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gather enough for a month; or let him collect enough for six months, or lay up enough for a year.

19. Having procured food, as he is able, he may eat it at eve or in the morning; or he may take only every fourth, or every eighth, such regular meal;

20. Or, by the rules of the lunar penance, he may eat a mouthful less each day of the bright, and a mouthful more each day of the dark fortnight; or he may eat only once, at the close of each fortnight, a mess of boiled grains :

21. Or he may constantly live on flowers and roots, and on fruit matured by time, which has fallen spontaneously, strictly observing the laws ordained for hermits.

22. Let him slide backwards and forwards on the ground; or let him stand a whole day on tiptoe; or let him continue in motion rising and sitting alternately; but at sunrise, at noon, and at sunset, let him go to the waters and bathe.

23. In the hot season, let him sit exposed to five fires, four blazing around him with the sun above; in the rains, let him stand uncovered, without even a mantle, where the clouds pour the heaviest showers; in the cold season, let him wear humid vesture; and let him increase by degrees the austerity of his devotion :

24. Performing his ablution at the three Savanas, let him give satisfaction to the manes and to the gods; and, enduring harsher and harsher mortifications, let him dry up his bodily frame.

25. Then, having reposited his holy fires, as the law directs, in his mind, let him live without external fire, without a mansion, wholly silent, feeding on roots and fruit;

26. Not solicitous for the means of gratification, chaste as a student, sleeping on the bare earth, in the haunts of pious hermits, without one selfish affection, dwelling at the roots of trees.

27. From devout Bráhmens let him receive alms to support life, or from other housekeepers of twice-born classes, who dwell in the forest :

28. Or the hermit may bring food from a town, having received it in a basket of leaves, in his naked hand, or in a potsherd; and then let him swallow eight mouthfuls.

29. These and other rules must a Bráhmen, who retires to the woods, diligently practise ; and, for the purpose of uniting his soul with the Divine Spirit, let him study the various Upanishads of scripture, or chapters on the essence and attributes of God,

30. Which have been studied with reverence by anchorites versed in theology, and by housekeepers, who dwelt afterwards in forests, for the sake of increasing their sublime knowledge and devotion, and for the purification of their bodies.

31. Or, if he has any incurable disease, let him advance in a straight path, towards the invincible north eastern point, feeding on water and air, till his mortal frame totally decay, and his soul become united with the Supreme.

32. A Bráhmen, having shuffled off his body by any of those modes, which great sages practised, and becoming void of sorrow and fear, rises to exaltation in the divine essence.

33. HAVING thus performed religious acts in a forest during the third portion of his life, let him become a Sannyásí for the fourth portion of it, abandoning all sensual affections, and wholly reposing in the Supreme Spirit:

34. The man, who has passed from order to order, has made oblations to fire on his respective changes of state, and has kept his members in subjection, but, tired with so long a course of giving alms and making offerings, thus reposes himself entirely on God, shall be raised after death to glory.

35. When he has paid his three debts to the sages, the manes, and the gods, let him apply his mind to final beatitude ; but low shall He fall, who presumes to seek beatitude, without having discharged those debts :

36. After he has read the Vedas in the form prescribed by law, has legally begotten a son, and has performed sacrifices to the best of his power, he has paid his three debts, and may then apply his heart to eternal bliss ;

37. But if a Bráhmen have not read the Véda, if he have not begotten a son, and if he have not performed sacrifices, yet shall aim at final beatitude, he shall sink to a place of degradation.

38. Having performed the sacrifice of PRAJA'PATI, accompanied with a gift of all his wealth, and having reposited in his mind the sacrificial fires, à Bráhmen may proceed from his house, that is, from the second order, or he may proceed even from the first, to the condition of a Sannyásí.

39. Higher worlds are illuminated with the glory of that man, who passes from his house into the fourth order, giving exemption from fear to all animated beings, and pronouncing the mystick words of the Véda :

40. To the Bráhmen, by whom not even the smallest dread has been occasioned by sentient creatures, there can be no dread from any quarter whatever, when he obtains a release from his mortal body.

41. Departing from his house, taking with him pure implements, his water-pot and staff, keeping silence, unallured by desire of the objects near him, let him enter into the fourth order.

