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178. From unguents for his limbs, and from black powder for his eyes, from wearing sandals, and carrying an umbrella, from sensual desires, from wrath, from covetousness, from dancing, and from vocal and instrumental musick;

179. From gaming, from disputes, from detraction, and from falsehood, from embracing or wantonly looking at women, and from disservice to other men.

180. Let him constantly sleep alone : let him never waste his own manhood; for he, who voluntarily wastes his manhood, violates the rule of his order, and becomes an avacírní :

181. A twice-born youth, who has involuntarily wasted his manly strength during sleep, must repeat with reverence, having bathed and paid homage to the sun, the text of scripture : Again let my strength return to me.

182. Let him carry water-pots, flowers, cow-dung, fresh earth, and cusa-grass, as much as may be useful to his preceptor; and let him perform every day the duty of a religious mendicant.

183. Each day must a Bráhmen student receive his food by begging, with due care, from the houses of persons renowned for discharging their duties, and not deficient in performing the sacrifices which the Véda ordains.

184. Let him not beg from the cousins of his preceptor ; nor from his own cousins; nor from other kinsmen by the father's side, or by the mother's ; but, if other houses be not accessible, let him begin with the last of those in order, avoiding the first;

185. Or, if none of those houses just mentioned can be found, let him go begging through the whole district round the village, keeping his organs in subjection, and remaining silent; but let him turn away from such as have committed any deadly sin.

186. Having brought logs of wood from a distance, let him place them in the open air; and with them let him make an oblation to fire without remissness, both evening and morning. 187. He, who for seven successive days omits the ceremony of begging food, and offers not wood to the sacred fire, must perform the penance of an avacírni, unless he be afflicted with illness.

188. Let the student persist constantly in such begging, but let him not eat the food of one person only: the subsistence of a student by begging is held equal to fasting in religious merit.

189. Yet, when he is asked in a solemn act in honour of the Gods or the Manes, he may eat at his pleasure the food of a single person ; observing, however, the laws of abstinence and the austerity of an anchoret : thus the rule of his order is kept inviolate.

190. This duty of a mendicant is ordained by the wise for a Brahmen only; but no such act is appointed for a warriour, or for a merchant.

191. Let the scholar, when commanded by his preceptor, and even when he has received no command, always exert himself in reading, and in all acts useful to his teacher.

192. Keeping in due subjection his body, his speech, his organs of sense, and his heart, let him stand with the palms of his hands joined, looking at the face of his preceptor.

193. Let him always keep his right arm uncovered, be always decently apparelled, and properly composed; and when his instructor says, “be seated,” let him sit opposite to his venerable guide.

194. In the presence of his preceptor let him always eat less, and wear a coarser mantle with worse appendages ; let him rise before, and go to rest after his tutor.

195. Let him not answer his teacher's orders, or converse with him, reclining on a bed ; nor sitting, nor eating, nor standing, nor with an averted face:

196. But let him both answer and converse, if his preceptor sit, standing up; if he stand, advancing toward him; if he advance, meeting him; if he run, hastening after him;

197. If his face be averted, going round to front him, from left to right; if he be at a little distance, approaching him; if reclined, bending to him; and, if he stand ever so far off, running toward him.

198. When his teacher is nigh, let his couch or his bench

be always placed low : when his preceptor's eye can observe him, let him not sit carelessly at ease.

199. Let him never pronounce the mere name of his tutor, even in his absence; nor ever mimick his gait, his speech, or his manner.

200. In whatever place, either true but censorious, or false and defamatory, discourse is held concerning his teacher, let him there cover his ears or remove to another place.

201. By censuring his preceptor, though justly, he will be born an ass; by falsely defaming him, a dog; by using his goods without leave, a small worm; by envying his merit, a larger insect or reptile.

202. He must not serve his tutor by the intervention of another, while himself stands aloof; nor must he attend him in a passion, nor when a woman is near; from a carriage or raised seat he must descend to salute his heavenly director.

203. Let him not sit with his preceptor to the leeward, or to the windward of him ; nor let him say any thing which the venerable man cannot hear.

