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243. Of a priest, whom devotion has purified, the divine spirits accept the sacrifices, and grant the desires with ample increase.

244. Even BRAHMA', lord of creatures, by devotion enacted this code of laws; and the sages by devotion acquired a knowledge of the Vedas.

245. Thus the gods themselves, observing in this universe the incomparable power of devotion, have proclaimed aloud the transcendent excellence of pious austerity.

246. By reading each day as much as possible of the Véda, by performing the five great sacraments, and by forgiving all injuries, even sins of the highest degree shall be soon effaced :

247. As fire consumes in an instant with his bright flame the wood, that has been placed on it, thus, with the flame of knowledge, a Bráhmen, who understands the Veda, consumes all sin.

248. Thus has been declared, according to law, the mode of atoning for open sins: now learn the mode of obtaining absolution for secret offences.

249. SIXTEEN suppressions of the breath, while the holiest of texts is repeated with the three mighty words, and the triliteral syllable, continued each day for a month, absolve even the slayer of a Bráhmen from his hidden faults.

250. Even a drinker of spirituous liquors is absolved by repeating each day the text apa used by the sage CAUTSA, or that beginning with preti used by VASISHT'HA, or that called máhitra, or that, of which the first word is suddhavatyah.

251. By repeating each day for a month the text ásyavámiya, or the hymn Sivasancalpa, the stealer of gold from a priest becomes instantly pure.

252. He, who has violated the bed of his preceptor, is cleared from secret faults by repeating sixteen times a day the text havishyantiya, or that beginning with na tamanhah, or by revolving in his mind the sixteen holy verses, called Paurusha.

253. The man, who desires to expiate his hidden sins great and small, must repeat once a day for a year the text ava, or the text yatcinchida.

254. He, who has accepted an illegal present, or eaten prohibited food, may be cleansed in three days by repeating the text taratsamandiya.

255. Though he have committed many secret sins, he shall be purified by repeating for a month the text sómáraudra, or the three texts áryamna, while he bathes in a sacred stream.

256. A grievous offender must repeat the seven verses, beginning with INDRA, for half a year; and he, who has defiled water with any impurity, must sit a whole year subsisting by alms.

257. A twice-born man, who shall offer clarified butter for a year, with eight texts appropriated to eight several oblations, or with the texts na , shall efface a sin even of an extremely high degree.

258. He, who had committed a crime of the first degree, shall be absolved, if he attend a herd of kine for a year, mortify his organs, and continually repeat the texts beginning with pávamání, living solely on food given in charity.

259. Or, if he thrice repeat a Sanhità of the Vedas, or a large portion of them with all the mantras and bráhmenas, dwelling in a forest with subdued organs, and purified by three parácas, he shall be set free from all sins how heinous soever.

260. Or he shall be released from all deadly sins, if he fast three days, with his members mortified, and twice a day * plunge into water, thrice repeating the text aghamarshana :

261. As the sacrifice of a horse, the king of sacrifices, removes all sin, thus the text aghamarshana destroys all offences.

262. A priest, who should retain in his memory the whole Rigvéda, would be absolved from guilt, even if he had slain the inhabitants of the three worlds, and had eaten food from the foulest hands.

* The MSS. state that the sinner should plunge “thrice a day,” and not “twice a day," as perhaps was in Sir William Jones's copy, which he seems to have followed.

263. By thrice repeating the mantras and bráhmenas of the Rich, or those of the Yajush, or those of the Sáman, with the upanishads, he shall perfectly be cleansed from every possible taint:

264. As a clod of earth, cast into a great lake, sinks in it, thus is every sinful act submerged in the triple Véda.

265. The divisions of the Rěch, the several branches of the Yajush, and the manifold strains of the Sáman must be considered as forming the triple Véda : he knows the Véda, who knows them collectively.

266. The primary triliteral syllable, in which the three Védas themselves are comprised, must be kept secret, as another triple Véda : he knows the Véda, who distinctly knows the mystick sense of that word.

CHAPTER XII.*

ON TRANSMIGRATION AND FINAL BEATITUDE.

1. O THOU, who art free from sin, said the devout sages, thou hast declared the whole system of duties ordained for the four classes of men : explain to us now, from the first principles, the ultimate retribution for their deeds. 2. BHRIGU, whose heart was the pure essence of virtue,

who proceeded from MENU himself, thus addressed

the great siges : Hear the infallible rules for the fruit of deeds in this uni

verse,

3. ACTION, either mental, verbal, or corporeal, bears good or evil fruit, as itself is good or evil; and from the actions of men proceed their various transmigrations in the highest, the mean, and the lowest degree :

4. Of that three-fold action, connected with bodily functions, disposed in three classes, and consisting of ten orders, be it known in this world, that the heart is the instigator.

5. Devising means to appropriate the wealth of other men, resolving on any forbidden deed, and conceiving notions of atheism or materialism, are the three bad acts of mind :

6. Scurrilous language, falsehood, indiscriminate backbiting, and useless tattle, are the four bad acts of the tongue :

7. Taking effects not given, hurting sentient creatures without the sanction of law, and criminal intercourse with the wife of another, are the three bad acts of the body; and all the ten have their opposites, which are good in an equal degree.

* The variations from the text in this chapter of the translator's version consist more in amplifications, owing to the translator having fol. lowed the comment, and not so much in any verbal differences. It will be evident, therefore, that no notice could be given of them that would not have swelled these remarks beyond the space they were intended to occupy. It will be sufficient for the mere English reader to know, that the general sense of the original has been faithfully rendered by the translator.

8. A rational creature has a reward or a punishment for mental acts, in his mind; for verbal acts, in his organs of speech; for corporeal acts, in his bodily frame.

9. For sinful acts mostly corporeal, a man shall assume after death a vegetable or mineral form; for such acts mostly verbal, the form of a bird or a beast ; for acts mostly mental, the lowest of human conditions :

10. He, whose firm understanding obtains a command over his words, a command over his thoughts, and a command over his whole body, mayjustly be called a tridandi, or triple commander; not a mere anchoret, who bears three visible staves.

11. The man, who exerts this triple self-command with respect to all animated creatures, wholly sụbduing both lust and wrath, shall by those means attain beatitude.

12. That substance, which gives a power of motion to the body, the wise call cshétrajnya, or jívátman, the vital spirit; and that body, which thence derives active functions, they name bhútátman, or composed of elements :

13. Another internal spirit, called mahat, or the great soul, attends the birth of all creatures imbodied, and thence in all mortal forms is conveyed a perception either pleasing or painful.

14. Those two, the vital spirit and reasonable soul, are closely united with five elements, but connected with the supreme spirit, or divine essence, which pervades all beings high and low:

15. From the substance of that supreme spirit are diffused, like sparks from fire, innumerable vital spirits, which perpetually give motion to creatures exalted and base.

16. By the vital souls of those men, who have committed sins in the body reduced to ashes, another body, composed of nerves with five sensations, in order to be susceptible of torment, shall certainly be assumed after death;

17. And, being intimately united with those minute nervous particles, according to their distribution, they shall

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