42. Alone let him constantly dwell, for the sake of his own felicity, observing the happiness of a solitary man, who neither forsakes, nor is forsaken, let him live without a companion.

43. Let him have no culinary fire, no domicil ; let him, when very hungry, go to the town for food ; let him patiently bear disease ; let his mind be firm ; let him study to know God, and fix his attention on God alone.

44. An earthen water-pot, the roots of large trees, coarse vesture, total solitude, equanimity toward all creatures, these are the characteristicks of a Bráhmen set free.

45. Let him not wish for death ; let him not wish for life; let him expect his appointed time, as a hired servant expects his wages.

46. Let him advance his foot purified by looking down, lest he touch any thing impure ; let him drink water purified by straining with a cloth, lest he hurt some insect; let him, if he chuse to speak, utter words purified by truth ; let him by all means keep his heart purified.

47. Let him bear a reproachful speech with patience; let him speak reproachfully to no man; let him not, on account

of this frail and feverish body, engage in hostility with any one living.

48. With an angry man let him not in his turn be angry; abused, let him speak mildly; nor let him utter a word relating to vain illusory things and confined within seven gates, the five organs of sense, the heart and the intellect ; or this world, with three above and three below it.

49. Delighted with meditating on the Supreme Spirit, sitting fixed in such meditation, without needing any thing earthly, without one sensual desire, without any companion but his own soul, let him live in this world seeking the bliss of the next.

50. Neither by explaining omens and prodigies, nor by skill in astrology and palmestry, nor by casuistry and expositions of holy texts, let him at any time gain his daily support.

51. Let him not go near a house frequented by hermits, or priests, or birds, or dogs, or other beggars.

52. His hair, nails, and beard being clipped, bearing with him a dish, a staff, and a water-pot, his whole mind being fixed on God, let him wander about continually, without giving pain to animal or vegetable beings.

53. His dishes must have no fracture, nor must they be made of bright metals : the purification ordained for them must be with water alone, like that of the vessels for a sacrifice.

54. A gourd, a wooden bowl, an earthen dish, or a basket made of reeds, has MENU, son of the Self-existing, declared fit vessels to receive the food of Bráhmens devoted to God.

55. Only once a day let him demand food ; let him not habituate him to eat much at a time; for an anchorite, habituated to eat much, becomes inclined to sensual gratifications.

56. At the time when the smoke of kitchen fires has ceased, when the pestle lies motionless, when the burning charcoal is extinguished, when people have eaten, and when dishes are removed, that is, late in the day, let the Sannyásí always beg food.

57. For missing it, let him not be sorrowful ; nor for gain

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ing it, let him be glad ; let him care only for a sufficiency to support life, but let him not be anxious about his utensils.

58. Let him constantly disdain to receive food after humble reverence; since, by receiving it in consequence of an humble salutation, a Sannyásí, though free, becomes a captive.

59. By eating little, and by sitting in solitary places, let him restrain those organs which are naturally hurried away by sensual desires.

60. By the coercion of his members, by the absence of hate and affection, and by giving no pain to sentient creatures, he becomes fit for immortality.

61. Let him reflect on the transmigrations of men caused by their sinful deeds, on their downfal into a region of darkness, and their torments in the mansion of YAMA;

62. On their separation from those, whom they love, and their union with those, whom they hate, on their strength overpowered by old age, and their bodies racked with disease;

63. On their agonizing departure from this corporeal frame, their formation again in the womb, and the glidings of this vital spirit through ten thousand millions of uterine passages;

64. On the misery attached to embodied spirits from a violation of their duties, and the unperishable bliss attached to them from their abundant performance of all duties, religious and civil.

65. Let him reflect also, with exclusive application of mind, on the subtil indivisable essence of the Supreme Spirit, and its complete existence in all beings, whether extremely high or extremely low.

66. Equal-minded towards all creatures, in what order soever he may have been placed, let him fully discharge his duty, though he bear not the visible marks of his order: the visible mark, or mere name, of his order, is by no means an effective discharge of his duty;

67. As, although the fruit of the tree cataca * purify * The cataca is the clearing-nut plant (strychnos potatorum). One of the seeds of the plant being rubbed on the inside of the water-jars used in Bengal, occasions a precipitation of the earthy particles diffused through the water. Wilson.

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