be their scribe, arrive at the real state of things. and that estimable minister has At this time, Dr. Morse happened since that period been annually to meet with Mr. Belsham's Life chosen. If the evangelical party of Lindsey, in which he found his felt a difficulty in any longer perown representations borne out by mitting Unitarian ministers to letters and documents transmitted hold offices in their Conventions, from Boston by the Unitarians they were likely to feel yet more themselves. These he strung to- strongly the impropriety of pergether in the form of a pam- mitting a Unitarian preacher to phlet, under the title of · Ameri- alternate with their orthodox memcan Unitarianism.'

bers in the annual sermon, for as phlet was eagerly read, and pro- the preacher was chosen by the duced a great sensation. It dis- vote of the body, it became closed the actual state of things, very serious question whether they brought the question to an issue, should be accessary in any sense and ranged ' in opposite ranks to the choice of one to preach to those advocates of conflicting sen the assembled clergy of Massatiments who had hitherto been chusetts, who, they had too much confusedly intermingled."* reason to fear, would not preach

This marked division has been the gospel of the New Testament. shown in various

ways.

Till In 1827, therefore, this question within about the last fifteen years, was settled by a vote of the Conministerial intercourse and Chris- vention, and from that time to the tian fellowship were maintained present no Unitarian preacher has amongst the Congregational pas- been appointed to address it.* tors and churches, because none To complete this brief historical of them were then known to be sketch, it is only necessary to add, Unitarian. Since that period the that God has signally honoured decidedly orthodox have withheld the uncompromising conduct of from all exchange of ministerial the orthodox ministers, the spirit service, and the line of demarca of the pilgrim fathers animates tion has been more distinctly many of their sons, and Unita

This pam

а

Hodgson's Letters from North America, Vol. II. pages 237, 244.

* Vide Spirit of the Pilgrims, Vol. III. pp. 248–255.

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