204. He may sit with his teacher in a carriage drawn by bulls, horses, or camels; on a terrace, on a pavement of stones, or on a mat of woven grass; on a rock, on a wooden bench, or in a boat.

205. When his tutor's tutor is near, let him demean himself as if his own were present; nor let him, unless ordered by his spiritual father, prostrate himself in his presence before his natural father, or paternal uncle.

206. This is likewise ordained as his constant behaviour toward his other instructors in science; toward his elder paternal kinsmen ; toward all who may restrain him from sin, and all who give him salutary advice.

207. Toward men also, who are truly virtuous, let him always behave as toward his preceptor; and, in like manner, toward the sons of his teacher, who are entitled to respect as older men, and are not students; and toward the paternal kinsmen of his venerable tutor.

208. The son of his preceptor, whether younger or of equal age, or a student, if he be capable of teaching the Véda,

deserves the same honour with the preceptor himself, when he is present at any sacrificial act:

209. But he must not perform for the son of his teacher, the duty of rubbing his limbs, or of bathing him, or of eating what he leaves, or of washing his feet.

210. The wives of his preceptor, if they be of the same class, must receive equal honour with their venerable husband; but if they be of a different class, they must be honoured only by rising and salutation.

211. For no wife of his teacher must he perform the offices of pouring scented oil on them, of attending them while they bathe, of rubbing their legs and arms, or of decking their hair;

212. Nor must a young wife of his preceptor be greeted even by the ceremony of touching her feet, if he have completed his twentieth year, or can distinguish virtue from vice.

213. It is the nature of women in this world to cause the seduction of men; for which reason the wise are never unguarded in the company of females :

214. A female, indeed, is able to draw from the right path in this life not a fool only, but even a sage, and can lead him in subjection to desire or to wrath.

215. Let no man, therefore, sit in a sequestered place with his nearest female relations: the assemblage of corporeal organs is powerful enough to snatch wisdom from the wise.

216. A young student may, as the law directs, make prostration at his pleasure on the ground before a young wife of his tutor, saying, “I am such an one;”.

217. And on his return from a journey, he must once touch the feet of his preceptor's aged wife, and salute her each day by prostration, calling to mind the practice of virtuous men.

218. As he who digs deep with a spade comes to a spring of water, so the student, who humbly serves his teacher, attains the knowledge which lies deep in his teacher's mind.

219. WHETHER his head be shorn, or his hair long, or one lock be bound above in a knot, let not the sun ever set or rise while he lies asleep in the village.

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220. If the sun should rise or set, while he sleeps through sensual indulgence, and knows it not, he must fast a whole day, repeating the gayatrà :

221. He, who has been surprised asleep by the setting or by the rising sun, and performs not that penance, incurs great guilt.

222. Let him adore God both at sunrise and at sunset, as the law ordains, having made his ablution and keeping his organs controlled ; and, with fixed attention, let him repeat the text, which he ought to repeat, in a place free from impurity.

223. If a woman or à Súdra perform any act leading to the chief temporal good, let the student be careful to emulate it; and he may do whatever gratifies his heart, unless it be forbidden by law :

224. The chief temporal good is by some declared to consist in virtue and wealth ; by some, in wealth and lawful pleasure; by some, in virtue alone; by others, in wealth alone; but the chief good here below is an assemblage of all three: this is a sure decision.

225. A TEACHER of the Véda is the image of God; a natural father, the image of BRAHMA'; a mother, the image of the earth; an elder whole brother, the image of the soul.

226. Therefore a spiritual and a natural father, a mother, and an elder brother, are not to be treated with disrespect, especially by a Bráhmen, though the student be grievously provoked.

227. That pain and care which a mother and father undergo in producing and rearing children, cannot be compensated in an hundred years.

228. Let every man constantly do what may please his parents : and, on all occasions, what may please his preceptor : when those three are satisfied, his whole course of devotion is accomplished.

229. Due reverence to those three is considered as the highest devotion; and without their approbation he must perform no other duty.

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